Crambidae

Crambidae
Crambidae
Scoparia ambigualis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Division: Ditrysia
(unranked): Obtectomera
Superfamily: Pyraloidea
Family: Crambidae
Latreille, 1810
Subfamilies

Acentropinae (=Nymphulinae)
Cathariinae
Crambinae
Cybalomiinae
Dichogaminae[verification needed]
Evergestinae
Glaphyriinae
Heliothelinae
Linostinae
Midilinae
Musotiminae
Noordinae
Odontiinae
Pyraustinae
Schoenobiinae
Scopariinae
Spilomelinae
Wurthiinae

Diversity
Some 11,630 species

The Crambidae are the grass moth family of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). They are quite variable in appearance, the nominal subfamily Crambinae (grass moths) taking up closely folded postures on grass-stems where they are inconspicuous, while other subfamilies include brightly coloured and patterned insects which rest in wing-spread attitudes.

In many classifications, the Crambidae have been treated as a subfamily of the Pyralidae or snout-moths. The principal difference is a structure in the ears called the praecinctorium, which joins two tympanic membranes in the Crambidae, and is absent from the Pyralidae. The latest review by Munroe & Solis, in Kristensen (1999) retains the Crambidae as a full family.

Useful Crambids

Harmless crambids

  • Mint moth Pyrausta aurata

Harmful crambids

Crambid larvae are typically stem borers in plants of the grass family. As this family contains many important crops, some Crambidae species achieve pest status. The European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis is perhaps the best known - introduced to the USA in the early 1900s, it is now widespread in all but the westernmost states. Other pest species include:

Gallery


Taxonomy

  • subfamilia incertae sedis
      • Exsilirarcha Salmon & Bradley, 1956
  • Subfamily Acentropinae Stephens, 1836
      • Acentria Stephens, 1829 (= Acentropus J. Curtis, 1834, Setina Hübner, 1819, Zancle Stephens, 1833)
      • Agassiziella Yoshiyasu, 1989 (= Agassizia Yoshiyasu, 1987)
      • Almonia Walker, 1866
      • Anydraula Meyrick, 1885
      • Araeomorpha Turner, 1908 (= Tholerastis Turner, 1915)
      • Argyractis Hampson, 1897
      • Argyractoides Lange, 1956
      • Argyrophorodes Marion, 1956
      • Aulacodes Guenée, 1854 (= Hydrophysa Guenée, 1854)
      • Banepa Moore, 1888
      • Brevicella Kenrick, 1912
      • Callilitha Munroe, 1959
      • Cataclysta Hübner, 1825 (= Catoclysta Hampson, 1893)
      • Chrysendeton Grote, 1881
      • Clepsicosma Meyrick, 1888
      • Compsophila Meyrick, 1886
      • Contiger Lange, 1956
      • Cryptocosma Lederer, 1863 (= Chalcoelopsis Dyar, 1914)
      • Decticogaster Snellen, 1880
      • Diathraustodes Hampson, 1896
      • Dodanga Moore, 1886
      • Elophila Hübner, 1822 (= Cyrtogramme Yoshiyasu, 1985, Elophila Hübner, 1806, Hydrocampus Berthold, 1827, Hydrocampa Stephens, 1829, Hydrocampe Latreille, 1829, Munroessa Lange, 1956, Synclita Lederer, 1863)
      • Eoophyla Swinhoe, 1900
      • Eoparargyractis Lange, 1956 (= Eoparargyractis Lange, 1956)
      • Ephormotris Meyrick, 1933
      • Eristena Warren, 1896
      • Eurytorna Meyrick, 1886
      • Galadra Walker, 1865
      • Gethosyne Warren, 1896
      • Giorgia J. F. G. Clarke, 1965
      • Glyphandra Karsch, 1900
      • Goniopalpia Hampson, 1903
      • Hemiloba Swinhoe, 1901
      • Hyaloplaga Warren, 1892 (= Hyaloplagia Sharp, 1893)
      • Hygraula Meyrick, 1885 (= Blechroglossa Turner, 1937, Blechroglosso Neave, 1950)
      • Hylebatis Turner, 1908
      • Kasania Krulikovsky, 1910
      • Langessa Munroe, 1972
      • Lasiogyia Hampson, 1907
      • Lathroteles J. F. G. Clarke, 1971
      • Leucogephyra Warren, 1896
      • Margarochroma Warren, 1896
      • Margarosticha Lederer, 1863
      • Neargyractis Lange, 1956
      • Neocataclysta Lange, 1956
      • Neoschoenobia Hampson, 1900 (= Eranistis Meyrick, 1910)
      • Neurophruda Warren, 1896 (= Neophruda Hampson, 1897)
      • Nicaria Snellen, 1880
      • Niphadaza Butler, 1886
      • Nyctiplanes Turner, 1937
      • Nymphicula Snellen, [1880]
      • Nymphula Schrank, 1802 (= Pseudoparaponyx Patocka, 1951)
      • Nymphuliella Lange, 1956
      • Nymphulodes Hampson, 1919
      • Oligernis Meyrick, 1894
      • Oligostigma Guenée, 1854
      • Oligostigmoides Lange, 1956
      • Opisthedeicta Warren, 1890
      • Osphrantis Meyrick, 1897
      • Oxyelophila W. T. M. Forbes, 1922
      • Paracataclysta Yoshiyasu, 1983
      • Paracymoriza Warren, 1890 (= Micromania Swinhoe, 1894, Stenicula Snellen, 1901)
      • Parapoynx Hübner, 1825 (= Cosmophylla Turner, 1908, Eustales Clemens, 1860, Hydreuretis Meyrick, 1885, Microdracon Warren, 1890, Nymphaeella Grote, 1880, Paraponyx Guenée, 1854, Sironia Clemens, 1860)
      • Petrophila Guilding, 1830 (= Parargyractis Lange, 1956)
      • Physematia Lederer, 1863
      • Potamomusa Yoshiyasu, 1985 (= Potamusa Speidel & Mey, 1999)
      • Pseudlithosia Hampson, 1907 (= Pseudolithosia Neave, 1940)
      • Pythagoraea Meyrick, 1929 (= Pythagorea Klima, 1937)
      • Stegothyris Lederer, 1863
      • Strepsinoma Meyrick, 1897
      • Symphonia Hampson, 1896
      • Synclitodes Munroe, 1974
      • Temnobasis Gaede, 1916
      • Teratausta Hampson, 1903
      • Teratauxta E. Hering, 1901 (= Ridleyana Hampson, 1906)
      • Tetrernia Meyrick, 1890 (= Metaclysta Hampson, 1906)
      • Theila Swinhoe, 1900 (= Ambahona Marion, 1954, Ambahonia Marion, 1954)
      • Thevitella Viette, 1958
      • Usingeriessa Lange, 1956
  • Subfamily Crambinae Latreille, 1810
  • Subfamily Cybalomiinae Marion, 1955
      • Analcina Turner, 1911
      • Apoblepta Turner, 1911
      • Centropseustis Meyrick, 1890
      • Cybalomia Lederer, 1863 (= Cybolomia Romanoff, 1887)
      • Erpis Walker, 1863
      • Fredia Amsel, 1961
      • Goniophysetis Hampson, 1916 (= Leucinocrambus Viette, 1960)
      • Hendecasis Hampson, 1896 (= Neohendecasis Shibuya, 1931)
      • Hyperlais Marion, 1959 (= Hypolais Guenée, 1854)
      • Krombia Chrétien, 1911
      • Margaretania Amsel, 1961
      • Phenacodes Turner, 1937
      • Prochoristis Meyrick, 1890
      • Prolais Amsel, 1961
      • Ptychopseustis Meyrick, 1889
      • Stiphrometasia Zerny, 1914
      • Thyridiphora Warren, 1888 (= Thyridophora Hampson, 1896)
      • Trichophysetis Meyrick, 1884 (= Alpherakia Ragonot, 1890, Callinaias Warren in Swinhoe, 1890, Callinais Swinhoe, 1890, Crasigenes Meyrick, 1894, Puriella Strand, 1918, Puriella problematica Strand, 1918, Trichophyretis Pagenstecher, 1909, Trieropis Meyrick, 1886)
  • Subfamily Evergestinae Marion, 1952
  • Subfamily Glaphyriinae W. T. M. Forbes, 1923
      • Abegesta Munroe, 1964
      • Achantodes Guenée, 1852
      • Aenigmodes Amsel, 1957 (= Aenigma Amsel, 1956)
      • Aethiophysa Munroe, 1964
      • Aureopteryx Amsel, 1956
      • Cereophagus Dyar, 1922
      • Chalcoela Zeller, 1872
      • Chilomima Munroe, 1964
      • Chilozela Munroe, 1964
      • Contortipalpia Munroe, 1964
      • Cosmopterosis Amsel, 1956
      • Dichochroma W. T. M. Forbes, 1944
      • Dicymolomia Zeller, 1872 (= Bifalculina Amsel, 1956)
      • Eupoca Warren, 1891
      • Eustixia Hübner, 1823 (= Thelcteria Lederer, 1863, Thlecteria Dyar, 1925)
      • Gonodiscus Warren, 1891
      • Homophysodes Dyar, 1914
      • Lativalva Amsel, 1956
      • Lipocosma Lederer, 1863 (= Clarkeiodes Amsel, 1957, Clarkeia Amsel, 1956, Lipocosmopsis Munroe, 1964)
      • Lipocosmodes Munroe, 1964
      • Lissophanes Warren, 1891
      • Macreupoca Munroe, 1964
      • Nephrogramma Munroe, 1964
      • Parambia Dyar, 1914
      • Paregesta Munroe, 1964
      • Plumegesta Munroe, 1972
      • Psephis Guenée, 1854
      • Pseudoligostigma Strand, 1920 (= Heptalitha Munroe, 1964)
      • Schacontia Dyar, 1914
      • Scybalista Lederer, 1863
      • Scybalistodes Munroe, 1964
      • Stegea Munroe, 1964 (= Egesta Ragonot, 1891)
      • Upiga Capps, 1964
      • Vinculopsis Amsel, 1957 (= Vincularia Amsel, 1956)
      • Xanthophysa Munroe, 1964
    • Tribe Dichogamini Amsel, 1956
      • Alatuncusia Amsel, 1956
      • Alatuncusiodes Munroe, 1974
      • Dichogama Lederer, 1863 (= Carbaca Walker, 1866)
    • Tribe Glaphyriini W. T. M. Forbes, 1923
      • Glaphyria Hübner, 1823 (= Berdura Möschler, 1886, Glaphria Fernald, 1903, Homophysa Guenée, 1854)
      • Hellula Guenée, 1854 (= Ashwania Pajni & Rose, 1977, Oeobia Hübner, 1825, Oebia Hübner, 1825, Phyratocosma Meyrick, 1936)
  • Subfamily Heliothelinae Amsel, 1961
    • Tribe Heliothelini Amsel, 1961
      • Eclipsiodes Meyrick, 1884
      • Heliothela Guenée, 1854 (= Nyctarcha Meyrick, 1884, Orosana Walker, 1863)
      • Phanomorpha Turner, 1937
    • Tribe Hoploscopini Robinson, Tuck & M. Shaffer, 1994
      • Hoploscopa Meyrick, 1886 (= Haploscopa Hampson, 1897, Syncrotaula Meyrick, 1933, Eudorina Snellen, 1895)
      • Perimeceta Turner, 1915 (= Phanerobela Turner, 1932)
  • Subfamily Linostinae Amsel, 1956
      • Linosta Möschler, 1882
  • Subfamily Midilinae Munroe, 1958
      • Cacographis Lederer, 1863 (= Zazanisa Walker, 1865)
      • Dismidila Dyar, 1914
      • Dolichobela Turner, 1932
      • Eupastranaia Becker, 1973 (= Pastranaia Munroe, 1970)
      • Gonothyris Hampson, 1896
      • Hositea Dyar, 1910
      • Midila Walker, 1859 (= Singamia Möschler, 1882, Tetraphana Ragonot, 1891)
      • Phryganomima Hampson, 1917
      • Styphlolepis Hampson, 1896
  • Subfamily Musotiminae Meyrick, 1884
      • Aeolopetra Meyrick, 1934
      • Albusambia Solis & Davis in Solis, Davis & Nishida, 2005
      • Ambia Walker, 1859 (= Metathyrida Viette, 1954, Metathyridia Whalley, 1964)
      • Austromusotima Yen & Solis in Yen, Solis & Goolsby, 2004
      • Baeoptila Turner, 1908
      • Barisoa Möschler, 1886
      • Cilaus Joannis, 1932
      • Drosophantis Meyrick, 1935
      • Elachypteryx Turner, 1908
      • Eugauria Snellen, 1901
      • Lygomusotima Solis & Yen in Solis, Yen & Goolsby, 2004
      • Malleria Munroe, 1959
      • Melanochroa Yoshiyasu, 1985
      • Midilambia Munroe, 1969
      • Musotima Meyrick, 1884 (= Musotina Caradja, 1927)
      • Neomusotima Yoshiyasu, 1985
      • Neurophyseta Hampson, 1895 (= Cymoriza Guenée, 1854, Cymorrhiza E. Hering, 1903, Neurophysetis Hampson, 1895, Omphaloptera Hampson, 1897)
      • Odilla Schaus, 1940
      • Panotima Meyrick, 1934
      • Parthenodes Guenée, 1854
      • Siamusotima Solis, Yen, Goolsby, Wright, Pemberton, Winotal, Chattrukul, Thagong & Rimbut, 2005
      • Thysanoidma Hampson, 1891
      • Undulambia Lange, 1956 (= Ambia albitesselalis Hampson, 1906)
      • Uthinia Snellen, 1899
  • Subfamily Noordinae Minet, 1980
      • Noorda Walker, 1859 (= Epinoorda Rebel, 1902)
  • Subfamily Odontiinae Guenée, 1854
      • Aeglotis Amsel, 1949
      • Autocharis Swinhoe, 1894
      • Balaenifrons Hampson, 1896
      • Blepharucha Warren, 1892
      • Boeotarcha Meyrick, 1884 (= Botys crassicornis Walker, [1866])
      • Canalibotys Maes, 2004
      • Canuza Walker, 1866 (= Erotomanes Meyrick, 1882)
      • Catharia Lederer, 1863
      • Clupeosoma Snellen, 1880
      • Cuneifrons Munroe, 1961
      • Dausara Walker, 1859
      • Deanolis Snellen, 1899
      • Denticornutia M. O. Martin, 1986
      • Dilacinia Amsel, 1961 (= Dilacina Amsel, 1961)
      • Ertrica Walker, 1866
      • Euctenospila Warren, 1892
      • Glaucodontia Munroe, 1972
      • Gononoorda Munroe, 1977
      • Hemiscopis Warren, 1890
      • Heortia Lederer, 1863 (= Eteta Walker, 1865, Tyspana Moore, 1885)
      • Hydrorybina Hampson, 1896
      • Irigilla Swinhoe, 1900
      • Kerbela Amsel, 1949
      • Mabilleodes Marion & Viette, 1956
      • Neocymbopteryx Munroe, 1973
      • Neogenesis Hampson, 1907
      • Noctuelita Strand, 1915
      • Noordodes Hampson, 1916
      • Pelaea Lederer, 1863
      • Phlyctaenomorpha Amsel, 1970
      • Pitama Moore, 1888
      • Platynoorda Munroe, 1977
      • Porphyronoorda Munroe, 1977
      • Probalaenifrons Munroe, 1977
      • Protrigonia Hampson, 1896
      • Suinoorda Hayden, 2009
      • Syntonarcha Meyrick, 1890
      • Taurometopa Meyrick, 1933
      • Thesaurica Turner, 1915
      • Tulaya Özdikmen, 2007 (= Hercynella Bethune-Baker, 1893)
      • Turania Ragonot, 1891
      • Usgentia Amsel, 1949
    • Tribe Eurrhypini Leraut & Luquet, 1983
      • Argyrarcha Munroe, 1974
      • Cliniodes Guenée, 1854 (= Basonga Möschler, 1886, Exarcha Lederer, 1863, Idessa Walker, 1859, Metrea Grote, 1882)
      • Dicepolia Snellen in Snellen, 1892 (= Endolophia Hampson, 1899)
      • Emprepes Lederer, 1863 (= Hammocallos Chrétien, 1908)
      • Eurrhypis Hübner, 1825 (= Threnodes Duponchel, 1845)
      • Hyalinarcha Munroe, 1974
      • Jativa Munroe, 1961
      • Mecynarcha Munroe, 1974
      • Mimoschinia Warren, 1892
      • Porphyrorhegma Munroe, 1961
      • Pseudonoorda Munroe, 1974
      • Pseudoschinia Munroe, 1961
      • Sobanga Munroe, 1964
      • Trigonoorda Munroe, 1974
      • Viettessa Minet, 1980
    • Tribe Odontiini Guenée, 1854
      • Aeschremon Lederer, 1863
      • Anatralata Munroe, 1961
      • Aporodes Guenée, 1854
      • Atralata Sylvén, 1947 (= Ennychia Lederer, 1863)
      • Cataonia Ragonot, 1891
      • Chlorobaptella Munroe, 1995 (= Chlorobapta Barnes & McDunnough, 1914)
      • Chrismania Barnes & McDunnough, 1914
      • Cleptotypodes Minet, 1983
      • Cymbopteryx Munroe, 1961
      • Cynaeda Hübner, 1825 (= Cynoeda Walker, 1859, Noctuelia Guenée, 1854, Noctuaelia Wocke, 1871, Odontia Duponchel, 1832)
      • Dentifovea Amsel, 1970
      • Dichozoma Munroe, 1961
      • Edia Dyar, 1913
      • Epascestria Hübner, 1825 (= Epacestria Marion, 1957, Phlyctaenodes Guenée, 1854, Phlyctoenodes Cerf, 1910)
      • Ephelis Lederer, 1863
      • Epimetasia Ragonot, 1894 (= Metasiodes Ragonot, 1894, Thyridopsis Amsel, 1953)
      • Eremanthe Munroe, 1972
      • Frechinia Munroe, 1961
      • Gyros H. Edwards, 1881 (= Monocona Warren, 1892, Oribates H. Edwards, 1881)
      • Heliothelopsis Munroe, 1961
      • Metaxmeste Hübner, 1825 (= Hercyna Treitschke, 1828, Heryna Wocke, 1871, Metaxmestes Hübner, 1826)
      • Microtheoris Meyrick, 1932
      • Mojavia Munroe, 1961
      • Mojaviodes Munroe, 1972
      • Nannobotys Munroe, 1961
      • Noctueliopsis Munroe, 1961
      • Odontivalvia Munroe, 1973
      • Plumipalpiella Munroe, 1995 (= Plumipalpia Munroe, 1961)
      • Pogonogenys Munroe, 1961
      • Procymbopteryx Munroe, 1961
      • Psammobotys Munroe, 1961
      • Rhodocantha Munroe, 1961
      • Tegostoma Zeller, 1847 (= Anthophilodes Guenée, 1854, Anthophilopsis Ragonot, 1891)
      • Titanio Hübner, 1825 (= Noctuomorpha Guenée, 1854, Titania J. L. R. Agassiz, 1846)
  • Subfamily Pyraustinae Meyrick, 1890
  • Subfamily Schoenobiinae Duponchel, 1846
      • Adelpherupa Hampson, 1919 (= Limnopsares Meyrick, 1934, Schoenoploca Meyrick, 1933)
      • Alloperissa Meyrick, 1934
      • Archischoenobius Speidel, 1984
      • Argyrostola Hampson, 1896
      • Brihaspa Moore, 1868
      • Calamoschoena Poulton, 1916 (= Eurycerota Janse, 1917)
      • Carectocultus A. Blanchard, 1975
      • Catagela Walker, 1863
      • Chionobosca Turner, 1911
      • Cyclocausta Warren, 1889
      • Dejoannisia Vári, 2002 (= Schoenobiodes Joannis, 1927)
      • Donacaula Meyrick, 1890
      • Helonastes Common, 1960
      • Leechia South in Leech & South, 1901
      • Leptosteges Warren, 1889
      • Leucargyra Hampson, 1896
      • Leucoides Hampson, 1893
      • Niphadoses Common, 1960
      • Panalipa Moore, 1866 (= Microschoenis Meyrick, 1887)
      • Patissa Moore, 1886 (= Eurycraspeda Warren in Swinhoe, 1890)
      • Promacrochilo Bleszynski, 1962 (= Macrochilo Hampson, 1896)
      • Proschoenobius Munroe, 1974
      • Ramila Moore, 1868 (= Crambostenia Warren in Swinhoe, 1890, Ramilla West, 1931)
      • Rupela Walker, 1863 (= Storteria Barnes & McDunnough, 1913)
      • Schoenobius Duponchel, 1836 (= Erioproctus Zeller, 1839)
      • Scirpophaga Treitschke, 1832 (= Apurima Walker, 1863, Schoenophaga Duponchel, 1836, Schoinophaga Sodoffsky, 1837, Schoenophaga J. L. R. Agassiz, 1847, Spartophaga Duponchel, 1836, Tryporyza Common, 1960)
      • Stenocalama Hampson, 1919
      • Tipanaea Walker, 1863
      • Varpa Aurivillius, 1925
  • Subfamily Scopariinae Guenée, 1854
      • Afrarpia Maes, 2004
      • Afroscoparia Nuss, 2003
      • Anarpia Chapman, 1912
      • Antiscopa Munroe, 1964
      • Caradjaina Leraut, 1986
      • Cholius Guenée, 1845
      • Cosipara Munroe, 1972
      • Dasyscopa Meyrick, 1894
      • Davana Walker, 1859
      • Dipleurinodes Leraut, 1989
      • Elusia Schaus, 1940
      • Eudipleurina Leraut, 1989
      • Eudonia Billberg, 1820 (= Boiea Zetterstedt, 1839, Borea Stephens, 1852, Dipleurina Chapman, 1912, Dipluerina Sharp, 1913, Malageudonia Leraut, 1989, Vietteina Leraut, 1989, Witlesia Chapman, 1912, Wittlesia Chapman, 1912)
      • Gesneria Hübner, 1825 (= Scoparona Chapman, 1912)
      • Gibeauxia Leraut, 1988
      • Helenoscoparia Nuss, 1999
      • Hoenia Leraut, 1986
      • Iranarpia Leraut, 1982
      • Micraglossa Warren, 1891 (= Microglossa Hampson, 1907)
      • Notocrambus Turner, 1922
      • Pagmanella Leraut, 1985
      • Scoparia Haworth, 1811 (= Epileucia Stephens, 1852, Eudorea J. Curtis, 1827, Eudoria Chapman, 1912, Eudoroea Bruand, 1851, Phegea Gistel, 1848, Scopea Haworth, 1828, Sineudonia Leraut, 1986, Tetraprosopus Butler, 1882, Xeroscopa Meyrick, 1884)
      • Syrianarpia Leraut, 1982
      • Toulgoetodes Leraut, 1988
  • Subfamily Spilomelinae Guenée, 1854
  • Subfamily Wurthiinae Roepke, 1916

References

Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.). 1999. Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches / Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Band / Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta Teilband / Part 35: 491 pp. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.

See also

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