Yorkshire and the Humber

Yorkshire and the Humber

infobox England region | name = Yorkshire and the Humber | short_name = Yorkshire and the Humber
hq = Leeds / Sheffield
imagename =

status = Region
area_km2= 15,420
area_mi2= 5,953
area_rank= 5th
density = 328/km²
nuts= UKE
euro= Yorkshire and the Humber
population = 5,142,400 (2006)
population_rank= 6th
gdp_rank= 8th
assembly = Yorkshire and Humber
development_agency = Yorkshire Forward
election = not directly elected
url = http://www.yhassembly.gov.uk/
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of the nine government office regions of England. It covers most of the historic county of Yorkshire, along with the part of northern Lincolnshire that was, from 1974 to 1996, within the former shire county of Humberside. The population in 2006 was 5,142,400.

Geographical context

See Topographical areas of Yorkshire and Geology of Yorkshire

In the Yorkshire and Humberside region there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology.cite web|url=http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/|publisher=Genuki.org|title=Yorkshire Geology|accessdate=2007-10-24] The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age while the Yorkshire Wolds and Lincolnshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands.

The region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary.cite book | year = 1992 | title = Yorkshire Rivers: A Canoeists Guide | publisher = Menasha Ridge Press | isbn = 978-1871890167 | author = British Canoe Union, Yorkshire and Humberside Region, Access and Recreation Committees ; prepared by Mike Twiggs and David Taylor. | oclc = 27687324] The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure, which joins the Swale east of Boroughbridge. The River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York.

The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck. The River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood. The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse and the most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole. In the far north of the county the River Tees flows eastwards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough. The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby.

The River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh. To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull. The western Pennines are served by the River Ribble which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes.

The highest point of the region is Whernside, in the Yorkshire Dales, at convert|737|m|ft|lk=on. The largest freshwater lake is Hornsea Mere in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

This region of England generally has cool summers and relatively mild winters with the upland areas of the North York Moors and the Pennines experiencing the coolest weather and the Vale of York the warmest. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season. The latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather, particularly in winter. Between depressions there are often small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry settled conditions which can lead to drought. For its latitude this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean.Air temperature varies on a daily and seasonal basis. The temperature is usually lower at night and January is the coldest time of the year and July is usually the warmest month. [ cite web|url=http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/location/england/ |title=English Climate |accessdate=2008-05-03 |publisher=Met Office ]

Local government

The official region consists of the following subdivisions: [ cite web|url=http://www.gos.gov.uk/goyh/ourregion/las/ |title=Local Authorities |accessdate=2008-05-06 |date=April 2008 |publisher=Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber ]

Key: shire county = † | metropolitan county = *

It was originally called Yorkshire and Humberside, and defined as North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and Humberside. Since then, Humberside has been abolished, and the councils of West and South Yorkshire abolished. The older form of the name is still occasionally seen.

Regional assembly

The Yorkshire and Humber Assembly is a partnership of all local authorities in the region and representatives of various economic, social and environmental sectors.The full Assembly normally meets three times a year, normally in February, June and October.

The full Assembly is responsible for providing regional leadership, agreeing regional strategic priorities, directing the development of the Integrated Regional Framework and endorsing key regional strategies. Membership comprises all 22 local authorities in this region, plus 15 Social, Economic and Environmental partners, and the National Parks for planning purposes. [ cite web|url=http://www.yhassembly.gov.uk/About%20Us/What%20is%20the%20Assembly%20and%20how%20does%20it%20work/ |title=What is the Assembly and how does it work? |accessdate=2008-05-12 ]
Yorkshire is one of the two regions (along with the North West) that were expected to have a referendum about the establishment of an elected regional assembly. When the North East region of England rejected having an elected regional assembly in a referendum, the then Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced that he would not move orders for other referenda before the relevant provisions expired in June, 2005. The Yorkshire and Humberside Assembly is based on "King Street" in Wakefield. [ cite web|url=http://www.yhassembly.gov.uk/ |title=Yorkshire and Humber Assembly |accessdate=2008-05-12 ]

European Parliament

The European constituency of Yorkshire and the Humber is coterminous with the English region.

Election results 2004

Election box begin for list
title=European Election 2004: Yorkshire and the Humber
Election box candidate with party link
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidate = Linda McAvan Richard Corbett
votes = 413,213 (206,606.5)
percentage = 26.3
change = −5.0
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Timothy Kirkhope Edward McMillan-Scott
votes = 387,369 (193,684.5)
percentage = 24.6
change = −12.0
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Democrats (UK)
candidate = Diana Wallis
votes = 244,607
percentage = 15.6
change = +1.2
Election box candidate with party link
party = United Kingdom Independence Party
candidate = Godfrey Bloom
votes = 228,666
percentage = 14.0
change = +6.9
Election box candidate with party link
party = British National Party
candidate = "None"
votes = 126,538
percentage = 8.0
change = +6.8
Election box candidate with party link
party = Green Party of England and Wales
candidate = "None"
votes = 90,337
percentage = 5.7
change = 0
Election box candidate with party link
party = RESPECT The Unity Coalition
candidate = "None"
votes = 29,865
percentage = 1.9
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = English Democrats Party
candidate = "None"
votes = 24,068
percentage = 1.5
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Independent (politician)
candidate = "No"
votes = 14,762
percentage = 0.9
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance for Green Socialism
candidate = "None"
votes = 13,776
percentage = 0.9
change = "N/A"
Election box turnout
votes = 1,596,787
percentage = 42.9
change = +23.3


Population, Density and Settlements

[ cite web|url=http://www.gos.gov.uk/goyh/factgoyh/Yorkshireandthehumber/ |title=Fact Files: Yorkshire and The Humber > Yorkshire and The Humber |accessdate=2008-05-06 |last=Office for National Statistics. |month = April year = 2008 |publisher=Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber ]



The M62 motorway is Yorkshire's main east-west thoroughfare, and north-south routes are the M1 and the A1, with only the A1 continuing further north. The other main north south road in the region is the A19. Philips Motoring Atlas:Britain. Philips, London 2005]


Airports in the region are Leeds Bradford International Airport at Yeadon, Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield near Doncaster and Humberside Airport near Brigg in North Lincolnshire. Durham Tees Valley Airport serves the northernmost areas of the region, and there are day and night direct rail connections from the region to Manchester Airport. [cite web
title=Yorkshire travel information centre, Airlines, Airports, Ferries, Canal Holidays, Yorkshire, Northern England


The central hubs of the rail network in the region are Leeds, Sheffield and York. The East Coast Main Line passes through Leeds and York whilst the Midland Main Line finishes at Sheffield, with a less regular service to Leeds, operated by East Midlands Trains. East-west routes are the North TransPennine to Manchester, and South TransPennine through Doncaster. [cite web
title=Network Rail


Hull has daily ferries to Zeebrugge and Rotterdam. [cite web
title=Hull to Zeebrugge ferries to Belgium - P&O Ferries


Yorkshire Forward is the Regional Development Agency charged with improving the Yorkshire and Humber economy, where some 270,000 businesses contribute to an economy worth in excess of £80 billion. With over 5 million people living in the region it ranks alongside some small countries including Ireland, Greece, Norway and Singapore. [ cite web|url=http://www.yorkshire-forward.com/www/index.asp |title=Yorkshire Forward |accessdate=2008-05-12 ]

Yorkshire in the past has been synonymous with mining. Many pits closed in the 1990s, with only two in the Pontefract area left at Kellingley and Sharlston. The NUM was very Yorkshire-dominated. Coal still plays a part in the economy - there are three large power stations along the Aire Valley, with Drax being the second largest in Europe with 3,945 MW of capacity. The distribution area once looked after by the regional electricity company Yorkshire Electricity is now looked after by YEDL, owned by CE Electric UK.

thumb|left|Corus steelworks at Scunthorpe

East and North

Scunthorpe is where steel is smelted by Corus. Grimsby is home of (what is left of) Britain's fishing industry, and has many frozen food factories such as Young's Bluecrest. There are two large oil refineries at Immingham, and a BP chemical works at Saltend in Hull. Croda International, the chemical company, is in East Cowick. Nestlé in the UK are based in York, with operations in Halifax, as is Persimmon plc and National Express East Coast. Smith & Nephew and Reckitt Benckiser medical and household products companies originated in Hull, and still have large factories there. There are many RAF bases in North Yorkshire, close to the A1. McCain is in Scarborough.

West and South

Leeds is now a centre of financial services companies, [cite web
title=Major study predicts continued growth for financial services in Leeds - Yorkshire Forward
] [cite web
title=Discovering Leeds - Industrial Leeds
] with Direct Line [cite web
title=Direct Line House, Leeds
] and First Direct [cite web
title=First Direct, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS10 - Contact Details | iWest Yorkshire
] based there, as well as ASDA, [cite web
title=Corporate Watch : ASDA Wal-Mart : Who, Where, How Much?
] Northern Foods, [cite web
title=Corporate Watch : Northern Foods Plc : Who, Where, How Much?
] Arla Foods UK (maker of Lurpak). The Green Flag roadside recovery firm has its main call centre (in Farsley). HSBC opened their first UK call centre in the city, taking advantage of it's advanced communications network which also led to the founding of Freeserve in Leeds. The Waddington board game company was founded in Leeds, as was the Burton tailoring company (the Burton Group became the Arcadia Group) and M & S. Morrisons is based in Bradford, as are Club 18-30, the Grattan [cite web
title=Grattan - a background history on Grattan Catalogues
] catalogue retailer, and Yorkshire Water. The Halifax bank (former Building Society) is based in Halifax, the Yorkshire Bank and Leeds Building Society in Leeds, and the Bradford & Bingley in Bingley. Poundstretcher is in Deighton near Huddersfield. The British Library is sited at Thorpe Arch near Wetherby.

Sheffield is known for its steel industry, which has declined in recent years. Little Chef are based there, in Carbrook near the Don Valley Stadium. Rosebys are in Rotherham. Galpharm International is at Dodworth near Barnsley. DFS is at Adwick le Street. near the A1/A638 junction. Dr. Oetker products are made at Colton near the M1 junction and Sherburn-in-Elmet. Fox's Biscuits is in Batley. Ronseal is based in Chapeltown in Sheffield. Morphy Richards is based between Swinton and Mexborough. Maplin Electronics is based on the former site of Manvers Main Colliery in Wath-upon-Dearne.


See List of schools in Yorkshire and the Humber

econdary education

Schools are mostly comprehensive, with some grammar schools in North Yorkshire, Calderdale and Kirklees. [cite web
title=Schools Web Directory UK
] The schools in Hull perform the second-worst in England at GCSE [cite web
title=Hull City Council : School performance
] after Knowsley in Merseyside. Also at GCSE, schools in Barnsley, Bradford, and Doncaster have low-achieving results with Barnsley the worst of these. All four of these areas coincidentally have an above-average teenage pregnancy problem. For the metropolitan areas, Calderdale and Wakefield consistently perform the best, although slightly under the England average. York and North Yorkshire perform the best at GCSE in the region, and with the East Riding of Yorkshire have results above the UK average. At A-level North Lincolnshire, Kirklees, York and North Yorkshire perform quite well with Kirklees being the best by a large margin, all having results above the England average. The excellent Kirklees result is due to Greenhead College in Huddersfield, and North Lincolnshire's results are due to the John Leggott College, also a sixth form college. The districts of South Yorkshire perform the least in the area at A-level with Rotherham having the best results in this area, and all of these districts achieve similar results, much lower than those in the former districts of Humberside. For both A-level and GCSE, Barnsley and Bradford are very low performing, with Bradford getting the lowest A-level results in the region. Hull and northern Lincolnshire have a wide socio-economic diversity – many under-achieving pupils at 16 but with high performers at A-level. [cite web
title=Schools Web Directory UK

Top twenty state schools in Yorkshire and the Humber (2007 A-level results)

* 1. Ermysted's Grammar School, Skipton (1088)
* 2. Greenhead College, Huddersfield
* 3. Fulford School
* 4. Skipton Girls' High School
* 5. Crossley Heath Grammar School, Halifax
* 6. Ripon Grammar School
* 7. Heckmondwike Grammar School
* 8. Huntington School, York
* 9. St. Mary's School, Menston
* 10. Malton School
* 11. Harrogate Grammar School
* 12. St. Aidan's & St. John Fisher Associated Sixth Form, Harrogate
* 13. Ilkley Grammar School
* 14. The McAuley School, Doncaster
* 15. The Hayfield School, Doncaster
* 16. Roundhay School
* 17. Penistone Grammar School
* 18. All Saints Catholic High School, Sheffield
* 19. Notre Dame High School (Sheffield)
* 20. Bingley Grammar School (876)

[cite web
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/league_tables/default.stm
title = League Tables - English Secondary Schools 2007
publisher = BBC
date = 26 September 2008


See List of universities in Yorkshire and the Humber

Local media

* Local BBC television comes from Leeds and Hull. Yorkshire Television is on "Kirkstall Road" in the west of Leeds, which broadcasts "Calendar" and some national programming. Channel 4 broadcasts some of its flagship programming from Kirkstall, including "Countdown".
* BBC Radios Humberside, Leeds, Sheffield and York.
* Local commercial stations include Dearne FM (Barnsley), The Pulse of West Yorkshire (Bradford), Trax FM (Doncaster), Compass FM (Grimsby), 97.2 Stray FM (Harrogate), Home 107.9 (Huddersfield), Viking FM (Hull), Rother FM, 96.3 Radio Aire (Leeds), Yorkshire Coast Radio (Scarborough), Hallam FM (Sheffield), Fresh Radio (Skipton), Real Radio (Tingley), Ridings FM (Wakefield), Galaxy Yorkshire and Minster FM (York).
* Local newspapers are the "Bradford Telegraph and Argus", "Evening Courier", "Huddersfield Examiner", "Hull Daily Mail", "Scarborough Evening News", "Scunthorpe Telegraph", "Sheffield Star", "The Press (York)", "Wakefield Express", "Yorkshire Evening Post" and "Yorkshire Post". [cite web
title=Yorkshire Media Centre, Yorkshire, Northern England
] [cite web
title=Yorkshire UK News Media - Yorkshire newspapers, magazines, radio and TV stations
* Yorkshire and Humberside are very supportive in their approach to theatre and performance festivals and hold regional championships for young performers every 2 years. The championship is sectioned in Dance, Music and Speech & Drama. The most recent championship was held on Saturday 8 September, at St Margaret's Church Hall, Horsforth in Leeds. 16 year-old Nuthana Prathivadi, of Halifax, took the Dance Champion title; Helen Wilson, of Harrogate, titled Music Champion and with 17-year old Lee Peart, of Cleethorpes, winning the Speech & Drama championship. [cite web
url = http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/artsfundingyorkshire0506_phpvgWpu8.pdf
title = arts funding in yorkshire and the humber 2005/06
publisher = Arts Council England
accessdate = 2008-10-05
format = PDF


External links

* [http://www.goyh.gov.uk Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber]
* [http://www.yhassembly.gov.uk Yorkshire and Humber Assembly]
* Yorkshire Forward
* [http://www.yorkshireandhumberfaiths.org.uk Yorkshire and Humber Faiths Forum]
* [http://www.yhassembly.gov.uk/dnlds/eVersion%20-%20291007.pdf Yorkshire and Humber Assembly Information Pack]

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