- Seven deadly sins
The 7 Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vices or Cardinal Sins, is a classification of objectionable vices that have been used since early Christian times to educate and instruct followers concerning fallen humanity's tendency to sin. The currently recognized version of the sins are usually given as wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony.
The Catholic Church divides sin into two categories: venial sins, in which guilt is relatively minor, and the more severe mortal sins. Theologically, a mortal sin is believed to destroy the life of grace within the person and thus creates the threat of eternal damnation. "Mortal sin, by attacking the vital principle within us - that is, charity - necessitates a new initiative of God's mercy and a conversion of heart which is normally accomplished [for Catholics] within the setting of the sacrament of reconciliation."
The Deadly Sins do not belong to an additional category of sin. Rather, they are the sins that are seen as the origin ("capital" comes from the Latin caput, head) of the other sins. A "deadly sin" can be either venial or mortal, depending on the situation; but "they are called 'capital' because they engender other sins, other vices."
Beginning in the early 14th century, the popularity of the seven deadly sins as a theme among European artists of the time eventually helped to ingrain them in many areas of Catholic culture and Catholic consciousness in general throughout the world. One means of such ingraining was the creation of the mnemonic "SALIGIA" based on the first letters in Latin of the seven deadly sins: superbia, avaritia, luxuria, invidia, gula, ira, acedia.
- A proud look.
- A lying tongue.
- Hands that shed innocent blood.
- A heart that devises wicked plots.
- Feet that are swift to run into mischief.
- A deceitful witness that uttereth lies.
- Him that soweth discord among brethren.
While there are seven of them, this list is considerably different from the traditional one, with only pride clearly being in both lists.
Another list, given this time by the Epistle to the Galatians (Galatians 5:19-21), includes more of the traditional seven sins, although the list is substantially longer: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, sorcery, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, "and such like". Since Saint Paul goes on to say that the persons who commit these sins "shall not inherit the Kingdom of God", they are usually listed as (possible) mortal sins rather than Capital Vices.
Development of the traditional Seven Sins
- Γαστριμαργία (gastrimargia) gluttony.
- Πορνεία (porneia) prostitution, fornication.
- Φιλαργυρία (philargyria) avarice.
- Ὑπερηφανία (hyperēphania) hubris - in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as self-esteem.
- Λύπη (lypē) sadness - in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as envy, sadness at another's good fortune.
- Ὀργή (orgē) wrath.
- Κενοδοξία (kenodoxia) boasting.
- Ἀκηδία (akēdia) acedia - in the Philokalia, this term is rendered as dejection.
They were translated into the Latin of Western Christianity (largely due to the writings of John Cassian), thus becoming part of the Western tradition's spiritual pietas (or Catholic devotions), as follows:
- Gula (gluttony)
- Fornicatio (fornication, lust)
- Avaritia (avarice/greed)
- Superbia (hubris, pride)
- Tristitia (sorrow/despair)
- Ira (Wrath)
- Vanagloria (vainglory)
- Acedia (acedia)
These "evil thoughts" can be collected into three groups:
- lustful appetite (Gluttony, Fornication, and Avarice)
- irascibility (Wrath)
- intellect (Vainglory, Sorrow, Pride, and Discouragement)
In AD 590, a little over two centuries after Evagrius wrote his list, Pope Gregory I revised this list to form the more common Seven Deadly Sins, by folding sorrow/despair into acedia, vainglory into pride, and adding envy. In the order used by both Pope Gregory and by Dante Alighieri in his epic poem The Divine Comedy, the seven deadly sins are as follows:
- luxuria (lechery/lust)
- gula (gluttony)
- avaritia (avarice/greed)
- acedia (acedia/discouragement/sloth)
- ira (wrath)
- invidia (envy)
- superbia (pride)
The identification and definition of the seven deadly sins over their history has been a fluid process and the idea of what each of the seven actually encompasses has evolved over time. Additionally, as a result of semantic change:
- Lust was substituted for luxuria in all but name
- socordia (sloth) was substituted for acedia
It is this revised list that Dante uses. The process of semantic change has been aided by the fact that the personality traits are not collectively referred to, in either a cohesive or codified manner, by the Bible itself; other literary and ecclesiastical works were instead consulted, as sources from which definitions might be drawn. Part II of Dante's Divine Comedy, Purgatorio, has almost certainly been the best known source since the Renaissance.
The modern Roman Catholic Catechism lists the sins in Latin as "superbia, avaritia, invidia, ira, luxuria, gula, pigritia seu acedia", with an English translation of "pride, avarice, envy, wrath, lust, gluttony, and sloth/acedia". Each of the seven deadly sins now also has an opposite among corresponding seven holy virtues (sometimes also referred to as the contrary virtues). In parallel order to the sins they oppose, the seven holy virtues are humility, charity, kindness, patience, chastity, temperance, and diligence.
Historical and modern definitions of the deadly sins
Lust or lechery (carnal "luxuria") is usually thought of as excessive thoughts or desires of a sexual nature. In Dante's Purgatorio, the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful/sexual thoughts and feelings. In Dante's "Inferno", unforgiven souls of the sin of lust are blown about in restless hurricane-like winds symbolic of their own lack of self control to their lustful passions in earthly life.
Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow, gluttony (Latin, gula) is the over-indulgence and over-consumption of anything to the point of waste. In the Christian religions, it is considered a sin because of the excessive desire for food or its withholding from the needy.
Depending on the culture, it can be seen as either a vice or a sign of status. Where food is relatively scarce, being able to eat well might be something to take pride in. But in an area where food is routinely plentiful, it may be considered a sign of self-control to resist the temptation to over-indulge.
Medieval church leaders (e.g., Thomas Aquinas) took a more expansive view of gluttony, arguing that it could also include an obsessive anticipation of meals, and the constant eating of delicacies and excessively costly foods. Aquinas went so far as to prepare a list of six ways to commit gluttony, including:
- Praepropere - eating too soon.
- Laute - eating too expensively.
- Nimis - eating too much.
- Ardenter - eating too eagerly (burningly).
- Studiose - eating too daintily (keenly).
- Forente - eating wildly (boringly).
Greed (Latin, avaritia), also known as avarice or covetousness, is, like lust and gluttony, a sin of excess. However, greed (as seen by the church) is applied to a very excessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of wealth, status, and power. St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that greed was "a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things." In Dante's Purgatory, the penitents were bound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. "Avarice" is more of a blanket term that can describe many other examples of greedy behavior. These include disloyalty, deliberate betrayal, or treason, especially for personal gain, for example through bribery . Scavenging and hoarding of materials or objects, theft and robbery, especially by means of violence, trickery, or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by greed. Such misdeeds can include simony, where one profits from soliciting goods within the actual confines of a church.
As defined outside of Christian writings, greed is an inordinate desire to acquire or possess more than one needs, especially with respect to material wealth.
Over time, the "acedia" in Pope Gregory's order has come to be closer in meaning to sloth (Latin, Socordia). The focus came to be on the consequences of acedia rather than the cause, and so, by the 17th century, the exact deadly sin referred to was believed to be the failure to utilize one's talents and gifts. Even in Dante's time there were signs of this change; in his Purgatorio he had portrayed the penance for acedia as running continuously at top speed.
The modern view goes further, regarding laziness and indifference as the sin at the heart of the matter. Since this contrasts with a more willful failure to, for example, love God and his works, sloth is often seen as being considerably less serious than the other sins, more a sin of omission than of commission.
Acedia (Latin, acedia) (from Greek ακηδία) is the neglect to take care of something that one should do. It is translated to apathetic listlessness; depression without joy. It is similar to melancholy, although acedia describes the behaviour, while melancholy suggests the emotion producing it. In early Christian thought, the lack of joy was regarded as a willful refusal to enjoy the goodness of God and the world God created; by contrast, apathy was considered a refusal to help others in time of need.
When Thomas Aquinas described acedia in his interpretation of the list, he described it as an uneasiness of the mind, being a progenitor for lesser sins such as restlessness and instability. Dante refined this definition further, describing acedia as the failure to love God with all one's heart, all one's mind and all one's soul; to him it was the middle sin, the only one characterised by an absence or insufficiency of love. Some scholars[who?] have said that the ultimate form of acedia was despair which leads to suicide.
Wrath (Latin, ira), also known as "rage", may be described as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger. Wrath, in its purest form, presents with self-destructiveness, violence, and hate that may provoke feuds that can go on for centuries. Wrath may persist long after the person who did another a grievous wrong is dead. Feelings of anger can manifest in different ways, including impatience, revenge, and vigilantism.
Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self-interest (although one can of course be wrathful for selfish reasons, such as jealousy, closely related to the sin of envy). Dante described vengeance as "love of justice perverted to revenge and spite". In its original form, the sin of anger also encompassed anger pointed internally rather than externally. Thus suicide was deemed as the ultimate, albeit tragic, expression of hatred directed inwardly, a final rejection of God's gifts.
Like greed, Envy (Latin, invidia) may be characterized by an insatiable desire; they differ, however, for two main reasons:
- First, greed is largely associated with material goods, whereas envy may apply more generally.
- Second, those who commit the sin of envy resent that another person has something they perceive themselves as lacking, and wish the other person to be deprived of it.
Dante defined this as "a desire to deprive other men of theirs." Envy can be directly related to the Ten Commandments, specifically "Neither shall you desire... anything that belongs to your neighbour". In Dante's Purgatory, the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire because they have gained sinful pleasure from seeing others brought low. Aquinas described envy as "sorrow for another's good".
In almost every list pride (Latin, superbia), or hubris, is considered the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins, and the source of the others. It is identified as a desire to be more important or attractive than others, failing to acknowledge the good work of others, and excessive love of self (especially holding self out of proper position toward God). Dante's definition was "love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one's neighbour." In Jacob Bidermann's medieval miracle play, Cenodoxus, pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation of the titulary famed Parisian doctor. In perhaps the best-known example, the story of Lucifer, pride (his desire to compete with God) was what caused his fall from Heaven, and his resultant transformation into Satan. In Dante's Divine Comedy, the penitents were forced to walk with stone slabs bearing down on their backs to induce feelings of humility.
Vainglory (Latin, vanagloria) is unjustified boasting. Pope Gregory viewed it as a form of pride, so he folded vainglory into pride for his listing of sins.
The Latin term gloria roughly means boasting, although its English cognate - glory - has come to have an exclusively positive meaning; historically, vain roughly meant futile, but by the 14th century had come to have the strong narcissistic undertones, of irrelevant accuracy, that it retains today. As a result of these semantic changes, vainglory has become a rarely used word in itself, and is now commonly interpreted as referring to vanity (in its modern narcissistic sense).
Catholic Seven Virtues
Vice Latin Virtue Latin Lust Luxuria Chastity Castitas Gluttony Gula Temperance Temperantia Greed Avaritia Charity Caritas Sloth Acedia Diligence Industria Wrath Ira Patience Patientia Envy Invidia Kindness Humanitas Pride Superbia Humility Humilitas
Associations with demons
- Lucifer: Pride (superbia)
- Mammon: Greed (avaritia)
- Asmodeus: Lust (luxuria)
- Leviathan: Envy (invidia)
- Beelzebub: Gluttony (gula or gullia)
- Satan/Amon: Wrath (ira)
- Belphegor: Sloth (acedia)
This contrasts slightly with an earlier series of pairings found in the fifteenth century English Lollard tract Lanterne of Light, which pairs Lucifer with Pride, Beelzebub with Envy, Satan/Amon with Wrath, Abadon with Sloth, Mammon with Avarice, Belphegor with Gluttony and Asmodeus with Lust.
According to a 2009 study by a Jesuit scholar, the most common deadly sin confessed by men is lust, and for women, pride. It was unclear whether these differences were due to different rates of commission, or different views on what "counts" or should be confessed.
Menninger on the Deadly Sins
In his 1973 book, Whatever Became of Sin?, Karl Menninger argued that the traditional list of the seven deadly sins was incomplete; that most modern ethicists would include cruelty and dishonesty and probably would rate these as more serious than some of the more traditional sins such as gluttony or sadness.
Culbertson on the Deadly Sins
In his 1908 book, "How one is not to be," Andrew Culbertson argues that two further vices should be added to the deadly sins: fear and superstition. Fear, in Culbertson's description, amounts to the modern psychiatric condition called Delusional disorder, while superstition is, "Belief in things that one does not understand, to the point of giving money to frauds and spiritual confidence men."
The Enneagram of Personality integrates the seven with two additional "sins", deceit and fear. The Enneagram descriptions are broader than the traditional Christian interpretation and are presented in a comprehensive map.
Literary works inspired by the Seven Deadly Sins
- John Climacus (7th century) in The Ladder of Divine Ascent places victory over the eight thoughts as individual steps of the thirty-step ladder: anger (8), vainglory (10, 22), sadness (13), gluttony (14), lust (15), greed (16, 17), acedia (18), and pride (23).
- Dante's (1265–1321) The Divine Comedy is a three-part work composed of "Inferno", "Purgatorio", and "Paradiso". "Inferno" divides Hell into nine concentric circles, four of which directly correspond to certain deadly sins: circle two to lust, three to gluttony, four to greed, and five to both anger and sloth. The punishment for the latter two sins takes place in the Stygian lake, the wrathful being punished atop the lake, attacking one another with the various members of their person, including fangs, while the slothful are punished underneath the lake, breathing sighs in bubbles and singing a dolorous song. The remaining circles do not neatly map onto the seven sins. In "Purgatorio", Mount Purgatory is scaled in seven levels and follows the sin sequence of Aquinas (starting with pride).
- William Langland's (c. 1332–1386) Vision of Piers Plowman is structured around a series of dreams that are critical of contemporary errors while encouraging godly living. The sins are mentioned in this order: proud (pride; Passus V, lines 62–71), lechour (lecherousness; V. 71–74), envye (envy; V. 75–132), wrathe (wrath; V. 133–185), coveitise (covetousness; V. 186–306), glutton (gluttony; V. 307–385), sleuthe (sloth; V. 386–453).
- John Gower's (1330–1408) Confessio Amantis centres on a confession by Amans ("the Lover") to Genius, the chaplain of the goddess Venus. Following confessional practice of the time, the confession is structured around the seven deadly sins, though focuses on his sins against the rules of courtly love.
- Geoffrey Chaucer's (c. 1340–1400) Canterbury Tales features the seven deadly sins in The Parson's Tale: pride (paragraphs 24–29), envy (30–31), wrath (32–54), sloth (55–63), greed (64–70), gluttony (71–74), lust (75–84).
- Christopher Marlowe's (1564–1593) The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus shows Lucifer, Beelzebub, and Mephistophiles coming from hell to show Dr. Faustus "some pastime" (Act II, Scene 2). The sins present themselves, in order: pride, greed, envy, wrath, gluttony, sloth, lust.
- Edmund Spenser's (1552–1599), The Faerie Queene addresses the seven deadly sins in "Book I (The Legend of the Knight of the Red Cross, Holiness)": vanity/pride (Canto IV, stanzas 4–17), idleness/sloth (IV. 18-20), gluttony (IV. 21-23), lechery/lust (IV. 24-26), avarice/greed (IV. 27-29), envy (IV. 30-32), wrath (IV. 33-35).
- Spanish writer Fernando Díaz Plaja (b. 1918) wrote and published in 1966 El Español y los siete pecados capitales (The Spaniard and the Seven Deadly Sins) where he criticized in a humorous manner the shortcomings of the Spanish character as viewed through the seven deadly sins. In the following years he published similar works about other nationalities (USA 1968, French 1969, Italian 1970, Eastern Europe 1985, etc.) 
- Garth Nix's "The Keys to the Kingdom" is an all ages seven-book series (the first published in 2003) in which the main nemesis of each book is afflicted by one of the seven deadly sins.
- Daniel Born along with Donald Whitfield and Mike Levine selected and edited two short stories for each of the seven deadly sins in The 7 Deadly Sins Sampler published by The Great Books Foundation in 2007. The same foundation published Even Deadlier as a sequel with the same format in 2009. For the second title Born headed a new group of editors, which included Molly Benningfield, Judith McCue, Abigail Mitchell, and Lindsay Tigue in addition to Whitfield.
- Author Caroline Myss, in her 2009 book Defy Gravity: Healing Beyond the Bounds of Reason, integrates the seven deadly sins as a key to understanding the spiritual underpinnings of healing. Her work proports that the "dark passions" of pride, avarice, luxury, wrath, gluttony, envy, and sloth are countered by the transformational power of the respective seven graces: reverence, piety, understanding, fortitude, counsel, knowledge, and wisdom.
- A 2010 collection of Star Trek stories, Star Trek: Seven Deadly Sins, contains seven short novels, which link each deadly sin to a major Trek race: the Romulans (Pride), Borg (Gluttony), Klingons (Anger), Pakleds (Sloth), the Mirror Universe (Lust), the Ferengi (Greed), and the Cardassians (Envy).
Art and music
- Hieronymus Bosch, The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things (1485).
- Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht, The Seven Deadly Sins (Die sieben Todsünden) (1933); a ballet-chantant in which the protagonist (Anna) and her 'sister' or alter-ego, also named Anna, try to help their family by engaging in each sin in one form or another, as they travel across the United States.
- American Artist Frank Rampolla created a series of paintings in 1968 depicting his expressionist viewpoint of the Seven Deadly Sins
- The 1933 painting "The Seven Cardinal Sins" by German Expressionist artist Otto Dix depicts seven beings, each representing one of the seven sins.
- Modern artist Paul Cadmus starting in 1945 painted a series of graphically disturbing, anthropomorphic depictions of the seven deadly sins, in the style of comic books. After his death, this series was willed to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
- The 1997 album Heaven and Hell by Joe Jackson is a modern musical interpretation of the seven deadly sins.
- The Welsh band Magenta have a 2004 album called Seven where the songs represent the seven daily sins.
- Kendell Geers, "The Seven Deadly Sins" 2006: Series of 7 Ultra Violet neons exhibited at Stephen Friedman Gallery in London, Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst in Ghent Belgium, DA2 in Salamanca Spain and the 2007 Venice Biennial
- The Tiger Lillies's 2008 album and stage show 7 Deadly Sins is based on the sins being experienced by a modernized version of Punch and Judy (in itself a reworking of Adam and Eve) called "Punch and Jude".
- The 2008 album Melankolia / XXX Couture by Danish rapper L.O.C. focuses on how the artist came into contact with each of the sins, and then how these sins have come to be culturally accepted.
- The 2011 album "A Place Where The Sun Is Silent" by American Post-hardcore band Alesana focuses on the seven deadly sins as a concept in the album.
- In the 2011 album Vices and Virtues by the American alternative rock band, Panic! At The Disco, every song describes a certain vice or virtue, hence the name.
Film, television, radio, comic books and video games
- There was a series of seven silent films made in 1917 that bore the series title, The Seven Deadly Sins, which began with Envy (1917), continued with Pride (1917), Greed (1917), Sloth (1917), Passion (1917), and Wrath (1917), and concluded with the synonymously titled The Seventh Sin (1917). The final installment was given that title because Gluttony was considered too offensive, and the producers couldn't come up with an adequate synonym.
- The film The Devil's Nightmare is about a succubus who kills a group of tourists who are each guilty of one of the seven sins.
- The original version of the film Bedazzled (1967) (remade in 2000) includes all seven sins; Raquel Welch as (Lillian) Lust, Barry Humphries as Envy, Alba as Vanity, Robert Russell as Anger, Parnell McGarry as Gluttony, Daniele Noel as Avarice, and Howard Goorney as Sloth.
- In the film Seven (1995), written by Andrew Kevin Walker, directed by David Fincher and starring Brad Pitt and Morgan Freeman, a mysterious serial killer punishes transgressors of each of the deadly sins through his crimes.
- The Magnificent Seven Deadly Sins (1971) is a British film built around a series of comedy sketches on the seven deadly sins, and referencing the classic Western film The Magnificent Seven.
- In the video game Overlord, the seven heroes that the protagonist must defeat have all been corrupted by one of the seven deadly sins.
- The Seven Deadly Sins (traditionally given as "The Seven Deadly Enemies of Man") figure prominently in the mythos of Fawcett/DC Comics superhero Captain Marvel, and have appeared several times as supervillains in recent DC Comics publications.
- In the manga and anime Digimon, the Seven Great Demon Lords, each of whom represent one of the sins, are a major group of antagonists.
- In the manga and anime Katekyo Hitman Reborn!, the member of Varia each match one of the Seven Deadly Sins, their Latin names, or the respective demons of the sins.
- In the manga and anime Fullmetal Alchemist, each sin is used as the name of each member of a group of powerful artificial humans called "homunculi", with each homunculus' personality and appearance being based on the sin which they are named after.
- In the video game Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII, a major boss uses special attacks named after the deadly sins: Unleashed Wrath, End of Gluttony, Wings of Pride, Charge of Greed, Thunder of Envy, Defense of Lust, and Rage of Sloth.
- In the video game Devil May Cry 3, the seven deadly sins are represented by a group of common enemies, as well as by seven infernal bells. Fallen angels that personify the sins are also featured heavily in the prequel manga, in which they are important in summoning the bell-containing tower in the first place.
- In the Philippines TV series Lastikman each major villain represents one of the deadly sins.
- In the Norwegian TV show De syv dødssyndene (The Seven Deadly Sins), Kristopher Schau attempts to invoke the wrath of God by carrying out each of the seven deadly sins. When Schau was talking about the show on the talk show Senkveld (Late Night), he said "If I don't end up in Hell, then there is no Hell." The program caused a great deal of public debate surrounding the issue of censorship.
- In Matt Fraction's comic book Casanova, the series' issues are named, in Latin, for each of the seven sins, beginning with Luxuria.
- Rengoku II: The Stairway to Heaven is based on eight levels of a tower, seven named after the sins, the eighth being Paradise.
- In the webcomic Jack, the seven sins are personified by anthropomorphs. The main character, Jack, represents the sin of Wrath.
- Mark Watson Makes the World Substantially Better fits the sins into a six part BBC radio series, with Greed and Gluttony combined as the 'similar sins'.
- In Knight Online's Bifrost are monsters that can hunt for Fragments of the seven sins. Fragments can be turned into unique items, or collected to gain access to the chamber of Ultima.
- In Umineko no Naku Koro ni, the Seven Stakes of Purgatory are named after Peter Binsfeld's temptor demons and propagate or embody a deadly sin. Their ages follow the order of Purgatorio, Lucifer (Pride) being the eldest and Asmodeus (Lust) the youngest.
- In 2010 a miniseries called "Seven Deadly Sins" was aired on the Lifetime Movie Network, based on author Robin Wasserman's series of novels.
- In the 2011 game Patapon 3 each of the seven Dark Heroes represents a deadly sin.
- In the game Final Fantasy: 4 Heroes of Light, some major bosses are the demons of Binsfeld's classification of demons.
- In The video game The Binding of Isaac, there are 7 mini-bosses based on the 7 deadly sins. They are fought very often.
- In the horror game, Demonophobia, each boss the main character, Sakuri, faces represent a certain deadly sin. Each is named after one of the seven princes of Hell. In-game, they are simply titled "Devils" by Ridz, a blue cloaked demon who aids Sakuri.
- In DC Comics, the Demon Trigon powers re side from the Seven Deadly Sins.
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, nn.1856. See also nn.1854–1864.
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1866.
- ^ Boyle, Marjorie O'Rourke (1997) [1997-10-23]. "Three: The Flying Serpent". Loyola's Acts: The Rhetoric of the Self. The New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Poetics,. 36. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 100–146. ISBN 978-0-520-20937-4. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft2t1nb1rw/.
- ^ Proverbs 6:16–19
- ^ Galatians
- ^ Evagrio Pontico,Gli Otto Spiriti Malvagi, trans., Felice Comello, Pratiche Editrice, Parma, 1990, p.11-12.
- ^ a b Refoule, 1967
- ^ Introduction to Paulist Press edition of John Climacus: The Ladder of Divine Ascent by Kallistos Ware, p63.
- ^ Godsall-Myers, Jean E. (2003). Speaking in the medieval world. Brill. p. 27. ISBN 9004129553. http://books.google.com/books?id=Hgw0WSuUZn4C&pg=PA27&dq=luxuria+divine.comedy#v=onepage&q=luxuria&f=false.
- ^ Katherine Ludwig, Jansen (2001). The making of the Magdalen: preaching and popular devotion in the later Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0691089876. http://books.google.com/books?id=tAxSQ7O4WogC&pg=PA194&dq=luxuria+divine.comedy#v=onepage&q=luxuria&f=false.
- ^ Vossler, Karl; Spingarn, Joel Elias (1929). Mediæval Culture: The religious, philosophic, and ethico-political background of the "Divine Comedy". University of Michigan: Constable & company. p. 246. http://books.google.com/books?id=McIRAAAAMAAJ&dq=luxuria+divine.comedy&q=luxuria#search_anchor.
- ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 2008-03-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20080327080743/http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p3s1c1a8.htm#V. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- ^ a b Okholm, Dennis. "Rx for Gluttony". Christianity Today, Vol. 44, No. 10, September 11, 2000, p.62
- ^ "Gluttony". Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06590a.htm.
- ^ "The Free Dictionary". The Free Dictionary. 1987-04-01. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/greed. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- ^ "Summa Theologica: Treatise on The Theological Virtues (QQ - 46): Question. 36 - Of Envy (four articles)". Sacred-texts.com. http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/aquinas/summa/sum291.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- ^ Oxford English dictionary
- ^ Morton W. Bloomfield,The Seven Deadly Sins, Michigan State College Press, 1952, pp.214-215.
- ^ "Two sexes 'sin in different ways'". BBC News. 2009-02-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7897034.stm. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- ^ Morning Edition (2009-02-20). "True Confessions: Men And Women Sin Differently". Npr.org. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100906920. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- ^ Maitri, The Enneagram of Passions and Virtues, pp.11-31
- ^ Rohr, The Enneagram
- ^ Dante, Inferno, Canto VII.120-128, translated by H.F. Cary, courtesy Project Gutenberg
- ^ References use the B-text, see Vision of Piers Plowman
- ^ "Confessio Amantis, or, Tales of the Seven Deadly Sins by John Gower - Project Gutenberg". Gutenberg.org. 2008-07-03. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/266. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- ^ "The Canterbury Tales/The Parson's Prologue and Tale - Wikisource". En.wikisource.org. 2008-11-01. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Canterbury_Tales/The_Parson's_Prologue_and_Tale. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- ^ "Christopher Marlowe, The Tragedie of Doctor Faustus (B text) (ed. Hilary Binda)". Perseus.tufts.edu. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.03.0011&query=scene%3D%236&layout.norm=compare. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- ^ Darkwing.uoregon.edu
- ^ "Biografia de Fernando Díaz-Plaja". Biografiasyvidas.com. http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/d/diaz_plaja_fernando.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- ^ "Seven Deadly Sins - Memory Beta, non-canon Star Trek Wiki". Memory-beta.wikia.com. http://memory-beta.wikia.com/wiki/Seven_Deadly_Sins. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- ^ "Seven Deadly Sins - Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki". Memory-alpha.org. 2010-03-30. http://memory-alpha.org/en/index.php/Seven_Deadly_Sins. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- Refoule, F. (1967) Evagrius Ponticus. In Staff of Catholic University of America (Eds.) New Catholic Encyclopaedia. Volume 5, pp644–645. New York: McGrawHill.
- Schumacher, Meinolf (2005): "Catalogues of Demons as Catalogues of Vices in Medieval German Literature: 'Des Teufels Netz' and the Alexander Romance by Ulrich von Etzenbach." In In the Garden of Evil: The Vices and Culture in the Middle Ages. Edited by Richard Newhauser, pp. 277–290. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
- The Divine Comedy ("Inferno", "Purgatorio", and "Paradiso"), by Dante Alighieri
- Summa Theologica, by Thomas Aquinas
- The Concept of Sin, by Josef Pieper
- The Traveller's Guide to Hell, by Michael Pauls & Dana Facaros
- Sacred Origins of Profound Things, by Charles Panati
- The Faerie Queene, by Edmund Spenser
- The Seven Deadly Sins Series, Oxford University Press (7 vols.)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.