 Nikolay Bogolyubov

For the actor, see Nikolay Bogolyubov (actor).
Nikolay Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (another spelling Bogoliubov, Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Боголю́бов, Ukrainian: Микола Миколайович Боголюбов; 21 August 1909, Nizhny Novgorod – 13 February 1992, Moscow) was a Russian and Ukrainian Soviet mathematician and theoretical physicist known for a significant contribution to quantum field theory, classical and quantum statistical mechanics, and to the theory of dynamical systems; a recipient of the Dirac Prize (1992).
Contents
Biography
Early life (1909–1921)
Nikolay Bogolyubov was born on 21 August 1909 in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, in the family of a priest of Russian Orthodox Church, teacher of theology, psychology and philosophy Nikolay Mikhailovich Bogolyubov and Ol'ga Nikolaevna, teacher of music. The Soviet Union regulations issued soon after the October Revolution in 1917 did not allow for children of priests to obtain a good education, and in 1921 the family of Nikolay Bogolyubov moved to Kiev, where these regulations did not work.
Kiev (1921–?)
In Kiev Nikolay Bogolyubov began to actively study physics and mathematics. He attended research seminars in Kiev University and soon started to work under the supervision of a famous mathematician Nikolay Krylov. In 1924, at the age of 13, Nikolay Bogolyubov wrote his first published scientific paper On the behavior of solutions of linear differential equations at infinity. In 1925 he entered Ph.D. program at the Academy of Sciences of Ukrainian SSR and obtained the degree of Kandidat Nauk (Candidat of Sciences, equivalent to Ph.D.) in 1928, at the age of 19, with the Ph.D. thesis On direct methods of variational calculus. In 1930, at the age of 21, he obtained the degree of Doktor nauk (Doctor of Sciences, equivalent to Habilitation), the highest degree in the Soviet Union, which requires to make a significant independent contribution to the science after Ph.D.
This early period of Bogolyubov's work in science was concerned with such mathematical problems as direct methods of the calculus of variations, the theory of almost periodic functions, methods of approximate solution of differential equations, and dynamical systems. This earlier research had already earned him wide recognition. One of his essays was awarded the Bologna Academy of Sciences Prize in 1930, and the author was awarded the erudite degree of doctor of mathematics '. This was the period when the great scientific rise of the young Nikolai Bogolyubov began, later producing new multiple scientific trends in modern mathematics, physics, and mechanics.
Since 1931, Krylov and Bogolyubov worked together on the problems of nonlinear mechanics and nonlinear oscillations. They were the key figures in the "Kiev school of nonlinear oscillation research", where their cooperation resulted in the paper "On the quasiperiodic solutions of the equations of nonlinear mechanics" (1934) and the book Introduction to Nonlinear Mechanics (1937; translated to English in 1947) leading to a creation of a large field of nonlinear mechanics.
And this can explain, as the authors believe, the need to shape the collection of problems of nonlinear perturbation theory into a special science, which could be named NONLINEAR MECHANICS.
— N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogolyubov, New methods in nonlinear mechanics, ONTI GTTI, MoscowLeningrad, 1934
Distinctive features of the Kiev School approach included an emphasis on the computation of solutions (not just a proof of its existence), approximations of periodic solutions, use of the invariant manifolds in the phase space, and applications of a single unified approach to many different problems. From a control engineering point of view, the key achievement of the Kiev School was the development by Krylov and Bogolyubov of the describing function method for the analysis of nonlinear control problems.
In the period 1928—1973, Nikolay Bogolyubov worked in the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine holding the position of the Director of the institute since 1965. He lectured in the Kiev University in the period 1936—1959.
In evacuation (1941–1943)
After the German attack against the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941 (beginning of the Great Patriotic War), most institutes and universities from west part of Russia were evacuated into east regions far from the battle lines. Nikolay Bogolyubov moved to Ufa, where he became Head of the Departments of Mathematical Analysis at Ufa State Aviation Technical University and at Ufa Pedagogical Institute, remaining on these positions during the period of July 1941 – August 1943.
Moscow (1943–?)
In autumn 1943, Bogolyubov came from evacuation to Moscow and on 1 November 1943 he accepted a position in the Department of Theoretical Physics at the Moscow State University (MSU). At that time the Head of the Department was Anatoly Vlasov (for a short period in 1944 the Head of the Department was Vladimir Fock). Theoretical physicists working in the department in that period included Dmitry Ivanenko, Arsenij Sokolov, and other famous physicists.
In the period 1943–1946, Bogolyubov's resesarch was essentially concerned with the theory of stochastic processes and asymptotic methods. In his work "?" a simple example of an anharmonic oscillator evolving under the force of the form as a superposition of incoherent sinusoidal oscillations with continuous spectrum was used to show that depending on a specific approximation time scale the evolution of the system can be either deterministic, or a stochastic process satisfying FokkerPlanck equation, or even a process which is neither deterministic nor stochastic. In other words, he showed that depending on the choice of the time scale for the corresponding approximations the same stochastic process can be regarded as both dynamical and Markovian, and in the general case as a nonMarkov process. This work was the first to introduce the notion of time hierarchy in nonequilibrium statistical physics which then became the key concept in all further development of the statistical theory of irreversible processes.
In 1945, Bogolyubov proved a fundamental theorem on the existence and basic properties of a oneparameter integral manifold for a system of nonlinear differential equations. He investigated periodic and quasiperiodic solutions lying on a onedimensional manifold, thus forming the foundation for a new method of nonlinear mechanics, the method of integral manifolds.
In 1946, he published in JETP two works on equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics which became the essence of his fundamental monograph Problems of dynamical theory in statistical physics (Moscow, 1946).
On 26 January 1953, Nikolay Bogolyubov became the Head of the Department of Theoretical Physics at MSU, after Anatoly Vlasov decided to leave the position on January 2, 1953.
Steklov Institute (1947–?)
In 1947, Nikolay Bogolyubov organized and became the Head of the Department of Theoretical Physics at the Steklov Mathematical Institute. In 1969, the Department of Theoretical Physics was separated into the Departments of Mathematical Physics (Head Vasily Vladimirov), of Statistical Mechanics, and of Quantum Field Theory (Head Mikhail Polivanov). While working in the Steklov Institute, Nikolay Bogolyubov and his school contributed to science with many important works including works on renormalization theory, renormalization group, axiomatic Smatrix theory, and works on the theory of dispersion relations.
In the late 1940s and 1950s, Bogoliubov worked on the theory of superfluidity and superconductivity, where he developed the method of BBGKY hierarchy for a derivation of kinetic equations, formulated microscopic theory of superfluidity, and made other essential contributions. Later he worked on quantum field theory, where introduced the Bogoliubov transformation, formulated and proved the Bogoliubov's edgeofthewedge theorem and BogoliubovParasyuk theorem (with Ostap Parasyuk), and obtained other significant results. In the 1960s his attention turned to the quark model of hadrons; in 1965 he was among the first scientists to study the new quantum number color charge.
In 1946, Nikolay Bogoliubow was elected as a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1948, he became Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and in 1953 Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
Dubna (1956–1992)
Since 1956, he worked in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russia, where he was a founder (together with Dmitry Blokhintsev) and the first director of the Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. This laboratory, where Nikolay Bogolyubov worked for a long time, has traditionally been the home of the prominent Russian schools in quantum field theory, theoretical nuclear physics, statistical physics, and nonlinear mechanics. Nikolay Bogolyubov was Director of the JINR in the period 1966—1988.
Family
His son Nikolay Boglyubov (jr) is a theoretical physicist working in the fields of mathematical physics and statistical mechanics.
Students
Nikolay Bogoliubov was a scientific supervisor^{[1]} of Yurii Mitropolskiy, Dmitry Shirkov, Selim Krein, Iosif Gihman, Tofik Mamedov, Kirill Gurov, Mikhail Polivanov, Naftul Polsky, Galina Biryuk, Sergei Tyablikov, Dmitry Zubarev, Vladimir Kadyshevsky, and many other students. His method of teaching, based on creation of a warm atmosphere, politeness and kindness, is famous in Russia and is known as the "Bogoliubov approach".
Awards
Nikolay Bogolyubov was a recipient of various high USSR honors and international awards, including
 Stalin Prize (1947, 1953)
 USSR State Prize (1984)
 Lenin Prize (1958)
 Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics (1966)
 Hero of Socialist Labor (1969, 1979)
 Max Planck medal (1973)
 Franklin Medal (1974)
 The Lomonosov Gold Medal (1985)
 Dirac Prize (1992)
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research awards two prizes in memory of Nikolay Bogolyubov: The Bogolyubov Prize for scientists with outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and applied mathematics and the Bogolyubov Prize for young scientists. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine awards the Bogolyubov Prize for scientists with outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and applied mathematics.
The central street of Dubna is named in the memory of Nikolay Bogolyubov as Bogolyubov prospect (Russian: проспект Боголюбова).
 Bogolyubov year
In 2009, the 100th anniversary of the birth of Nikolay Bogolyubov was celebrated with two conferences organized in the memory of Nikolay Bogolyubov in Russia and Ukraine:
 International Bogolyubov Conference: Problems of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 21–27 August, MoscowDubna, Russia.
 Bogolyubov Kyiv Conference: Modern Problems of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics 15–18 September, Kiev, Ukraine.
Research
Fundamental works of Nikolay Bogoliubov were devoted to asymptotic methods of nonlinear mechanics, quantum field theory, statistical field theory, variational calculus, approximation methods in mathematical analysis, equations of mathematical physics, theory of stability, theory of dynamical systems, and to many other areas.
He built a new theory of scattering matrices, formulated the concept of microscopical causality, obtained important results in quantum electrodynamics, and investigated on the basis of the edgeofthewedge theorem the dispersion relations in elementary particle physics. He suggested a new synthesis of the Bohr theory of quasiperiodic functions and developed methods for asymptotic integration of nonlinear differential equations which describe oscillating processes.
Mathematics and nonlinear mechanics
 In 1932—1943, in the early stage of his career, he worked in collaboration with Nikolay Krylov on mathematical problems of nonlinear mechanics and developed mathematical methods for asymptotic integration of nonlinear differential equations. He also applied these methods to problems of statistical mechanics.
 In 1937, jointly with Nikolay Krylov he proved the KrylovBogoliubov theorems.^{[2]}
 In 1956, at the International Conference on Theoretical Physics in Seattle, USA (September, 1956), he presented the formulation and the first proof of the edgeofthewedge theorem. This theorem in the theory of functions of several complex variables has important implications to the dispersion relations in elementary particle physics.
Statistical mechanics
 1939 Jointly with Nikolay Krylov gave the first consistent microscopic derivation of the FokkerPlanck equation in the single scheme of classical and quantum mechanics.^{[3]}
 1945 Suggested the idea of hierarchy of relaxation times, which is significant for statistical theory of irreversible processes.
 1946 Developed a general method for a microscopic derivation of kinetic equations for classical systems.^{[4]}^{[5]} The method was based on the hierarhy of equations for multiparticle distribution functions known now as BogoliubovBornGreenKirkwoodYvon hierarchy.
 1947 Jointly with K. P. Gurov extended this method to the derivation of kinetic equations for quantum systems on the basis of the quantum BBGKY hierarchy.^{[6]}
 1947—1948 Introduced kinetic equations in the theory of superfluidity,^{[7]}^{[8]} computed the excitation spectrum for a weakly imperfect Bose gas, showed that this spectrum has the same properties as spectrum of Helium II, and used this analogy for a theoretical description of superfluidity of Helium II.
 1958 Formulated a microscopic theory of superconductivity^{[9]} and established an analogy between superconductivity and superfluidity phenomena; this contribution was discussed in details in the book A New Method in the Theory of Superconductivity (coauthors V. V. Tolmachev and D. V. Shirkov, Moscow, Academy of Sciences Press, 1958).
Quantum theory
 1955 Developed an axiomatic theory for scattering matrix (S—matrix) in quantum field theory and introduced the causality condition for S—matrix in terms of variational derivatives.
 1955 Jointly with Dmitry Shirkov developed the renormalization group method.
 1955 Jointly with Ostap Parasyuk proved the theorem on the finiteness and uniqueness (for renormalizable theories) of the scattering matrix in any order of perturbation theory (BogoliubovParasyuk theorem) and developed a procedure (Roperation) for a practical subtraction of singularities in quantum field theory.^{[10]}^{[11]}
 1965 Jointly with Boris Struminsky and Albert Tavchelidze and independently of MooYoung Han, Yoichiro Nambu and Oscar W. Greenberg suggested a triplet quark model and introduced a new quantum degree of freedom (later called as color charge) for quarks.^{[12]}
 Suggested a first proof of dispersion relations in quantum field theory.
Publications
Main article: List of works of Nikolay BogolyubovBooks
Mathematics and Nonlinear Mechanics:
 N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogoliubov (1934): On various formal expansions of nonlinear mechanics. Kiev, Izdat. Zagal'noukr. Akad. Nauk. (Ukrainian)
 N. M. Krylov and N. N. Bogoliubov (1947): Introduction to Nonlinear Mechanics. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
 N. N. Bogoliubov, Y. A. Mitropolsky (1961): Asymptotic Methods in the Theory of NonLinear Oscillations. New York, Gordon and Breach.
Statistical Mechanics:
 N. N. Bogoliubov (1945): On Some Statistical Methods in Mathematical Physics. Kyiv (Russian).
 N. N. Bogoliubov, V. V. Tolmachev, D. V. Shirkov (1959): A New Method in the Theory of Superconductivity. New York, Consultants Bureau.
 N. N. Bogoliubov (1960): Problems of Dynamic Theory in Statistical Physics. Oak Ridge, Tenn., Technical Information Service.
 N. N. Bogoliubov (1967—1970): Lectures on Quantum Statistics. Problems of Statistical Mechanics of Quantum Systems. New York, Gordon and Breach.
 N. N. Bogolubov and N. N. Bogolubov, Jnr. (1992): Introduction to Quantum Statistical Mechanics. Gordon and Breach. ISBN 2881248799.
Quantum Field Theory:
 N. N. Bogoliubov, B. V. Medvedev, M. K. Polivanov (1958): Problems in the Theory of Dispersion Relations. Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton.
 N. N. Bogoliubov, D. V. Shirkov (1959): The Theory of Quantized Fields. New York, Interscience. The first textbook on the renormalization group theory.
 N. N. Bogoliubov, A. A. Logunov and I. T. Todorov (1975): Introduction to Axiomatic Quantum Field Theory. Reading, Mass.: W. A. Benjamin, Advanced Book Program. ISBN 9780805309829. ISBN 0805309829.
 N. N. Bogoliubov, D. V. Shirkov (1980): Introduction to the Theory of Quantized Field. John Wiley & Sons Inc; 3rd edition. ISBN 0471042234. ISBN 9780471042235.
 N. N. Bogoliubov, D. V. Shirkov (1982): Quantum Fields. BenjaminCummings Pub. Co., ISBN 0805309837.
 N. N. Bogoliubov, A. A. Logunov, A. I. Oksak, I. T. Todorov (1990): General Principles of Quantum Field Theory. Dordrecht [Holland]; Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 079230540X. ISBN 9780792305408.
 Selected works
 N. N. Bogoliubov, Selected Works. Part I. Dynamical Theory. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1990. ISBN 2881247520, ISBN 9782881247521.
 N. N. Bogoliubov, Selected Works. Part II. Quantum and Classical Statistical Mechanics. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1991. ISBN 2881247687.
 N. N. Bogoliubov, Selected Works. Part III. Nonlinear Mechanics and Pure Mathematics. Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995. ISBN 2881249183.
 N. N. Bogoliubov, Selected Works. Part IV. Quantum Field Theory. Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1995. ISBN 2881249264, ISBN 9782881249266.
Selected papers
 N. N. Bogoliubov (1948). "Equations of Hydrodynamics in Statistical Mechanics" (in Ukrainian). Sbornik Trudov Instituta Matematiki AN USSR 10: 41—59.
 "On Question about Superfluidity Condition in the Nuclear Matter Theory" (in Russian), Doklady Akademii Nauk USSR, 119, 52, 1958.
 "On One Variational Principle in Many Body Problem" (in Russian), Doklady Akademii Nauk USSR, 119, N2, 244, 1959.
 "On Compensation Principle in the Method of Selfconformed Field" (in Russian), Uspekhi Fizicheskhih Nauk, 67, N4, 549, 1959.
 "The Quasiaverages in Problems of Statistical Mechanics" (in Russian), Preprint D781, JINR, Dubna, 1961.
 "On the Hydrodynamics of a Superfluiding" (in Russian), Preprint P1395, JINR, Dubna, 1963.
See also
 BogolyubovBornGreenKirkwoodYvon hierarchy
 Bogoliubov causality condition
 Bogolyubov's edgeofthewedge theorem
 Bogoliubov inner product
 BogoliubovParasyuk theorem
 Bogoliubov transformation
 Describing function method
 KrylovBogoliubov averaging method
 KrylovBogolyubov theorem
References
 ^ Nikolay Bogolyubov at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov and N. M. Krylov (1937). "La theorie generalie de la mesure dans son application a l'etude de systemes dynamiques de la mecanique nonlineaire" (in French). Ann. Math. II 38 (1): 65–113. doi:10.2307/1968511. JSTOR 1968511. Zbl. 16.86.
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov and N. M. Krylov (1939). FokkerPlanck equations generated in perturbation theory by a method based on the spectral properties of a perturbed Hamiltonian. Zapiski Kafedry Fiziki Akademii Nauk Ukrainian SSR 4: 81–157 (in Ukrainian).
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1946). "Kinetic Equations" (in Russian). Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics 16 (8): 691–702.
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1946). "Kinetic Equations". Journal of Physics 10 (3): 265–274.
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov, K. P. Gurov (1947). "Kinetic Equations in Quantum Mechanics" (in Russian). Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics 17 (7): 614–628.
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1947). "On the Theory of Superfluidity" (in Russian). Izv. Academii Nauk USSR 11 (1): 77.
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1947). "On the Theory of Superfluidity". Journal of Physics 11 (1): 23–32.
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov (1958). "On a New Method in the Theory of Superconductivity". Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics 34 (1): 58.
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov, O. S. Parasyuk (1955). "[A theory of multiplication of causal singular functions]" (in Russian). Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 100: 25–28.
 ^ N. N. Bogoliubov, O. S. Parasyuk (1957). "Uber die Multiplikation der Kausalfunktionen in der Quantentheorie der Felder" (in German). Acta Mathematica 97: 227–266. doi:10.1007/BF02392399. http://www.springerlink.com/content/11135u3k000m7683/.
 ^ N. Bogolubov, B. Struminsky, A. Tavkhelidze. On composite models in the theory of elementary particles. JINR Preprint D1968, Dubna 1965.
Further reading
 Yu. A. Mitropolskiy and S. V. Tyablikov (1959). "Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday)". Soviet Physics Uspekhi, 2(5): 765—770.
 D. N. Zubarev et al. (1970). "Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (On his 60th birthday)", Soviet Physics Uspekhi, 12(4): 590—593.
 V. S. Vladimirov et al. (1969). "Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday)", Russian Math. Surveys, 24(4): 167—175.
 V. A. Ambartsumyan et al. (1979). "Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (on his seventieth birthday)", Soviet Physics Uspekhi, 22(8): 672—676.
 P. S. Aleksandrov et al. (1979). "Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (on his seventieth birthday)", Russian Math. Surveys, 34(5): 1—10.
 A. A. Logunov, S. P. Novikov, V. S. Vladimirov (1989). "Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (on his 80th birthday)", Russian Math. Surveys, 44(5): 1—10.
 A. A. Abrikosov et al. (1989). "Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (on his eightieth birthday)", Soviet Physics Uspekhi, 32(12): 1111—1112.
 L. D. Faddeev et al. (1992). "Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov (obituary)". Russian Math. Surveys 47(3): 1—3 (in English).
 D. V. Anosov (1994). "On the contribution of N.N. Bogolyubov to the theory of dynamical systems", Russian Math. Surveys, 49(5): 1—18.
 N. N. Bogolyubov (jr) and D. P. Sankovich (1994). "N. N. Bogolyubov and statistical mechanics". Russian Math. Surveys 49(5): 19—49.
 V. S. Vladimirov, V. V. Zharinov, A. G. Sergeev (1994). "Bogolyubov's “edge of the wedge” theorem, its development and applications", Russian Math. Surveys, 49(5): 51—65.
 O. I. Zav'yalov (1994). "Bogolyubov's Roperation and the BogolyubovParasyuk theorem", Russian Math. Surveys, 49(5): 67—76.
 B. M. Levitan (1994). "On the work of Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogolyubov in the theory of almost periodic functions", Russian Math. Surveys, 49(5): 77—88.
 B. V. Medvedev (1994). "N.N. Bogolyubov and the scattering matrix", Russian Math. Surveys, 49(5): 89—108.
 A. M. Samoilenko (1994). "N.N. Bogolyubov and nonlinear mechanics", Russian Math. Surveys, 49(5): 109—154.
 D. V. Shirkov (1994). "The Bogoliubov renormalization group". Russian Math. Surveys 49(5): 155—176.
 V. S. Vladimirov (2001). "N. N. Bogoliubov and mathematics". Russian Math. Surveys 56(3): 607—613.
External links
 Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
 Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Problems of Microphysics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia.
 Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia.
 Department of Theoretical Physics in the Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow, Russia (created by Nikolay Bogolyubov).
 The role of Nikolay Bogoliubov in Dubna's Russian Orthodox Christian church (in Russian).
Categories: Mathematical physicists
 Quantum physicists
 Theoretical physicists
 Control theorists
 20thcentury mathematicians
 Russian theoretical physicists
 Russian mathematicians
 Russian inventors
 Soviet theoretical physicists
 Soviet mathematicians
 Soviet inventors
 Ukrainian theoretical physicists
 Ukrainian mathematicians
 Ukrainian inventors
 Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences
 Members of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
 Alumni of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
 Moscow State University faculty
 Ukrainian people of Russian descent
 Eastern Orthodox Christians from Russia
 1909 births
 1992 deaths
 Heroes of Socialist Labour
 Stalin Prize winners
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.