- Bose gas
An ideal

**Bose gas**is a quantum-mechanical version of a classicalideal gas . It is composed ofbosons , which have an integer value of spin, and obeyBose-Einstein statistics . The statistical mechanics of bosons were developed bySatyendra Nath Bose for photons, and extended to massive particles byAlbert Einstein who realized that an ideal gas of bosons would form a condensate at a low enough temperature, unlike a classical ideal gas. This condensate is known as aBose-Einstein condensate .**The Thomas-Fermi approximation**The thermodynamics of an ideal Bose gas is best calculated using the

grand partition function . The grand partition function for a Bose gas is given by::$mathcal\{Z\}(z,eta,V)\; =\; prod\_i\; left(1-ze^\{-etaepsilon\_i\}\; ight)^\{-g\_i\}$

where each term in the product corresponds to a particular energy ε

_{i }, g_{i }is the number of states with energy ε_{i }, "z " is the absolute activity (or "fugacity"), which may also be expressed in terms of thechemical potential μ by defining::$z(eta,mu)=\; e^\{eta\; mu\}$

and β defined as:

:$eta\; =\; frac\{1\}\{kT\}$

where "k " is

Boltzmann's constant and "T " is thetemperature . All thermodynamic quantities may be derived from the grand partition function and we will consider all thermodynamic quantities to be functions of only the three variables "z ", β (or "T "), and "V ". All partial derivatives are taken with respect to one of these three variables while the other two are held constant. It is more convenient to deal with the dimensionlessgrand potential defined as::$Omega=-ln(mathcal\{Z\})\; =\; sum\_i\; g\_i\; lnleft(1-ze^\{-etaepsilon\_i\}\; ight)$

Following the procedure described in the

gas in a box article, we can apply theThomas-Fermi approximation which assumes that the average energy is large compared to the energy difference between levels so that the above sum may be replaced by an integral::$Omegaapprox\; int\_0^infty\; lnleft(1-ze^\{-eta\; E\}\; ight),dg$

The degeneracy "dg " may be expressed for many different situations by the general formula:

:$dg\; =\; frac\{1\}\{Gamma(alpha)\},frac\{E^\{,alpha-1\{\; E\_c^\{alpha\; ~dE$

where α is a constant, $E\_c$ is a "critical energy", and Γ is the

Gamma function . For example, for a massive Bosegas in a box , α=3/2 and the critical energy is given by::$frac\{1\}\{(eta\; E\_c)^alpha\}=frac\{Vf\}\{Lambda^3\}$

where Λ is the

thermal wavelength . For a massive Bosegas in a harmonic trap we will have α=3 and the critical energy is given by::$frac\{1\}\{(eta\; E\_c)^alpha\}=frac\{f\}\{(hbaromegaeta)^3\}$

where "V(r)=mω

^{2}r^{2}/2 " is the harmonic potential. It is seen that "E_{c }" is a function of volume only.We can solve the equation for the grand potential by integrating the Taylor series of the integrand term by term, or by realizing that it is proportional to the

Mellin transform of the Li_{1}(z exp(-β E)) where Li_{s}(x) is thepolylogarithm function. The solution is::$Omegaapprox-frac\{\; extrm\{Li\}\_\{alpha+1\}(z)\}\{left(eta\; E\_c\; ight)^alpha\}$

The problem with this continuum approximation for a Bose gas is that the ground state has been effectively ignored, giving a degeneracy of zero for zero energy. This inaccuracy becomes serious when dealing with the

Bose-Einstein condensate and will be dealt with in the next section.**Inclusion of the ground state**The total number of particles is found from the grand potential by

:$N\; =\; -zfrac\{partialOmega\}\{partial\; z\}\; approxfrac\{\; extrm\{Li\}\_alpha(z)\}\{(eta\; E\_c)^alpha\}$

The polylogarithm term must remain real and positive, and the maximum value it can possibly have is at z=1 where it is equal to ζ(α) where ζ is the

Riemann zeta function . For a fixed "N ", the largest possible value that β can have is a critical value β_{c }where:$N\; =\; frac\{zeta(alpha)\}\{(eta\_c\; E\_c)^alpha\}$

This corresponds to a critical temperature T

_{c}=1/kβ_{c}below which the Thomas-Fermi approximation breaks down. The above equation can be solved for the critical temperature::$T\_c=left(frac\{N\}\{zeta(alpha)\}\; ight)^\{1/alpha\}frac\{E\_c\}\{k\}$

For example, for $alpha=3/2$ and using the above noted value of $E\_c$ yields

:$T\_c=left(frac\{N\}\{Vfzeta(3/2)\}\; ight)^\{2/3\}frac\{h^2\}\{2pi\; m\; k\}$

Again, we are presently unable to calculate results below the critical temperature, because the particle numbers using the above equation become negative. The problem here is that the Thomas-Fermi approximation has set the degeneracy of the ground state to zero, which is wrong. There is no ground state to accept the condensate and so the equation breaks down. It turns out, however, that the above equation gives a rather accurate estimate of the number of particles in the excited states, and it is not a bad approximation to simply "tack on" a ground state term:

:$N\; =\; N\_0+frac\{\; extrm\{Li\}\_alpha(z)\}\{(eta\; E\_c)^alpha\}$

where "N

_{0 }" is the number of particles in the ground state condensate::$N\_0\; =\; frac\{g\_0,z\}\{1-z\}$

This equation can now be solved down to absolute zero in temperature. Figure 1 shows the results of the solution to this equation for α=3/2, with k=ε

_{c}=1 which corresponds to a gas of bosons in a box. The solid black line is the fraction of excited states "1-N_{0}/N " for "N "=10,000 and the dotted black line is the solution for "N "=1000. The blue lines are the fraction of condensed particles "N_{0}/N " The red lines plot values of thenegative of the chemical potential μ and the green lines plot the corresponding values of "z ". The horizontal axis is the normalized temperature τ defined by:$au=frac\{T\}\{T\_c\}$

It can be seen that each of these parameters become linear in τ

^{α}in the limit of low temperature and, except for the chemical potential, linear in 1/τ^{α}in the limit of high temperature. As the number of particles increases, the condensed and excited fractions tend towards a discontinuity at the critical temperature.The equation for the number of particles can be written in terms of the normalized temperature as:

:$N\; =\; frac\{g\_0,z\}\{1-z\}+N~frac\{\; extrm\{Li\}\_alpha(z)\}\{zeta(alpha)\}~\; au^alpha$

For a given "N " and τ, this equation can be solved for τ

^{α}and then a series solution for "z " can be found by the method ofinversion of series , either in powers of τ^{α}or as an asymptotic expansion in inverse powers of τ^{α}. From these expansions, we can find the behavior of the gas near "T =0" and in the Maxwell-Boltzmann as "T " approaches infinity. In particular, we are interested in the limit as "N " approaches infinity, which can be easily determined from these expansions.**Thermodynamics**Adding the ground state to the equation for the particle number corresponds to adding the equivalent ground state term to the grand potential:

:$Omega\; =\; g\_0ln(1-z)-frac\{\; extrm\{Li\}\_\{alpha+1\}(z)\}\{left(eta\; E\_c\; ight)^alpha\}$

All thermodynamic properties may now be computed from the grand potential. The following table lists various thermodynamic quantities calculated in the limit of low temperature and high temperature, and in the limit of infinite particle number. An equal sign (=) indicates an exact result, while an approximation symbol indicates that only the first few terms of a series in $au^alpha$ is shown.

It is seen that all quantities approach the values for a classical

ideal gas inthe limit of large temperature. The above values can be used to calculate otherthermodynamic quantities. For example, the relationship between internal energy andthe product of pressure and volume is the same as that for a classical ideal gas overall temperatures::$U=frac\{partial\; Omega\}\{partial\; eta\}=alpha\; PV$

A similar situation holds for the specific heat at constant volume

:$C\_v=frac\{partial\; U\}\{partial\; T\}=k(alpha+1),Ueta$

The entropy is given by:

:$TS=U+PV-G,$

Note that in the limit of high temperature, we have

:$TS=(alpha+1)+lnleft(frac\{\; au^alpha\}\{zeta(alpha)\}\; ight)$

which, for α=3/2 is simply a restatement of the

Sackur-Tetrode equation .**See also***

Gas in a box

*Debye model

*Bose-Einstein condensate

***References*** cite book |last=Huang |first=Kerson |title=Statistical Mechanics

year=1967 |publisher=John Wiley and Sons |location=New York |id=

* cite book |last=Isihara |first=A. |title=Statistical Physics

year=1971 |publisher=Academic Press |location=New York |id=

* cite book |last=Landau |first=L. D. |coauthors=E. M. Lifshitz

title=Statistical Physics, 3rd Edition Part 1

year=1996 |publisher=Butterworth-Heinemann |location=Oxford |id=

* cite book |last=Pethick |first=C. J.|coauthors=H. Smith

title=Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases |year=2004

publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge |id=

* cite journal | last = Yan | first = Zijun | year = 2000

title = General Thermal Wavelength and its Applications | journal = Eur. J. Phys

volume = 21 | pages = 625–631

url = http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/0143-0807/21/6/314/ej0614.pdf | format = PDF

doi = 10.1088/0143-0807/21/6/314**External links**

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