- Outline of ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh.
The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that facilitated the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known ships, Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient Egypt:
Nature of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt can be described as:
Essence of Ancient Egypt
Geography of ancient Egypt
PlacesMain article: List of ancient Egyptian sites
- See also: Architecture of ancient Egypt (below)
- Abu Gorab
- Abu Mena
- Abu Rawash
- Abu Simbel
- Al Fayyum/Atef-Pehu
- Beni Hasan
- Busiris (Lower Egypt)
- Deir el-Bahri
- Deir el-Madinah
- Memphis/Ineb Hedj
Government and politics of ancient Egypt
- Pharaoh An article about the history of the title "Pharaoh" with descriptions of the regalia, crowns and titles used.
- List of pharaohs This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3000 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty
- Ancient Egyptian royal titulary
- Vizier (Ancient Egypt) The vizier was the highest official in Ancient Egypt to serve the king, or pharaoh during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.
- Viceroy of Kush The Lower Nubian Kush was a province of Egypt from the 16th century BCE to eleventh century BCE. During this period it was ruled by a viceroy who reported directly to the Egyptian Pharaoh.
- Treasurer (Ancient Egypt) The treasurer was responsible for products coming to the royal palace. They were the main economical administrator of the royal belongings.
Egyptian lawMain article: Egyptian law
Military of ancient EgyptMain article: Military of ancient Egypt
- Ancient egyptian warfare
- Chariotry in ancient Egypt
- Ancient Egyptian Navy
General history of ancient EgyptMain article: History of ancient Egypt
History of ancient Egypt, by period
- Prehistoric Egypt – The Prehistory of Egypt spans the period of earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt in ca. 3100 BC.
- Naqada I or Amratian culture - a cultural period in the history of predynastic Upper Egypt, which lasted approximately from 4000 to 3500 BC.
- Naqada II or Gerzeh culture - The Gerzean is the second of three phases of the Naqada Culture, and so is called Naqada II. It begins circa 3500 BC lasting through circa 3200 BC.
- Naqada III or Semainean culture - Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqadan period of ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating approximately from 3200 to 3100 BC.
- Early Dynastic Period of Egypt – The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include:
- Old Kingdom – The name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. This time period includes:
- First Intermediate Period of Egypt – This period is often described as a “dark period” in ancient Egyptian history, spanning approximately 140 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from ca. 2181-2055 BC. It included:
- The Seventh and eighth dynasties of Egypt
- The Ninth dynasty of Egypt
- The Tenth dynasty of Egypt
- Part of the Eleventh dynasty of Egypt
- Middle Kingdom of Egypt – The period in the history of ancient Egypt between 2055 BC and 1650 BC. This period includes:
- Later part of the Eleventh dynasty of Egypt
- The Twelfth dynasty of Egypt
- The Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt
- The Fourteenth dynasty of Egypt
Some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate Period.
- Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (Hyksos) – a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as the period when the Hyksos made their appearance in Egypt and whose reign comprised
- New Kingdom of Egypt – Also referred to as the Egyptian Empire is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering:
- Third Intermediate Period – The time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I in 664 BC. This period includes:
- Late Period of ancient Egypt
Main articles: History of Persian Egypt and History of Achaemenid Egypt
- The Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, also known as the Saite Period, lasted from 672 BC to 525 BC.
- The Twenty-seventh dynasty of Egypt The First Persian Period (525 BC - 404 BC), this period saw Egypt conquered by an expansive Persian Empire under Cambyses.
- The Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt consisted of a single king, Amyrtaeus, prince of Sais, who rebelled against the Persians. This dynasty lasted 6 years, from 404 BC to 398 BC.
- The Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt ruled from Mendes, for the period from 398 BC to 380 BC.
- The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of a series of three pharaohs ruling from 380 BC until their final defeat in 343 BC lead to the re-occupation by the Persians.
History of ancient Egypt, by region
History of ancient Egypt, by subject
EgyptologyMain article: Egyptology
- Margaret Benson
- Alan Gardiner
- Zahi Hawass
- Salima Ikram
- William Matthew Flinders Petrie
Museums with ancient Egyptian exhibits
- Museo Egizio, Turin
- Palermo Archeological Museum
- British Museum
- Petrie Museum of Egyptology
- Ashmolean Museum
United States of America
Culture of ancient EgyptMain article: Culture of ancient Egypt
- Art of ancient Egypt –
- Calendar –
- Cats in ancient Egypt
- Cuisine of ancient Egypt
- Ghosts in ancient Egyptian culture
- Homosexuality in ancient Egypt
- Pectoral (Ancient Egypt)
- Symbols of ancient Egypt
- Technology of ancient Egypt –
Architecture of ancient EgyptMain article: Ancient Egyptian architecture
Buildings and structures
- Abu Simbel
- Deir el-Bahri
- Colossi of Memnon
- Egyptian pyramids (List)
- Karnak Temple
- Lighthouse of Alexandria
- Library of Alexandria
- Luxor temple
Religion in ancient EgyptMain article: Ancient Egyptian religion
- Egyptian mythology
- Ancient Egyptian creation myths
- Egyptian pantheon
- Ogdoad of Hermopolis
- Other major deities
- Deified concepts
- War deities
- Other deities
- Religious concepts
- Egyptian soul
Ancient Egyptian languageMain article: Ancient Egyptian language
- Stages of ancient Egyptian language
- Archaic Egyptian – before 2600 BC, the language of the Early Dynastic Period. Egyptian writing in the form of labels and signs has been dated to 3200 BC.
- Old Egyptian – 2686 BC – 2181 BC, the language of the Old Kingdom
- Middle Egyptian – 2055 BC – 1650 BC, characterized the Middle Kingdom (2055 BC – 1650 BC), but endured through the early 18th Dynasty until the Amarna Period(1353 BC), and continued on as a literary language into the 4th century AD.
- Late Egyptian – 1069 BC – 700 BC, characterized the Third Intermediate Period (1069 BC – 700 BC), but started earlier with the Amarna Period (1353 BC).
- Demotic – 7th century BC – 5th century AD, from the Late Period through Roman times
- Coptic – 1st century AD – 17th century AD, from early Roman times to early modern times
- Egyptian writing
- Writing in Ancient Egypt
Publications about ancient Egypt
- Ancient Egypt (magazine)
- Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Practical Guide
- Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt
- The Hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt
- Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt
- Reading Egyptian Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture
- Egyptian calendar
- Egyptian burial rituals and protocol
- Racial characteristics of ancient Egyptians
- Ancient Egyptian race controversy
- Ancient Egypt in the Western imagination
- Ancient Egyptian Boats (First Dynasty) – Abydos
- Ancient Egyptian Deities in popular culture
- Ancient Egyptian Libyan glyphs
- Ancient Egyptian cattle
- Ancient Egyptian units of measurement
- Ancient Egyptians (TV series)
- Architecture and sculptures of Ancient Egypt
- Cities of Ancient Egypt
- Glossary of Ancient Egypt artifacts
- List of portraiture offerings with Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs
- Portraiture in Ancient Egypt
- Ancient Egyptian lists
- List of ancient Egypt topics
- List of ancient Egyptian dynasties
- List of ancient Egyptian palettes
- List of ancient Egyptian papyri
- List of ancient Egyptian scribes
- List of ancient Egyptian sites
- List of ancient Egyptians
- Adjectival and demonymic forms of regions in Greco-Egyptian antiquity
- ^ "Chronology". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chronology/index.html. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
- ^ Dodson (2004) p. 46
- ^ Ward, Cheryl. "World's Oldest Planked Boats", in Archaeology (Volume 54, Number 3, May/June 2001). Archaeological Institute of America.
- ^ Clayton (1994) p. 153
- ^ Kathryn A. Bard, An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2008), 41.
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