name = Musée du Louvre
caption = The Louvre palace (Sully wing, with a part of the Pyramid on the left)
imagesize = 200
map_type = Paris
latitude = 48.860395
longitude = 2.337599
established = 1793
location = Palais Royal, Musée du Louvre,
Art museum, Design/ TextileMuseum, Historic site
visitors = 8.3 million (2007)cite web |last = Sandler |first = Linda|url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601088&sid=aPK0EhcmRyUA&refer=home| title= Louvre's 8.3 Million Visitors Make It No. 1 Museum Worldwide |date= February 25, 2008| accessdate=2008-04-17|publisher=Bloomberg.com]
curator = Marie-Laure de Rochebrune
publictransit = Metro, Palais Royal – Musée du Louvre
website = [http://www.louvre.fr/llv/commun/home_flash.jsp?bmLocale=en www.louvre.fr]
The Louvre Museum ( _fr. Musée du Louvre), located in Paris, is the world's most visited art museum, a historic monument, and a national museum of France. It is a central landmark, located on the Right Bank of the
Seinein the 1st arrondissement (neighbourhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th millennium BCE to the 19th century CE are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square metres.
The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace ("Palais du Louvre") which began as a fortress built in the 12th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are still visible. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1674,
Louis XIVchose the Palace of Versaillesfor his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection. During the French Revolution, the National Assemblydecreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum, to display the nation's masterpieces.
The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being confiscated church and royal property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The size of the collection increased under Napoleon when the museum was renamed the "Musée Napoléon" . After his defeat at Waterloo, many works seized by Napoleon's armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the
Second Empirethe museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and gifts since the Third Republic, except during the two World Wars. As of 2008, the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities; Near Eastern Antiquities; Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities; Islamic Art; Sculpture; Decorative Arts; Paintings, and Prints and Drawings.
Medieval, Renaissance, and Bourbon dynasty
The Louvre Palace ("Palais du Louvre") which houses the museum was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century, with remnants of this building still visible in the crypt.Mignot, p. 32] It is not known if this was the first building on that spot, but it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower. The etymology of the name "Louvre" is also uncertain: it may refer to the structure's status as the largest in 12th century Paris (from the French "L'Œuvre", masterpiece), its location in a forest (from the French "rouvre", oak), or, according to Larousse, a wolf-hunting den (via Latin: "lupus", lower Empire: "lupara").Edwards, pp. 193–94] [In Larousse "Nouveau Dictionnaire étymologique et historique", Librairie Larousse, Paris, 1971, p. 430: ***loup 1080, Roland ("leu", forme conservée dans "à la queue leu leu", "Saint Leu", etc.); du lat. lupus; loup est refait sur le fém. louve, où le *v* a empêché le passage du *ou* à *eu* (cf. Louvre, du lat. pop. lupara)*** the etymology of the word "louvre" is from "lupara", feminine (pop. Latin) form of "lupus".]
The Louvre Palace was altered frequently throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in
French Renaissancestyle.Edwards, p. 198] Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's " Mona Lisa".cite news|author=Chaundy, Bob|title=Faces of the Week|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/5392000.stm|publisher= BBC|date= 2006-09-29|accessdate=2007-10-05] After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed; however, the move permitted the Louvre to be used as a residence for artists. [Mignot, p. 42] [Nore, p. 274]
By the mid-18th century there were and increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery with Lafont Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for the royal collection's display.Carbonell, p. 56] In 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned the display of some of the royal collection in the Louvre. A hall was opened for public viewing on Wednesdays and Saturdays and contained
Andrea del Sarto's "Charity" and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy. The comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the "Grande Galerie"—which contained maps—into the "French Museum". Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum, however none was agreed on. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution.
During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be, "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection in the Louvre became national property. Because of fear of vandalism or theft, on 19 August, the National Assembly pronounced the museum's preparation as urgent. In October, a committee to "preserve the national memory" began assembling the collection for display. [Oliver, p. 21–22]
The museum opened on 10 August 1793, the first anniversary of the monarchy's demise. The public was given free access on three days per week, which was "perceived as a major accomplishment and was generally appreciated". [Oliver, p. 35] The collection showcased 537 paintings and 184 objects of art. Three quarters were derived from the royal collections, the remainder from confiscated
émigrésand Church property ( biens nationaux).Mignot, pp. 68, 69] To expand and organize the collection, the Republic dedicated 100,000 livresper year.Nora, p. 278] In 1794, France's revolutionary armies began bringing pieces from across Europe, such as " Laocoön and His Sons" and the " Apollo Belvedere", to establish the Louvre as a museum and as a "sign of popular sovereignty". [McClellan, p. 7]
The early days were hectic; artists lived in residence, and the unlabelled paintings hung "frame to frame from floor to ceiling".Alderson, p.24, 25] The building itself closed in May 1796 because of structural deficiencies. It reopened on 14 July 1801, arranged chronologically and with new lighting and columns.
Under Napoleon I, a northern wing paralleling the "Grande Galerie" was begun, and the collection grew through successful military campaigns. [Mignot, p. 52] Following the Egyptian campaign of 1798–1801, Napoléon appointed the museum's first director,
Dominique Vivant. In tribute, the museum was renamed the "Musée Napoléon" in 1803, and Spanish, Austrian, Dutch, and Italian works were acquired as spoils. After the French defeat at Waterloo, the former owners sought their return. The Louvre's administrators were loath to comply and hid many works in their private collections. In response, foreign states sent emissaries to London to seek help, and many pieces were returned, even some that had been restored by the Louvre.Alderson, p.25] [Mignot, p. 69. According to Mignot, Mantegna's "Calvary", Veronese's "The Marriage of Cana", and Rogier van der Wyden's "Annunciation" were not returned.]
Restoration and Second Empire
During the Restoration (1814–30), Louis XVIII and Charles X between them added 135 pieces at a cost of 720,000 francs. This was less than the amount given for rehabilitation of Versailles, and the Louvre suffered relative to the rest of Paris. After the creation of the
French Second Republicin 1848, the new government allocated two million francs for repair work and ordered the completion of the "Galerie d'Apollon", the "Salon Carré", and the "Grande Galerie". On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonapartestaged a "coup d'état", ushering in the Second French Empire. Between 1852 and 1870, the French economy grew; the museum added 20,000 new pieces to its collections, and the Pavillon de Floreand the "Grande Galerie" were remodelled under architects Louis Viscontiand Hector Lefuel.Mignot, pp. 52–54]
Third Republic and World Wars
French Third Republicthe Louvre acquired new pieces mainly via donations and gifts. The "Société des Amis du Louvre" donated the "Pietà of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon", and in 1863 an expedition uncovered the sculpture " Winged Victory of Samothrace" in the Aegean Sea. This piece, though heavily damaged, has been prominently displayed since 1884. More than 7,000 works arrived after the acquisition of the Campana, Durand, Salt, and Drovetti collections. The 389 item "Collection Lacaze", included Rembrandts, such as " Bathsheba at Her Bath".Mignot, pp. 70–71]
Museum expansion slowed after World War I, and the collection did not acquire many significant new works; exceptions were
Georges de La Tour's "Saint Thomas" and Baron Edmond de Rothschild's (1845–1934) 1935 donation of 4,000 engravings, 3,000 drawings, and 500 illustrated books. During World War II the museum removed most of the art and hid valuable pieces. On 27 August 1939, after two days of packing, truck convoys began to leave Paris. By 28 December, the museum was cleared of most works, except those that were too heavy and "unimportant paintings [that] were left in the basement".Simon, p. 23] In early 1945, after the liberation of France, art began returning to the Louvre. [Simon, p. 177]
The "Musée du Louvre" contains more than 380,000 objects and displays 35,000 works of art in eight curatorial departments with more than convert|60600|m2|sqft dedicated to the permanent collection. [cite web | title = Œuvres | publisher = Musée du Louvre | url = http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/alaune.jsp?bmLocale=fr_FR | accessdate = 2008-04-27 ] The Louvre exhibits sculptures, objets d'art, paintings, drawings, and archaeological finds. It is the world's most visited museum, averaging 15,000 visitors per day, 65 percent of whom are foreigners. In popular culture, the Louvre was a point of interest in the book "
The Da Vinci Code" and the 2006 film based on the book. The museum earned $2.5 million by allowing filming in its galleries. [cite web |last = Matlack | first = Carol |url=http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/0,1518,568466,00.html |title= The Business of Art: Welcome to The Louvre Inc. |date = 28 July 2008 |work=Der Spiegel Online |accessdate=2008-09-25] [Lunn, p. 137]
The Louvre is owned by the French government; however, since the nineties it has become more independent.Cite news|title=New Boss at Louvre's helm|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/1249145.stm|work=BBC News|accessdate= 2008-09-25 |date = 17 June 2002] [citeweb|title=Louvre, Organization Chart|work=Louvre.fr Official Site|url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/musee/organigramme.jsp|accessdate=2008-05-24] Since 2003, the museum has been required to generate funds for projects.cite web |last = Baum | first = Geraldine |url=http://articles.latimes.com/2006/may/14/entertainment/ca-louvre14 |title=Cracking the Louvre's code - Los Angeles Times |date = 14 May 2006 |work= Los Angeles Times|accessdate=2008-09-25] By 2006, government funds had dipped from 75 percent of the total budget to 62 percent. In 2008, the French government provided $180 million of the Louvre's yearly $350 million budget; the remainder came from private contributions and ticket sales.cite web |last = Gumbel | first = Peter |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1828324-1,00.html |title=Sacre Bleu! It's the Louvre Inc.|work=Time Magazine | date = 31 July 2008 |accessdate=2008-09-25]
The Louvre employs a staff of 2,000 led by Director
Henri Loyrette, who reports to the French Ministry of Culture and Communications. Under Loyrette, who replaced Pierre Rosenbergin 2001, the Louvre has undergone policy changes that allow it to lend and borrow more work than before. In 2006, it loaned 1,300 works, which enabled it to borrow more foreign works. From 2006 to 2009, the Louvre will lend artwork to the High Museum of Artin Atlanta, Georgia, and will receive a $6.9 million payment to be used for renovations. In addition, the opening of the Louvre Abu Dhabi generated further income for the museum. Loyrette has tried to improve weak parts of the collection through income generated from loans of art and by guaranteeing that "20% of admissions receipts will be taken annually for acquisitions". He has more administrative independence for the museum and achieved 90 percent of galleries to be open daily, as opposed to 80 percent previously. He oversaw the creation of extended hours and free admission on Friday nights and an increase in the acquisition budget to $36 million from $4.5 million.
Grand Louvre and the Pyramids
The Louvre Palace is an almost rectangular structure, composed of the square "Cour Carrée" and two wings which wrap the "Cour Napoléon" to the north and south. In the heart of the complex is the Louvre Pyramid, above the visitor's center. The museum is divided into three wings: the Sully Wing to the east, which contains the "Cour Carrée" and the oldest parts of the Louvre; the Richelieu Wing to the north; and the Denon Wing, which borders the Seine to the south. [Mignot, p. 13]
In 1983, French President
François Mitterrandproposed the "Grand Louvre" plan to renovate the building and relocate the Finance Ministry, allowing displays throughout the building. Architect I. M. Peiwas awarded the project and proposed a glass pyramid for the central courtyard. [Mignot, p. 66] The pyramid and its underground lobby were inaugurated on 15 October 1988. The second phase of the "Grand Louvre" plan, La Pyramide Inversée(The Inverted Pyramid), was completed in 1993. As of 2002, attendance had doubled since completion.cite web |url=http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/02_24/b3787627.htm |title=BW Online | date = 17 June 2002 | Online Extra: Q&A with the Louvre's Henri Loyrette | work=Business Week Online |accessdate=2008-09-25]
The "Musée du Louvre" contains more than 380,000 objects and displays 35,000 works of art in eight curatorial departments. [cite web |url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/alaune.jsp?bmLocale=en |title=Egyptian Antiquities | publisher = Musée du Louvre | title = 35,000 works of art| accessdate= 2008-09-27]
The department, comprised of over 50,000 pieces, includes artefacts from the
Nilecivilizations which date from 4,000 BCE to the 4th century CE. The collection, among the world's largest, overviews Egyptian life spanning Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom, the New Kingdom, Copticart, and the Roman, Ptolemaic, and Byzantineperiods.Nave, pp.42-43] The department's origins lie in the royal collection, but it was augmented by Napoleon's 1798 expeditionary trip with Dominique Vivant, the future director of the Louvre.Mignot, pp 76, 77] After Jean-François Champolliontranslated the Rosetta Stone, Charles X decreed that an Egyptian Antiquities department be created. Champollion advised the purchase of three collections, the Durand, Salt, Drovetti; these additions added 7,000 works. Growth continued via acquisitions by Auguste Mariette, founder of the Egyptian Museumin Cairo. Mariette, after excavations at Memphis, sent back crates of archaeological finds including " The Seated Scribe".
Guarded by the "Large Sphinx" (c. 2000 BCE), the collection is housed in more than 20 rooms. Holdings include art,
papyrusscrolls, mummies, tools, clothing, jewelry, games, musical instruments, and weapons. Pieces from the ancient period include the "Gebel-el Arak knife" from 3400 BCE, "The Seated Scribe", and the "Head of King Djedefre". Middle Kingdom art, "known for its gold work and statues", moved from realism to idealization; this is exemplified by the schiststatue of Amenemhatankh and the wooden "Offering Bearer". The New Kingdom and Coptic Egyptian sections are deep, but the statue of the goddess Nephthysand the limestone depiction of the goddess Hathordemonstrate New Kingdom sentiment and wealth.cite web |url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/presentation_departement.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211727&CURRENT_LLV_FICHE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211727&CURRENT_LLV_DEP%3C%3Efolder_id=1408474395181077&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500768&bmLocale=en |title=Egyptian Antiquities | publisher = Musée du Louvre | title = Egyptian Antiquities| accessdate= 2008-04-30]
Near Eastern antiquities
Near Eastern antiquities, the second newest department, dates from 1881 and presents an overview of early Near Eastern civilization and "first settlements", before the arrival of
Islam. The department is divided into three geographic areas: the Levant, Mesopotamia, and Iran. The collection's development corresponds to archaeological work such as Paul-Émile Botta's 1843 expedition to Khorsabadand the discovery of Sargon II's palace. These finds formed the basis of the Assyrian museum, the precursor to today's department.
The museum contains exhibits from
Sumerand the city of Akkad, with monuments such as the Prince of Lagash's "Stele of the Vultures" from 2,450 BCE and the steleerected by Naram-Suen, King of Akkad, to celebrate a victory over barbarians in the Zagros Mountains. The convert|2.25|m|ft|2|adj=on Code of Hammurabi, discovered in 1901, displays Babylonian Laws prominently, so that no man could plead their ignorance. The Iranian portion contains work from the archaic period, like the "Funerary Head" and the Persian "Archers of Darius I".cite web |url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/presentation_departement.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211730&CURRENT_LLV_FICHE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211730&CURRENT_LLV_DEP%3C%3Efolder_id=1408474395181111&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500768&bmLocale=en |title=Decorative Arts | publisher = Musée du Louvre |accessdate= 2008-05-20]
Greek, Etruscan, and Roman
The Greek, Etruscan, and Roman department displays pieces from the Mediterranean Basin dating from the
Neolithicto the 6th century CE.cite web |url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/presentation_departement.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211729&CURRENT_LLV_FICHE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211729&CURRENT_LLV_DEP%3C%3Efolder_id=1408474395181112&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500768&bmLocale=en |title=Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities | publisher = Musée du Louvre |accessdate = 2008-04-30] The collection spans from the Cycladic period to the decline of the Roman Empire. This department is one of the museum's oldest; it began with appropriated royal art, some of which was acquired under Francis I.Mignot, pp. 155–58] Initially, the collection focused on marble sculptures, such as the "Venus de Milo". Works such as the " Apollo Belvedere" arrived during the Napoleonic Wars, but these pieces were returned after Napoleon I's fall in 1815. In the 19th century, the Louvre acquired works including vases from the Durand collection, bronzes such as the " Borghese Vase" from the Bibliothèque nationale.
The archaic is demonstrated by jewellery and pieces such as the limestone "
Lady of Auxerre", from 640 BCE; and the cylindrical " Heraof Samos", circa 570–560 BCE. [Hannan, p.252] After the 4th century BCE, focus on the human form increased, exemplified by the " Borghese Gladiator". The Louvre holds masterpieces from the Hellenisticera, including The "Winged Victory of Samothrace" (190 BCE) and the "Venus de Milo", symbolic of classical art. In the galleries paralleling the Seine, much of the museum's Roman sculpture is displayed. The Roman portraiture is representative of that genre; examples include the portraits of Agrippaand Annius Verus; among the bronzes is the Greek " Apollo of Piombino".
The Islamic art collection, the museum's newest, spans "thirteen centuries and three continents".cite web |url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/presentation_departement.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211731&CURRENT_LLV_FICHE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211731&CURRENT_LLV_DEP%3C%3Efolder_id=1408474395181076&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500768&bmLocale=en |title=Islamic Art | publisher = Musée du Louvre |accessdate = 2008-04-30] These exhibits, comprising ceramics, glass, metalware, wood, ivory, carpet, textiles, and miniatures, include more than 5,000 works and 1,000 shards.Ahlund, p. 24] Originally part of the decorative arts department, the holdings became separate in 2003. Among the works are the "Pyxide d'al-Mughira", a 10th century CE ivory box from
Andalusia; the "Baptistery of Saint-Louis", an engraved brass basin from the 13th or 14 century Mamlukperiod; and the 10th century "Shroud of Josse" from Iran.Mignot, pp. 119–21] The collection contains three pages of the " Shahnameh", an epic poem by Ferdowsiin Persian, and a Syrian metalwork named the "Barberini Vase".
The sculpture department comprises work created before 1850 that does not belong in the Etruscan, Greek, and Roman department.cite web |url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/presentation_departement.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211734&CURRENT_LLV_FICHE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211734&CURRENT_LLV_DEP%3C%3Efolder_id=1408474395181113&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500768&bmLocale=en |title=Sculptures | publisher = Musée du Louvre |accessdate=2008-04-23] The Louvre has been a repository of sculpted material since its time as a palace; however, only ancient architecture was displayed until 1824, except for
Michelangelo's " Dying Slave" and "Rebellious Slave".Mignot, 397–401] Initially the collection included only 100 pieces, the rest of the royal sculpture collection being at Versailles. It remained small until 1847, when Léon Laborde was given control of the department. Laborde developed the medieval section and purchased the first such statues and sculptures in the collection, "King Childebert" and "stanga door", respectively. The collection was part of the Department of Antiquities but was given autonomy in 1871 under Louis Courajod, a director who organized a wider representation of French works. In 1986, all works from after 1850 were relocated to the new Musée d'Orsay. The Grand Louvre project separated the department into two exhibition spaces; the French collection is displayed in the Richelieu wing, and foreign works in the Denon wing.
The collection's overview of French sculpture contains Romanesque works such as the 11th century "Daniel in the Lions' Den" and the 12th century "Virgin of Auvergne". In the 16th century, Renaissance influence caused French sculpture to become more restrained, as seen in
Jean Goujon's bas-reliefs, and Germain Pilon's "Descent from the Cross" and "Resurrection of Christ". The 17th and 18th centuries are represented by Étienne Maurice Falconet's "Woman Bathing" and "Amour menaçant" and François Anguier's obelisks. Neoclassical works includes Antonio Canova's " Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss" (1787).
The decorative arts' collection spans from the Middle Ages to the mid-19th century. The department began as a subset of the sculpture department, based on royal property and the transfer of work from the
Basilique Saint-Denis, the burial ground of French monarchs that held the "Coronation Sword of the Kings of France".Mignot, pp. 451–54] Among the budding collection's most prized works were pietre durevases and bronzes. The Durand collection's 1825 acquisition added "ceramics, enamels, and stained glass", and 800 pieces were given by Pierre Révoil. The onset of Romanticismrekindled interest in Renaissanceand Medievalartwork, and the Sauvageot donation expanded the department with 1,500 middle-age and faïence works. In 1862, the Campana collection added gold jewelry and maiolicas, mainly from the 15th and 16th centuries. [cite web |url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/presentation_departement.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211732&CURRENT_LLV_FICHE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211732&CURRENT_LLV_DEP%3C%3Efolder_id=1408474395181114&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500768&bmLocale=en |title=Decorative Arts | publisher = Musée du Louvre |accessdate= 2008-04-30]
The works are displayed on the Richelieu Wing's first floor and in the Apollo Gallery, named by the painter Charles Le Brun, who was commissioned by Louis XIV (the Sun King) to decorate the space in a solar theme. The medieval collection contains the coronation crown of Louis XIV, Charles V's sceptre, and the 12th century "porphyry vase". [Lasko, p. 242] The Renaissance art holdings include
Giambologna's bronze "Nessus and Deianira" and the tapestry "Maximillian's Hunt".Nave, p 130] From later periods, highlights include Madame de Pompadour's Sèvresvase collection and Napoleon III's apartments.
The painting collection has more than 6,000 works from the 13th century to 1848 and is managed by 12 curators who oversee the collection's display. Nearly two-thirds are by French artists, and more than 1,200 are Northern European. The Italian paintings compose most of the remnants of Francis I and Louis XIV's collections, others are unreturned artwork from the Napoleon era, and some were bought. [Hannan, p. 262] Mignot, pp. 199–201, 272–73, 333–35] The collection began with Francis, who acquired works from Italian masters such as
Raphaeland Michelangelo, [According to Giorgio Vasari, Michelangelo's Leda and the Swan, (now lost) was acquired by Francis I.] and brought Leonardo da Vinci to his court.cite web |url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/presentation_departement.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211733&CURRENT_LLV_FICHE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211733&CURRENT_LLV_DEP%3C%3Efolder_id=1408474395181115&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500768&bmLocale=en |title=Paintings | publisher = Musée du Louvre |accessdate=2008-04-23] After the French Revolution, the Royal Collection formed the nucleus of the Louvre. When the "d'Orsay" train station was converted into the Musée d'Orsayin 1986, the collection was split, and pieces completed after the 1848 Revolutionwere moved to the new museum. French and Northern European works are in the Richelieu wing and "Cour Carrée"; Spanish and Italian paintings are on the first floor of the Denon wing.
Exemplifying the French School are the early "Avignon Pieta" of
Enguerrand Quarton; Jean Fouquet's "King Jean le Bon", the oldest independent portrait in Western painting to survive from the postclassical era; [Mignot, p. 201] Hyacinthe Rigaud's "Louis XIV"; Jacques-Louis David's "The Coronation of Napoleon"; and Eugène Delacroix's "Liberty Leading the People". Northern European works include Johannes Vermeer's "The Lacemaker" and "The Astronomer"; Caspar David Friedrich's "Tree of Crows"; Rembrandt's "The Supper at Emmaus", " Bathsheba at Her Bath", and "The Slaughtered Ox".
The Italian holdings are notable, particularly the Renaissance collection. The works include
Andrea Mantegnaand Giovanni Bellini's "Calvary"s, which reflect realism and detail "meant to depict the significant events of a greater spiritual world". [Hannan, p. 267] The High Renaissance collection includes Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa", "Virgin and Child with St. Anne", "St. John the Baptist", and "Virgin of the Rocks". Caravaggiois represented by " The Fortune Teller" and "Death of the Virgin". From 16th century Venice, the Louvre displays Titian's "Le Concert Champetre", "The Entombment" and "The Crowning with Thorns". [Mignot, p. 378] [Hannan, pp. 270–278]
Prints and drawings
The prints and drawings department encompasses works on paper.Mignot, 496] The origins of the collection were the 8,600 works in the Royal Collection ("Cabinet du Roi"), which were increased via state appropriation, purchases such as the 1,200 works from Fillipo Baldinucci's collection in 1806, and donations.cite web |url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/presentation_departement.jsp?CONTENT%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211728&CURRENT_LLV_FICHE%3C%3Ecnt_id=10134198673211728&CURRENT_LLV_DEP%3C%3Efolder_id=1408474395181116&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=9852723696500768&bmLocale=en |title=Prints and Drawings | publisher=Musée du Louvre |accessdate= 2008-04-23] The department opened on 5 August 1797, with 415 pieces displayed in the "Galerie d'Apollon". The collection is organized into three sections: the core "Cabinet du Roi", 14,000 royal copper printing-plates, and the donations of Edmond de Rothschild, which include 40,000 prints, 3,000 drawings, and 5,000 illustrated books. The holdings are displayed in the Pavillon de Flore; due to the fragility of the paper medium, only a portion are displayed at one time.
In 2004, French officials decided to build a satellite museum on the site of an abandoned coal pit in the former mining town of Lens to relieve the crowded Paris Louvre, increase total museum visits, and improve the industrial north's economy. Six cities were considered for the project: Amiens, Arras, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Calais, Lens, and Valenciennes. In 2004, French Prime Minister
Jean-Pierre Raffarinchose Lens to be the site of the new building, called "Le Louvre-Lens". Museum officials predicted that the new building, capable of receiving about 600 works of art, would attract up to 500,000 visitors a year when it opened in 2009.cite news| last = Gentleman| first = Amelia| coauthors =| title = Lens puts new angle on the Louvre| work =| pages =| language =| publisher = Guardian| date = 1 December 2004| url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/dec/01/france.arts| accessdate = 2008-02-27]
In March 2007, the Louvre announced that a Louvre museum would be completed by 2012 in
Abu Dhabi. A 30-year agreement, signed by French Culture Minister Renaud Donnedieu de Vabresand Sheik Sultan bin Tahnoon Al Nahyan, will establish the museum in downtown Abu Dhabi in exchange for €832,000,000 (US$1.3 billion). The Louvre Abu Dhabi, designed by the French architect Jean Nouveland the engineering firm of Buro Happold, will occupy convert|24000|m2|sqft and will be covered by a roof shaped like a flying saucer. France agreed to rotate between 200 and 300 artworks during a 10-year period; to provide management expertise; and to provide four temporary exhibitions a year for 15 years. The art will come from multiple museums, including the Louvre, the Georges Pompidou Centre, the Musée d'Orsay, Versailles, the Musée Guimet, the Musée Rodin, and the Musée du quai Branly. [cite web |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/07/arts/design/07louv.html|title=The Louvre's Art: Priceless. The Louvre's Name: Expensive.|publisher = The New York Times |date=March 6, 2007|accessdate=2008-04-24]
The Louvre is involved in controversies that surround cultural property seized during World War II by the Nazis and under Napoleon I. After Nazi occupation, more than 60,000 articles were returned to France. Nearly 2,000 objects that did not have clear ownership and were claimed by Israelis and Jews were retained by French museums, including the Louvre. In 1997, Prime Minister
Alain Juppéinitiated the Mattéoli Commission to investigate the matter and "according to the government [,] the Louvre continues to hold 678 pieces of [claimed] artwork." [Rickman, p. 294] Napoleon's campaigns acquired Italian and Northern European pieces and antiquities were taken during excavations, particularly in Egypt and the Near East. The Louvre administration has argued in favor of retaining these items despite requests by source nations for their return. The museum participates in arbitration sessions held via UNESCO's Committee for Promoting the Return of Cultural Property to Its Countries of Origin. [Merryman, abstract]
Location and access
The museum lies in the centre of Paris on the Right Bank. The neighborhood, known as the 1st arrondissement, is home to the destroyed Palais des Tuileries. The adjacent
Tuileries Gardens, created in 1564 by Catherine de Medici, was reorganized in 1664 by André Le Nôtre. The gardens house the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume, a contemporary artmuseum that was used to store Jewishcultural property from 1940 to 1944.Mroue, p. 176]
The Louvre is slightly askew of the
axe historique(Historic Axis), a roughly eight-kilometre (five-mile) architectural line bisecting the city. It begins on the east in the Louvre courtyard and runs west along the Champs-Élysées. In 1871, the burning of the Tuileries Palace by the Paris Communerevealed that the Louvre was slightly askew of the "Axe" despite past appearances to the contrary. [Rogers, p. 159] The Louvre can be reached by the Palais Royal – Musée du Louvre Métro or the Louvre-Rivoli stations. [citeweb|url=http://www.louvre.fr/llv/pratique/venir.jsp|title=How to get here|work=Louvre Museum|accessdate=2008-09-28]
American Friends of the Louvre
Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France
List of museums in Paris
List of works in the Louvre
Musée de la Mode et du Textile
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