Rose Bowl Game

Rose Bowl Game
Rose Bowl Game
"The Granddaddy of Them All"
2011 Rose Bowl game logo
Stadium Rose Bowl
Location Pasadena, California
Previous stadiums Tournament Park
(1902, 1916–1922)
Duke Stadium, now Wallace Wade Stadium
Previous locations Durham, North Carolina
Operated 1902, 1916-present
Conference tie-ins Big Ten, Pac-12[2]
Previous conference tie-ins Pacific Coast
Payout US$18,000,000 (As of 2009)[3]
* AT&T (1999–2002)
* Sony/PlayStation 2 (2003)
* Citi (2004–2010)
* Vizio (2011-2014)
Former names
* Tournament East-West football game (1902–1922)
* The Rose Bowl Game (1923–1998)
* The Rose Bowl Game presented by AT&T (1999–2002)
* The Rose Bowl Game presented by PlayStation 2 (2003)
* The Rose Bowl Game presented by Citi (2004–2010)
* The Rose Bowl Game presented by Vizio (2011–)
2011 matchup
TCU vs. Wisconsin (TCU 21 Wisconsin 19)
2012 matchup
(January 2, 2012)

The Rose Bowl (officially the Rose Bowl Game presented by Vizio for sponsorship purposes) is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California.[1] When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is played on Monday, January 2. The Rose Bowl is nicknamed "The Granddaddy of Them All" because it is the oldest bowl game. It was first played in 1902, and continuously since 1916. Since 1945, it has been the highest attended college football bowl game.[4] It is a part of the Tournament of Roses "America's New Year Celebration", which also includes the historic Tournament of Roses Parade.

In 2002 and 2006 (2001 and 2005 seasons), the Rose Bowl game was also the BCS National Championship Game. In the current BCS alignment, the Rose Bowl will host the designated Big Ten and Pacific-12 conference representatives unless they are involved in the national championship game. Rose Bowl game representative teams from the Big Ten and Pacific-12 conferences are chosen by the specific rules for each conference. Tiebreaker rules exist when multiple teams tie for the conference championship.[5][6]

Except in the years when the Rose Bowl served as the BCS National Championship Game, the Rose Bowl Game has continued to be played in the afternoon. The Tournament of Roses was the host of the 2010 BCS National Championship Game between the Alabama Crimson Tide against the Texas Longhorns in a separate game that was held on January 7 with Alabama emerging victorious, 37–21. The 96th Rose Bowl Game was held on January 1, 2010, a week before the BCS National Championship. Played at a traditional time, the game pitted the Ohio State Buckeyes and the Oregon Ducks, with the Buckeyes winning, 26–17. In the most recent Rose Bowl Game, played January 1, 2011, the TCU Horned Frogs defeated the Wisconsin Badgers, 21–19.

On September 8, 2011, Executive Director P. Scott McKibben resigned for personal reasons. William B. Flinn, the Tournament’s longstanding chief operating officer, assumes the role of interim executive director.[7]



Originally titled the "Tournament East-West football game," the first Rose Bowl was played on January 1, 1902, starting the tradition of New Year's Day bowl games. The inaugural game featured Fielding H. Yost's dominating 1901 Michigan team, representing the East, which crushed a previously 3-1-2 team from Stanford University, representing the West, by a score of 49–0 after Stanford quit in the third quarter. Michigan finished the season 11–0 and was crowned the national champion. Yost had been Stanford's coach the previous year. The game was so lopsided that for the next 15 years, the Tournament of Roses officials ran chariot races, ostrich races, and other various events instead of football.[8] But, on New Year's Day 1916 football returned to stay as The State College of Washington (now Washington State University) defeated Brown University in the first annual Rose Bowl with that explicit name. The Rose Bowl football game was added in 1902 to help fund the cost of the parade.[9]

Tournament Park and Rose Bowl stadium

Before the Rose Bowl was built for the January 1, 1923 match, games were played in Pasadena's Tournament Park, approximately three miles southeast of the current Rose Bowl stadium near the campus of Caltech. Tournament Park was determined to be unsuitable for the larger and larger crowds gathering to watch the game and a new, permanent home for the game was commissioned.

The very first Rose Bowl Game at Tournament park in 1902

The Rose Bowl stadium, designed after the Yale Bowl in New Haven, then hosted the first "Rose Bowl" game in 1923. The name of the stadium was alternatively "Tournament of Roses Stadium" or "Tournament of Roses Bowl", until being settled as "Rose Bowl" before the 1923 Rose Bowl game.[10]

The stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its original construction in 1922. For many years, the Rose Bowl stadium had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, eventually being surpassed by Michigan Stadium in 1998.[11][12] The maximum stated seating capacity was 104,594 from 1972 to 1997. Capacity was lowered following the 1998 Rose Bowl. The 2006 Rose Bowl game, which was also the BCS championship game, had a crowd of 93,986; and a crowd of 94,118 saw the 2011 Rose Bowl game between TCU and Wisconsin.[13] As of 2008, the Rose Bowl is number eight on the List of American football stadiums by capacity with a current official seating capacity of 92,542, and is still the largest stadium that hosts post-season bowl games.[14] The Rose Bowl is also the only BCS bowl game that is held in a non-NFL stadium.

Team selection 1916–1946

In the game’s early years, except during World War I, the Rose Bowl always pitted a team—not necessarily the conference champion—from the Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), the predecessor of the current Pacific-12 Conference, against an opponent from the Eastern U.S. During the last two years of World War I, teams from military bases met in the Rose Bowl. During its history, a number of notable matchups have been made with the top football teams and top coaches of the time. These include the 1925 Rose Bowl, featuring Knute Rockne's Notre Dame team against “Pop” Warner’s Stanford team; the 1926 Rose Bowl, featuring Alabama Crimson Tide’s win over Washington (the first southeastern team to beat a northern team); and the 1940 Rose Bowl, featuring Howard Jones’ USC Trojans against Bob Neyland’s Tennessee Volunteers. During this period, there were ten games matching two undefeated teams.

1942 venue change to Durham, North Carolina

After the United States declared war on Japan on December 8, 1941, as part of the American reaction to the attack on Pearl Harbor, there were concerns about a possible Japanese attack on the West Coast. Much discussion focused on the possibility of an attack where any crowds might gather. The Rose parade with a million watchers, and the Rose Bowl with 90,000 spectators, were presumed to be ideal targets for the Japanese. Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt recommended that the Rose Parade and Rose Bowl festivities be canceled.[15][16][17] The Rose Bowl committee originally planned to cancel the game. On December 16, 1941, Duke University invited the game and Oregon State to Duke's home stadium in Durham, North Carolina.[18][19]

Big Nine – PCC agreement

During World War II, many college football schools had dropped some conference opponents and instead played football against local military base teams. Many colleges could not even field teams due to the draft and manpower requirements.[20] After the war was over, demobilization and the G.I. Bill enabled returning servicemen to attend college. The 1946 season was the first true post-war college football season with travel restrictions lifted and civilian college opponents returning to schedules.

The Big Nine and PCC were of the same accord when it came to treating players as amateurs, as compared to the semi-professional status that the Southern Universities proposed. Also, the Big Nine and PCC both had the same attitudes towards desegregation and allowing African-Americans to play football.[21] Many other universities were still segregated. None of the Southeastern Conference schools had an African American athlete until 1966. The Cotton Bowl, Orange Bowl, and Sugar Bowl would not be integrated until 1948, 1955, and 1956 respectively.[22]

The Big Nine agreed, after eight years of negotiating over payments, rules, and ticket allocations, to a five-year exclusive deal with the Rose Bowl to send the conference champion to meet the PCC conference champion.[23] UCLA, USC, Minnesota and Illinois all voted against it.[24]

Big Ten – AAWU/Pac-8/10 agreement

When the PCC dissolved in 1959 following a pay-for-play scandal, there was no official agreement in force. The Tournament of Roses invited the ex-PCC champion to play the Big Ten champion to the 1960 Rose Bowl. The Big Ten authorized its members to accept any Rose Bowl invitation at their discretion. Ohio State exercised this discretion and declined the invitation to play in the 1962 Rose Bowl, in which the Minnesota Golden Gophers played instead.

The successor to the PCC, the Athletic Association of Western Universities, signed an agreement with the Rose Bowl that remained in force from the 1961 Rose Bowl onwards.

In 1962, after Minnesota changed its vote against pursuing a new agreement (resolving a 5-5 voting deadlock which had prevented any new negotiations for years) a Big Ten agreement with the Rose Bowl and the AAWU was finalized in 1962, which went into effect with the 1963 Rose Bowl.

While the Big Ten had supplied the "East" representative and the PCC, AAWU, or Pac-8/10 had supplied the "West" representative from the 1947 Rose Bowl to the BCS era, there was no formal agreement for the Big Ten to do this for the 1961 and 1962 games, and the 1960 game agreement status is murky, as one of the parties to the agreement (the PCC) no longer existed in the 1959 season. Statements about an "exclusive" Rose Bowl agreement existing from 1947 until the BCS era are not entirely accurate: the Big Ten was not part of any agreement for the 1961 and 1962 games and the status of the agreement for 1960 is murky at best. The fact that the 1961 Big Ten champion, Ohio State, declined the invitation to play in the 1962 Rose Bowl is the clearest evidence that this "exclusive agreement" did not exist in these years.

The AAWU, which used "Big Five", "Big Six", and "Pacific-8" as unofficial nicknames (each reflecting the number of conference members) through the 1967 football season, officially adopted the Pacific-8 name starting with the 1968 season. The name changed to Pacific-10 with the arrival of Arizona and Arizona State in 1978, and Pacific-12 when Colorado and Utah joined in 2011.

Both conferences had a "no repeat" rule in force for a number of years. Under this rule, any team that had appeared in the Rose Bowl game the previous season could not go again, even if they were the conference champion. The Big Ten abolished this rule in 1972.

Both conferences also had exclusive agreements with the Rose Bowl game, so that teams from the Pac-10 and Big Ten could not play in any other bowl games. This rule ended before the 1975 college football season, when Michigan was invited to the 1976 Orange Bowl and USC was invited to the 1975 Liberty Bowl.

Bowl Championship Series

The Rose Bowl with the banner for the Rose Bowl Game.

Since 1998, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series, team selection for the Rose Bowl is now tied to the other three BCS bowls, although in any given year the Rose Bowl still attempts, if possible, to maintain the traditional Pac-10 versus Big Ten format. Twice in this era, the Rose Bowl has served as the BCS championship game.

The 2002 game served as the BCS championship game between the BCS #1 ranked Miami, then a member of the Big East Conference, and the BCS #2 ranked Nebraska of the Big 12 Conference. The Nebraska selection as the BCS #2 team was controversial because Oregon was ranked #2 in both the AP and Coaches Polls, while Nebraska was ranked #4 in both polls and did not play in its conference championship game (#3 Colorado, who played Oregon in that year's Fiesta Bowl, did and won the Big 12's automatic bid to the BCS). This prevented a West Coast team playing in the Rose Bowl for the first time, and it also marked the first match up since 1946 to not feature the traditional pairing of Pac-10 vs. Big Ten teams.

The 2006 Rose Bowl game featured offensive powerhouses Texas, riding a 19-game winning streak, and USC, which entered the game with a 34-game winning streak and 2 Heisman Trophy winners. Texas won 41–38. The game's television viewership was the highest for college football contest since the 1987 Fiesta Bowl between Penn State and Miami.

On two other occasions during the BCS era, Rose Bowl participation has expanded beyond the Big Ten and Pac-10. The 2003 Rose Bowl couldn't select Big Ten co-champion and automatic qualifier Ohio State, who finished #2 in the BCS and thus received a bid to the Fiesta Bowl to play for the national championship. The Rose Bowl was poised to select Big Ten co-champion Iowa as an at-large in order to preserve the traditional Big Ten/Pac-10 match up. However, the Orange Bowl, which selected ahead of the Rose Bowl that year, chose the Hawkeyes. As a result, the Rose Bowl featured the first appearance by Oklahoma, who faced Pac-10 Champion Washington State. The 2005 game featured Texas of the Big 12 Conference, selected, amid some controversy, over California of the Pac-10, marking the second time a West Coast team did not make the Rose Bowl. The controversy was the result of the BCS computer rankings which elevated Texas over California. Texas went on to defeat Michigan in the 2005 game, featuring a virtuoso 4-touchdown performance by Vince Young, foreshadowing his 467-yard performance a year later in the 2006 defeat of USC that won the National Title for Texas.

The 2004 game is also noteworthy. In this game, USC defeated Michigan, 28–14, thus earning the top ranking in the AP Poll and a share of the national championship with BCS champion LSU (USC, despite being #1 in the AP poll, did not qualify for the BCS championship game because of their standing in the BCS system).

The current Rose Bowl arrangement, which will run until the 2014 Rose Bowl Game, is as follows. The Big Ten and Pac-12 (the new name of the Pac-10) retain their bids. A provision has been inserted the first time that either conference cannot fill their bid, due to a school from the Big Ten or Pac-12 qualifying for the BCS National Championship Game, and if a non-BCS conference school qualifies, the Rose Bowl is required to take that school.[25]

Texas Christian University (TCU) became the first team from a non-automatic qualifying conference to play in the Rose Bowl in the BCS era. The 2010 TCU Horned Frogs finished their second consecutive regular season at 12-0, were back-to-back champions of the Mountain West Conference, and ranked #3 in the final BCS Poll. TCU defeated Wisconsin 21-19 in the 2011 Rose Bowl. TCU's appearance satisfied the 'first time' clause of the current agreement.

Sponsorship and broadcasting rights

Large card stunt[26] performed at the 2004 Rose Bowl Game

For many years the Rose Bowl eschewed sponsorship, but for the 1999 Rose Bowl, the game became known as The Rose Bowl Game presented by AT&T. Unlike the other bowl games, the sponsor was not added to the title of the game, but instead as a presenter.[27] In 2002 it was branded The Rose Bowl Game presented by PlayStation 2. From 2003 to 2010, after the agreement with Sony expired, the game has been presented by Citi.

The 1952 Rose Bowl game was the first nationally televised bowl game and the first nationally televised college game of any sport.[28] From 1952 to 1988, the Rose Bowl was televised by NBC in a 2 p.m. PST time slot, and in most years was the only New Year's bowl airing at that time. The 1962 Rose Bowl was the first college football game broadcast in color. From 1989 to 2010, it was broadcast on ABC, usually at 2 p.m. PST. While FOX had the broadcasting rights to the other Bowl Championship Series games from 2007 to 2010, the Rose Bowl, which negotiates its own television contract independent of the BCS, agreed to keep the game on ABC. The 2005 Rose Bowl was the first one broadcast in HDTV. Beginning with the 2010 season, ESPN, which is majority-owned by ABC's parent company, will have the contract to broadcast the BCS games, including the Rose Bowl game.[29][30]

The game is also broadcast nationally by ESPN Radio and by ESPN International for Latin America.

On June 2010, Citi decided to end the sponsorship of the Rose Bowl games, including the National Championship game.[31] In October 2010, HDTV maker Vizio signed a 4-year contract to be the official sponsor of the Rose Bowl games through 2014.[32]

Frequent participants

2006 Rose Bowl, Texas vs. Southern California; January 4, 2006

USC has played the most times in the Rose Bowl, with 33 appearances, followed by Michigan (20), Washington (14), and Ohio State (14). Alabama, 4-1-1 in Rose Bowls, has made the most appearances of any team outside the Pac-12 and Big Ten conferences.

USC has won the most Rose Bowls (24), followed by Michigan (8), Washington (7), and Ohio State (7). Michigan has lost the most (12), followed by USC (9), and UCLA and Ohio State (7 each).

The most frequent Rose Bowl matchup is USC-Michigan, occurring for the eighth time in 2007, with USC holding a 6–2 advantage. (Including rare meetings outside the Rose Bowl, USC leads this series 6–4.) The next most frequent matchup is USC-Ohio State, occurring for the seventh time in 1985, with USC holding a 4–3 advantage.

From the 1946 season (1947 Rose Bowl), when the Big Ten-Rose Bowl agreement began, through the 1971 season (1972 Rose Bowl), the Big Ten did not permit the same team to represent that Conference in the Rose Bowl in consecutive years. There was one exception: Minnesota played in the 1961 Rose Bowl and 1962 Rose Bowl games. (Several unusual circumstances occurred in the 1961 season: the Big Ten-Rose Bowl contract had been allowed to lapse, Big Ten champion Ohio State was invited anyway, and the Ohio State faculty turned down the bid.)

Also of note, during this era Big Ten and Pac-8 teams could play only in the Rose Bowl; this restriction was not lifted until the 1975 season.

Archie Griffin of Ohio State and Brian Cushing of USC are the only players to ever start in four Rose Bowl games. Legendary coach Woody Hayes led Ohio State to the Rose Bowl from 1973–1976, while USC head coach Pete Carroll led the Trojans to the Rose Bowl from 2006–2009.

The only current member of the old Pac-10 or the Big Ten never to have appeared in the Rose Bowl is Arizona.[33] Idaho and Montana, who were members of the Pacific Coast Conference from 1922 until 1958 and 1950 respectively, never finished near the top in the PCC football standings. Former Big Ten member Chicago withdrew from the league prior to the bowl arrangement being set. New Big Ten member Nebraska has played in two Rose Bowls, but new Pac-12 members Colorado and Utah have yet to appear in one (Nebraska, Colorado, and Utah joined their new conferences on July 1, 2011).

USC has played every current Big Ten school in the Rose Bowl except for Iowa and Minnesota. Michigan has played every school in the old Pac-10 except Oregon and Arizona, as the latter has yet to make a Rose Bowl appearance.

The Rose Bowl was exclusively a Big Ten-Pac-10 affair for 52 years, from 1946 (1947 Rose Bowl) through 1997 (1998 Rose Bowl). While the Big Ten dominated the game in the late 1940s and 1950s, and the Pac-10 dominated during the 1970s and early 1980s, over the entire 52-year span, each conference won 26 games.

The BCS era now covers the past twelve games, starting with the 1999 (85th) Rose Bowl. Since then, of the eight games featuring a Big Ten-Pac-12 matchup, the Pac-12 leads in wins, 5-3, with Wisconsin winning for the Big Ten in 1999 and 2000 and Ohio State in 2010. However, the 2007 (93rd) Rose Bowl and 2008 (94th) Rose Bowl, each Big Ten losses to the Pac-12, actually featured the Big Ten runner-up, as conference champion Ohio State was selected to play each of those years in the BCS National Championship Game.

The 2011 Rose Bowl Game marked the first time that a school from a non-BCS conference played in the game. TCU beat Wisconsin 21-19.

Big Ten and Pac-12 schools

Team Appearances Wins Ties Latest
Southern California 33 24 2009
Michigan 20 8 2007
Washington 14 7 1 2001
Ohio St. 14 7 2010
Stanford 12 5 1 2000
UCLA 12 5 1999
California 8 2 1 1959
Wisconsin 7 3 2011
Illinois 5 3 2008
Iowa 5 2 1991
Oregon 5 1 2010
Michigan St. 4 3 1988
Washington St. 4 1 2003
Penn State 3 1 2009
Oregon St. 3 1 1965
Nebraska 2 0 2002
Minnesota 2 1 1962
Northwestern 2 1 1996
Arizona St. 2 1 1997
Purdue 2 1 2001
Indiana 1 0 1968

Other universities*

Team Appearances Wins Ties Latest
Alabama 6 4 1 1946
Pittsburgh 4 1 1937
Texas 2 2 2006
Duke 2 0 1942
Tennessee 2 0 1945
Columbia 1 1 1934
Georgia 1 1 1943
Georgia Tech 1 1 1929
Harvard 1 1 1920
Miami (FL) 1 1 2002
Notre Dame 1 1 1925
Oklahoma 1 1 2003
Texas Christian 1 1 2011
Navy 1 0 1 1924
Brown 1 0 1916
Southern Methodist 1 0 1936
Tulane 1 0 1932
Washington & Jefferson 1 0 1 1922
Pennsylvania 1 0 1917

In 1918 and 1919 the Rose Bowl hosted football games between military institutions.

Game results

2007 Rose Bowl, USC vs. Michigan; January 1, 2007

Years listed below indicate the January game date; for example, the 2007 game was played following the 2006 football season.
Winners listed first, to left of table. Italics denote a tie game.

Date played Winning team Losing team Notes
January 1, 1902 Michigan 49 Stanford 0 notes
January 1, 1916 Washington State 14 Brown 0 notes
January 1, 1917 Oregon 14 Pennsylvania 0 notes
January 1, 1918 Mare Island - USMC 19 Camp Lewis - US Army 7 notes
January 1, 1919 Great Lakes - US Navy 17 Mare Island 0 notes
January 1, 1920 Harvard 7 Oregon 6 notes
January 1, 1921 California 28 Ohio State 0 notes
January 2, 1922 California 0 Washington & Jefferson 0 notes
January 1, 1923 Southern California 14 Penn State 3 notes
January 1, 1924 Washington 14 Navy 14 notes
January 1, 1925 Notre Dame 27 Stanford 10 notes
January 1, 1926 Alabama 20 Washington 19 notes
January 1, 1927 Alabama 7 Stanford 7 notes
January 2, 1928 Stanford 7 Pittsburgh 6 notes
January 1, 1929 Georgia Tech 8 California 7 notes
January 1, 1930 Southern California 47 Pittsburgh 14 notes
January 1, 1931 Alabama 24 Washington State 0 notes
January 1, 1932 Southern California 21 Tulane 12 notes
January 2, 1933 Southern California 35 Pittsburgh 0 notes
January 1, 1934 Columbia 7 Stanford 0 notes
January 1, 1935 Alabama 29 Stanford 13 notes
January 1, 1936 Stanford 7 SMU 0 notes
January 1, 1937 Pittsburgh 21 Washington 0 notes
January 1, 1938 California 13 Alabama 0 notes
January 2, 1939 Southern California 7 Duke 3 notes
January 1, 1940 Southern California 14 Tennessee 0 notes
January 1, 1941 Stanford 21 Nebraska 13 notes
January 1, 1942** Oregon State 20 Duke 16 notes
January 1, 1943 Georgia 9 UCLA 0 notes
January 1, 1944 Southern California 29 Washington 0 notes
January 1, 1945 Southern California 25 Tennessee 0 notes
January 1, 1946 Alabama 34 Southern California 14 notes
January 1, 1947 Illinois 45 UCLA 14 notes
January 1, 1948 Michigan 49 Southern California 0 notes
January 1, 1949 Northwestern 20 California 14 notes
January 2, 1950 Ohio State 17 California 14 notes
January 1, 1951 Michigan 14 California 6 notes
January 1, 1952 Illinois 40 Stanford 7 notes
January 1, 1953 Southern California 7 Wisconsin 0 notes
January 1, 1954 Michigan State 28 UCLA 20 notes
January 1, 1955 Ohio State 20 Southern California 7 notes
January 2, 1956 Michigan State 17 UCLA 14 notes
January 1, 1957 Iowa 35 Oregon State 19 notes
January 1, 1958 Ohio State 10 Oregon 7 notes
January 1, 1959 Iowa 38 California 12 notes
January 1, 1960 Washington 44 Wisconsin 8 notes
January 2, 1961 Washington 17 Minnesota 7 notes
January 1, 1962 Minnesota 21 UCLA 3 notes
January 1, 1963 Southern California 42 Wisconsin 37 notes
January 1, 1964 Illinois 17 Washington 7 notes
January 1, 1965 Michigan 34 Oregon State 7 notes
January 1, 1966 UCLA 14 Michigan State 12 notes
January 2, 1967 Purdue 14 Southern California 13 notes
January 1, 1968 Southern California 14 Indiana 3 notes
January 1, 1969 Ohio State 27 Southern California 16 notes
January 1, 1970 Southern California 10 Michigan 3 notes
January 1, 1971 Stanford 27 Ohio State 17 notes
January 1, 1972 Stanford 13 Michigan 12 notes
January 1, 1973 Southern California 42 Ohio State 17 notes
January 1, 1974 Ohio State 42 Southern California 21 notes
January 1, 1975 Southern California 18 Ohio State 17 notes
January 1, 1976 UCLA 23 Ohio State 10 notes
January 1, 1977 Southern California 14 Michigan 6 notes
January 2, 1978 Washington 27 Michigan 20 notes
January 1, 1979 Southern California 17 Michigan 10 notes
January 1, 1980 Southern California 17 Ohio State 16 notes
January 1, 1981 Michigan 23 Washington 6 notes
January 1, 1982 Washington 28 Iowa 0 notes
January 1, 1983 UCLA 24 Michigan 14 notes
January 2, 1984 UCLA 45 Illinois 9 notes
January 1, 1985 Southern California 20 Ohio State 17 notes
January 1, 1986 UCLA 45 Iowa 28 notes
January 1, 1987 Arizona State 22 Michigan 15 notes
January 1, 1988 Michigan State 20 Southern California 17 notes
January 2, 1989 Michigan 22 Southern California 14 notes
January 1, 1990 Southern California 17 Michigan 10 notes
January 1, 1991 Washington 46 Iowa 34 notes
January 1, 1992 Washington 34 Michigan 14 notes
January 1, 1993 Michigan 38 Washington 31 notes
January 1, 1994 Wisconsin 21 UCLA 16 notes
January 2, 1995 Penn State 38 Oregon 20 notes
January 1, 1996 Southern California 41 Northwestern 32 notes
January 1, 1997 Ohio State 20 Arizona State 17 notes
January 1, 1998 Michigan 21 Washington State 16 notes
January 1, 1999 Wisconsin 38 UCLA 31 notes
January 1, 2000 Wisconsin 17 Stanford 9 notes
January 1, 2001 Washington 34 Purdue 24 notes
January 3, 2002* Miami (FL) 37 Nebraska 14 notes
January 1, 2003 Oklahoma 34 Washington State 14 notes
January 1, 2004 Southern California 28 Michigan 14 notes
January 1, 2005 Texas 38 Michigan 37 notes
January 4, 2006* Texas 41 Southern California 38 notes
January 1, 2007 Southern California 32 Michigan 18 notes
January 1, 2008 Southern California 49 Illinois 17 notes
January 1, 2009 Southern California 38 Penn State 24 notes
January 1, 2010 Ohio State 26 Oregon 17 notes
January 1, 2011 TCU 21 Wisconsin 19 notes

* Denotes BCS National Championship Game
** Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the 1942 game was moved to Duke University's Wallace Wade Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, as officials were wary of allowing such a large crowd to congregate anywhere on the West Coast due to World War II security concerns.

Rose Bowl Player of the Game Awards

Rose Bowl records at the Hall of Champions

The most valuable player in the Rose Bowl game is given a crystal trophy that is the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award. The award was created in 1953 and awarded retroactively for players all the way back to the 1902 Rose Bowl. Occasionally, the award has been shared by two players. Beginning with the 2005 Rose Bowl Game, the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award has been given to both offensive and defensive players of the game.[34]

Year played MVP Team Position
1902 Neil Snow Michigan FB
1916 Carl Dietz Washington State FB
1917 John Beckett Oregon T
1918 Hollis Huntington Mare Island FB
1919 George Halas Great Lakes E
1920 Edward Casey Harvard HB
1921 Harold Muller California E
1922 Russell Stein Washington & Jefferson T
1923 Leo Calland USC G
1924 Ira McKee Navy QB
1925 Elmer Layden Notre Dame FB
Ernie Nevers Stanford FB
1926 Johnny Mack Brown Alabama HB
George "Wildcat" Wilson Washington HB
1927 Fred Pickhard Alabama T
1928 Clifford "Biff" Hoffman Stanford FB
1929 Benjamin Lom California HB
1930 Russell Saunders USC QB
1931 John "Monk" Campbell Alabama QB
1932 Erny Pinckert USC HB
1933 Homer Griffith USC QB
1934 Cliff Montgomery Columbia QB
1935 Millard "Dixie" Howell Alabama HB
1936 James "Monk" Moscrip Stanford E
Keith Topping Stanford E
1937 Bill Daddio Pittsburgh E
1938 Victor Bottari California HB
1939 Doyle Nave USC QB
Al Krueger USC E
1940 Ambrose Schindler USC QB
1941 Peter Kmetovic Stanford HB
1942 Donald Durdan Oregon State HB
1943 Charles Trippi Georgia HB
1944 Norman Verry USC G
1945 Jim Hardy USC QB
1946 Harry Gilmer Alabama HB
1947 Claude "Buddy" Young Illinois HB
Julius Rykovich Illinois HB
1948 Bob Chappuis Michigan HB
1949 Frank Aschenbrenner Northwestern HB
1950 Fred "Curly" Morrison Ohio State FB
1951 Don Dufek Michigan FB
1952 William Tate Illinois HB
1953 Rudy Bukich USC QB
1954 Billy Wells Michigan State HB
1955 Dave Leggett Ohio State QB
1956 Walter Kowalczyk Michigan State HB
1957 Kenneth Ploen Iowa QB
1958 Jack Crabtree Oregon QB
1959 Bob Jeter Iowa HB
1960 Bob Schloredt Washington QB
George Fleming Washington HB
1961 Bob Schloredt Washington QB
1962 Sandy Stephens Minnesota QB
1963 Pete Beathard USC QB
Ron Vander Kelen Wisconsin QB
1964 Jim Grabowski Illinois FB
1965 Mel Anthony Michigan FB
1966 Bob Stiles UCLA DB
1967 John Charles Purdue DB
1968 O.J. Simpson USC TB
1969 Rex Kern Ohio State QB
1970 Bob Chandler USC FL
1971 Jim Plunkett Stanford QB
1972 Don Bunce Stanford QB
1973 Sam Cunningham USC FB
1974 Cornelius Greene Ohio State QB
1975 Pat Haden USC QB
John McKay, Jr. USC SE
1976 John Sciarra UCLA QB
1977 Vince Evans USC QB
1978 Warren Moon Washington QB
1979 Charles White USC TB
Rick Leach Michigan QB
1980 Charles White USC TB
1981 Butch Woolfolk Michigan RB
1982 Jacque Robinson Washington RB
1983 Don Rogers UCLA FS
Tom Ramsey UCLA QB
1984 Rick Neuheisel UCLA QB
1985 Tim Green USC QB
Jack Del Rio USC LB
1986 Eric Ball UCLA TB
1987 Jeff Van Raaphorst Arizona State QB
1988 Percy Snow Michigan State LB
1989 Leroy Hoard Michigan FB
1990 Ricky Ervins USC TB
1991 Mark Brunell Washington QB
1992 Steve Emtman Washington DT
Billy Joe Hobert Washington QB
1993 Tyrone Wheatley Michigan RB
1994 Brent Moss Wisconsin RB
1995 Danny O'Neil Oregon QB
Ki-Jana Carter Penn State RB
1996 Keyshawn Johnson USC WR
1997 Joe Germaine Ohio State QB
1998 Brian Griese Michigan QB
1999 Ron Dayne Wisconsin RB
2000 Ron Dayne Wisconsin RB
2001 Marques Tuiasosopo Washington QB
2002 Ken Dorsey Miami QB
Andre Johnson Miami WR
2003 Nate Hybl Oklahoma QB
2004 Matt Leinart USC QB
2005 Vince Young Texas QB
LaMarr Woodley Michigan LB
2006 Vince Young Texas QB
Michael Huff Texas S
2007 Dwayne Jarrett USC WR
Brian Cushing USC OLB
2008 John David Booty USC QB
Rey Maualuga USC LB
2009 Mark Sanchez USC QB
Kaluka Maiava USC LB
2010 Terrelle Pryor Ohio State QB
Kenny Rowe Oregon DE
2011 Andy Dalton TCU QB
Tank Carder TCU LB

Game records

Team Performance vs. opponent Year
Most points scored 49, USC vs. Illinois (tied with 2 others) 2008
Fewest points allowed 0, Washington vs. Iowa (tied with 17 others) 1982
First downs 32, Wisconsin vs. USC 1963
Rushing yards 503, Michigan vs. Stanford 1902
Passing yards 456, Oregon vs. Penn State 1995
Total yards 633, USC vs. Illinois 2008
Individual Performance, team vs. opponent Year
Total offense 467, Vince Young, Texas vs. USC (59 plays) 2006
Rushing yards 247, Charles White, USC vs. Michigan (39 att., 1 TD) 1980
Rushing TDs 5, Neil Snow, Michigan vs. Stanford 1902
Passing yards 456, Danny O'Neil, Oregon vs. Penn State (41-61-2, 2 TD) 1995
Long plays Performance, team vs. opponent Year
Touchdown run 88, Tyrone Wheatley, Michigan vs. Washington 1993
Touchdown pass 76, Rick Leach to Curt Stephenson, Michigan vs. Washington 1978
Kickoff return 103, Al Hoisch, UCLA vs. Illinois (TD) 1947

Rose Bowl Hall of Fame

Inductees (by year):

Player and coach

Nine former players have come back to coach a team in the game:

  • Bret Bielema: Iowa (1991); Wisconsin (2011)
  • Terry Donahue: UCLA (1966); UCLA (1983, 1984, 1986, 1994)
  • Bump Elliott: Michigan (1948); Michigan (1965)
  • Pete Elliott: Michigan (1948); California (1959); Illinois (1964)
  • Jess Hill: USC (1930); USC (1953, 1955)
  • Rick Neuheisel: UCLA (1983, 1984 – MVP); Washington (2001)
  • John Robinson: Oregon (1958); USC (1977, 1979, 1980, 1996)
  • Bob Stoops: Iowa (1982); Oklahoma (2003)
  • Chuck Taylor: Stanford (1941); Stanford (1952)

Coaches with two teams

  • Hugo Bezdek: Oregon, 1917; Mare Island, 1918; Penn State, 1923 (three teams)
  • John Cooper: Arizona State, 1987; Ohio State, 1997 (Only coach to win the Rose Bowl Game with both a Big Ten and Pac-10 team)
  • Bill “Lone Star” Dietz: Washington State, 1916; Mare Island, 1919
  • Pete Elliott: California, 1959; Illinois, 1964
  • Robert Folwell: Pennsylvania, 1917; Navy 1924
  • Tommy Prothro: Oregon State, 1965; UCLA 1966
  • Wallace Wade: Alabama, 1926, 1927, 1931; Duke 1939, 1942

Game arrangements

Beginning with the 1947 Rose Bowl, the Pacific Coast representative was the home team, and the Big Nine representative was with visiting team. This arrangement would alternate each year. The stadium seating started with the Big Nine representatives in the end zone, but eventually was set with the Big Ten fans and team on the West (press box) side, and Pacific-10 fans and team on the East side. The home team wears their home jerseys, and the visiting team wears the visiting jerseys. There have been exceptions. UCLA wore their home jerseys in the 1962, 1966, and 1976 Rose Bowl games.

From 1947 through 2001, the Big Ten team was the home team in odd-numbered years, and the Pac-10 team was the home team in even-numbered years. In 2003, Washington State was the home team, as a non-Big Ten or Pac-10 school (Oklahoma of the Big 12) was the opponent; the same applied in 2005, when Michigan played another Big 12 school, Texas.

Beginning with the 2002 Rose Bowl, Nebraska was the home team and fans and team were on the East sideline. Since 2006, the home team has been the team with the highest BCS season ending ranking. For the 2005 Rose Bowl, the Michigan team was on the East sideline, Texas was the visiting team and was on the West sideline. For the 2006 Rose Bowl, USC was the home team and Texas was the visiting team on the West sideline. Traditionally, the Big Ten (or its BCS replacement) is on the West side (press box) and the Pac-12 team is on the East side.

The institution with the highest BCS ranking performs the national anthem, and performs first at halftime. Except in BCS championship years, the National Anthem is performed by the band. In BCS Championship years, a performer has been invited to sing the Anthem, the last being LeAnn Rimes in 2006. The Rose Bowl does not have other performers during the halftime show besides the school marching bands. As part of the television contract, a portion of each band's halftime performance is shown on television. Each school and each conference are allocated television spots to advertise.


  • America's New Year Celebration. The Rose Parade & Rose Bowl Game. Albion Publishing Group, Santa Barbara, CA. 1999
  • Samuelsen, Rube - The Rose Bowl Game. Doubleday Company and Inc. 1951
  • Edelman, Joe and David Samson - Useless Knowledge. St. Martin's Press, NY, NY. 2002
  • Big Ten Conference football media guide (PDF copy available at
  • Pacific-10 Conference football media guide (PDF copy available at

See also


  1. ^ a b c The 1942 game was played in Wallace Wade Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, due to a restriction on crowds allowed on the West Coast after Pearl Harbor.
  2. ^ If either conference champion is in the BCS National Championship Game, the champion is replaced by a BCS at-large team.
  3. ^ Tournament of Roses Press Release, December 7, 2008
  4. ^ NCAA Division 1 football records book. NCAA, 2007 Edition, pages 296-302 Major Bowl Game Attendance
  5. ^ Pacific-10 Conference Rose Bowl Tie breaker
  6. ^ Big Ten Conference - Method to Determine Big Ten Conference Automatic Representative to Bowl Championship Series
  7. ^ McKibben resigns from Tournament of Roses top job , Pasadena Star-News, September 8, 2011
  8. ^ Bowl Games: College Football's Greatest Tradition, by Robert Ours, 2004, pgs. 3-4
  9. ^ Mary L. Grady, Mercer Island High School Marching Band to march in 2012 Tournament of Roses Parade, Mercer Island Reporter, September 24, 2010
  10. ^ Huge Flagstaff For Pasadena. Enormous Steel Pole 122 and ½ Feet Long Will Stand in Rose Bowl. Los Angeles Times, December 10, 1922. Monday afternoon at 2 o'clock the new flagstaff of the Tournament of Roses stadium, now called the Rose Bowl, will be put in place with suitable ceremony under auspices of the Pasadena Lions Club, donor of the pole.
  11. ^ The Michigan Stadium Story
  12. ^ University of Michigan Official Athletics site – Michigan Stadium
  13. ^ Tournament of Roses Parade FAQs. In 2006, attendance was 93,986.
  14. ^ Historic information on the Rose Bowl
  15. ^ "ROSE BOWL GAME CALLED OFF", San Antonio Light, December 14, 1941, pB-1
  16. ^ Forbidding Crowds. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941
  17. ^ Zimmerman, Paul - Duke Likely to Play Beavers in Durham. Blue Devils Invite Foes Rose Bowl, Shrine Grid Games Halted as Other Sports Events in Balance. Los Angeles Times, December 15, 1941.
  18. ^ "Rose Bowl Timeline". Pasadena Tournament of Roses. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  19. ^ Zimmerman, Paul - Scene of Rose Bowl Shifted to Durham, N.C. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941. Perpetuation of the annual Rose Bowl intersectional football, classic was assured yesterday when the Tournament of Roses officials and Oregon State College accepted the hospitality of Duke University.
  20. ^ R.I.P. Time Magazine, December 6, 1943
  21. ^ Michael Oriard - King Football: Sport and Spectacle in the Golden Age of Radio & Newsreels, Movies & Magazines, The Weekly & The Daily Press. Published 2004 UNC Press. ISBN 0807855456 Chapter 3:Who cares about reform?
  22. ^ football, gridiron. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Football in the United States - The racial transformation of American football. Encyclopædia Britannica
  23. ^ Big Ten Football media guide (2007 Edition) page 5
  24. ^ ROSE BOWL HISTORY BIG TEN TAMED THE WEST FROM 1947-59. Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), December 30, 1997
  25. ^ Non-BCS teams to get vacated bids
  26. ^
  27. ^ RICHARD SANDOMIR - TV SPORTS; A Private Line for the Rose Bowl. New York Times, January 1, 1999
  28. ^ Gruver, 2002 pg. 48
  29. ^ Disney makes $125 million BCS bid. Variety, November 12, 2008
  30. ^ Reid Cherner & Tom Weir, "Rose Bowl headed to ESPN", USA today, June 12, 2009
  31. ^ Citi out as Rose Bowl sponsor,, June 22, 2010
  32. ^ [1],'', October 19, 2010
  33. ^ "List of Rose Bowl Games from official website". 
  34. ^ 2008 Rose Bowl Program, 2008 Rose Bowl. Accessed 26 January 2008.


  • Gruver, Edward (2002), Nitschke. Lanham:Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN ISBN 1-58979-127-4

External links

Coordinates: 34°09′41″N 118°10′03″W / 34.16125°N 118.16757°W / 34.16125; -118.16757

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