Rose Bowl (game)

Rose Bowl (game)

name = Rose Bowl Game
full_name = The Rose Bowl Game Presented by Citi
nickname = The Granddaddy of Them All
defunct =

image_size =
caption = Rose Bowl logo, 2006
stadium = Rose Bowl
previous_stadiums = Tournament Park
(1902, 1916-1922)
Wallace Wade Stadium
(1942)The 1942 game was played in Wallace Wade Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, due to a restriction on crowds allowed on the West Coast after Pearl Harbor.]
location = Pasadena, California
previous_locations = Durham, North Carolina
years = 1902, 1916-present
previous_tie-ins = Pacific Coast
conference_tie-ins = Big Ten, Pac-10 [If either conference champion is in the BCS National Championship Game, the champion is replaced by a BCS at-large team.]
payout = 17,000,000 (2006)
sponsors = AT&T (1998-2002)
Sony/PlayStation 2 (2003)
Citi (2004-present)
former_names = Tournament East-West football game (1902-1922)
The Rose Bowl Game (1923-1997)
The Rose Bowl Game presented by AT&T (1998-2002)
The Rose Bowl Game presented by PlayStation 2 (2003)
prev_matchup_year = 2008
prev_matchup_season= 2007
prev_matchup_teams = Southern California vs. Illinois
prev_matchup_score = Southern California 49, Illinois 17
next_matchup_year = 2009
next_matchup_season= 2008
next_matchup_teams = Big Ten Champion or BCS At-Large Team vs. Pac-10 Champion or BCS At-Large Team
next_matchup_date = January 1
The Rose Bowl Game is an annual American college football bowl game, usually played on January 1 (New Year's Day) at the Rose Bowl Stadium in Pasadena, California. When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, the game is then played on the following Monday. Nicknamed "The Granddaddy of Them All", the Rose Bowl is the oldest bowl game. It was first played in 1902, and continuously since 1916. Since 1945, it has been the highest attended college football bowl game. [NCAA Division 1 football records book. NCAA, 2007 Edition, pages 296-302 Major Bowl Game Attendance] It is part of the Tournament of Roses "America's New Year Celebration", with the Rose Parade held in the morning.

In 2002 and 2006, the Rose Bowl game was also the BCS National Championship Game. In the current BCS alignment, the Rose Bowl will host the designated Big Ten and Pacific-10 conference representatives unless they are involved in the national championship game. Rose Bowl game representative teams from the Big Conferences and Pacific-10 are chosen by the specific rules for each conference. Tiebreaker rules exist when multiple teams tie for the conference championship. [ [ Pacific-10 Conference Rose Bowl Tie breaker] ] [ [ Big Ten Conference - Method to Determine Big Ten Conference Automatic Representative to Bowl Championship Series] ]


Originally titled the "Tournament East-West football game," the first Rose Bowl was first played on January 1, 1902, starting the tradition of New Year's Day bowl games. The inaugural game featured Fielding Yost's dominating 1901 Michigan team, representing the East, who crushed a previously 3-1-2 team from Stanford University, representing the West, by a score of 49-0 after Stanford quit in the third quarter. Michigan finished the season 11-0-0 and was considered the national champion. Yost had been Stanford's coach the previous year. The game was so lopsided that for the next 15 years, the Tournament of Roses officials ran chariot races, ostrich races, and other various events instead of football.Bowl Games: College Football's Greatest Tradition, by Robert Ours, 2004, pgs. 3-4] But, on New Year's Day 1916 football returned to stay as Washington State University defeated Brown University in the first annual Rose Bowl.

Tournament Park and Rose Bowl stadium

Before the Rose Bowl Stadium was built for the January 1, 1923 match, games were played in Pasadena's Tournament Park, approximately three miles southeast of the current Rose Bowl stadium near the campus of Caltech. Tournament Park was determined to be unsuitable for the larger and larger crowds gathering to watch the game and a new, permanent home for the game was commissioned.

The Rose Bowl stadium, designed after the Yale Bowl in New Haven, then hosted the first "Rose Bowl" game in 1923. The name of the stadium was alternatively "Tournament of Roses Stadium" or "Tournament of Roses Bowl", until being settled as "Rose Bowl" before the 1923 Rose Bowl game. [HUGE FLAGSTAFF FOR PASADENA. Enormous Steel Pole 122 and ½ Feet Long Will Stand in Rose Bowl. Los Angeles Times, December 10, 1922. MONDAY afternoon at 2 o'clock the new flagstaff of the Tournament of Roses stadium, now called the Rose Bowl, will be put in place with suitable ceremony under auspices of the Pasadena Lions Club, donor of the pole.]

The stadium seating has been reconfigured several times since its original construction in 1922. For many years, the Rose Bowl stadium had the largest football stadium capacity in the United States, eventually being surpassed by Michigan Stadium in 1998. [ [ The Michigan Stadium Story] ] [ [ University of Michigan Official Athletics site] – Michigan Stadium] The maximum stated seating capacity was 104,594 from 1972 to 1997. Capacity was lowered following the 1998 Rose Bowl. The 2006 Rose Bowl game, which was also the BCS championship game, had a crowd of 93,986. [ [ Tournament of Roses Parade FAQs] . In 2006, attendance was 93,986.] As of 2008, the Rose Bowl is still number eleven on the List of American football stadiums by capacity, and is still the largest stadium that hosts post-season bowl games. The Rose Bowl is also the only BCS bowl game that is held in a non-NFL stadium.

Team selection 1916-1946

In the game's early years, except during World War I, the Rose Bowl always pitted a team, but not necessarily the conference champion, from the Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), the predecessor of the current Pacific-10 Conference, against an opponent from the Eastern U.S. During the last two years of World War I, Military base teams met in the Rose Bowl. A number of notable matchups were made with the top football teams and top coaches of the time. These included the 1925 Rose Bowl featuring Knute Rockne's Notre Dame team against Pop Warner's Stanford team, The 1926 featuring Alabama Crimson Tide's win over Washington State(the first southeastern team to beat a northern team, and the 1940 Rose Bowl, featuring Howard Jones' USC Trojans against Bob Neyland's Tennessee Volunteers. There were 10 games matching two undefeated teams during this time.

1942 Venue change to Durham, North Carolina

With the United States' entry into World War II, on December 7, 1941, there was concern about an Japanese attack on the West Coast. Much discussion focused on the possibility of an attack where any crowds might gather. The Rose parade with a million watchers, and the Rose Bowl with 90,000 spectators were presumed to be ideal targets for the Japanese. Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt recommended that the Rose Parade and Rose Bowl festivities be canceled. [ "ROSE BOWL GAME CALLED OFF", "San Antonio Light", December 14, 1941, pB-1 ] [Forbidding Crowds. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941] [Zimmerman, Paul - Duke Likely to Play Beavers in Durham. Blue Devils Invite Foes Rose Bowl, Shrine Grid Games Halted as Other Sports Events in Balance. Los Angeles Times, December 15, 1941.] The Rose Bowl committee originally planned to cancel the game. On December 16, 1941, Duke University invited the game and Oregon State to Duke's home stadium in Durham, North Carolina.cite web|url=|title=Rose Bowl Timeline|publisher=Pasadena Tournament of Roses|accessdate=2007-11-05] [Zimmerman, Paul - Scene of Rose Bowl Shifted to Durham, N.C. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1941. Perpetuation of the annual Rose Bowl intersectional football, classic was assured yesterday when the Tournament of Roses officials and Oregon State College accepted the hospitality of Duke University.]

Big Nine - PCC agreement

During World War II, many college football schools had dropped some conference opponents and instead played football against local military base teams. Many colleges could not even field teams due to the draft and manpower requirements. [ [,9171,850785,00.html R.I.P.] Time Magazine, December 6, 1943] After the war was over, demobilization and the G.I. Bill enabled returning servicemen to attend college. The 1946 season was the first true post-war college football season with travel restrictions lifted and civilian college opponents returning to schedules.

The Big Nine and PCC were of the same accord when it came to treating players as amateurs, as compared to the semi-professional status that the Southern Universities proposed. Also, the Big Nine and PCC both had the same attitudes towards desegregation and allowing African-Americans to play football. [Michael Oriard - King Football: Sport and Spectacle in the Golden Age of Radio & Newsreels, Movies & Magazines, The Weekly & The Daily Press. Published 2004 UNC Press. ISBN 0807855456 Chapter 3:Who cares about reform?] Many other universities were still segregated. None of the Southeastern Conference schools had an African American athlete until 1966. The Cotton Bowl, Orange Bowl, and Sugar Bowl would not be integrated until 1948, 1955, and 1956 respectively. [football, gridiron. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: [] . Football in the United States - The racial transformation of American football. Encyclopædia Britannica]

The Big Nine agreed, after eight years of negotiating over payments, rules, and ticket allocations to a five-year exclusive deal with the Rose Bowl to send the conference champion to meet the PCC conference champion. [Big Ten Football media guide (2007 Edition) page 5] UCLA, USC, Minnesota and Illinois all voted against it. [ROSE BOWL HISTORY BIG TEN TAMED THE WEST FROM 1947-59. Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), December 30, 1997] Beginning with the 1947 Rose Bowl game, the game's participants were established as the champions of what is now the Big Ten Conference and the PCC.

When the PCC dissolved in 1959 following a pay-for-play scandal, there was no official agreement in force. The Tournament of Roses invited the ex PCC champion to play the Big Ten champion to the 1960 Rose Bowl. The Big Ten authorized its members to accept any Rose Bowl invitation at their discretion. The Athletic Association of Western Universities signed an agreement with the Rose Bowl that remained in force from the 1961 Rose Bowl onwards. Ohio State exercised this discretion and held the Buckeyes from the 1962 Rose Bowl. The Big Ten later again signed an agreement with the Rose Bowl. The AAWU later became known as the Pacific 8, and eventually the Pacific 10 conference.

Both conferences had a "no repeat" rule in force for a number of years. Under this rule, any team that had appeared in the Rose Bowl game the previous season could not go again, even if they were the conference champion. The Big Ten abolished this rule in 1972.

Both conferences also had exclusive agreements with the Rose Bowl game, so that teams from the PAC-10 and Big Ten could not play in any other bowl games. This rule ended before the 1975 college football season, when Michigan was invited to the 1976 Orange Bowl and USC was invited to the 1975 Liberty Bowl.

Bowl Championship Series

Since 1998, with the creation of the Bowl Championship Series, team selection for the Rose Bowl is now tied to the other three BCS bowls, although in any given year the Rose Bowl still attempts, if possible, to maintain the traditional Pac-10 versus Big Ten format. Twice in this era, the Rose Bowl has served as the BCS championship game.

The 2002 game, between Nebraska of the Big 12 Conference and Miami, then a member of the Big East Conference, was the first matchup since 1946 not featuring the traditional pairing and the first matchup ever without a West Coast team.

The 2006 Rose Bowl game featured offensive powerhouses Texas, riding a 19-game winning streak, and USC, which entered the game with a 34-game winning streak and 2 Heisman Trophy winners. Texas won 41-38. The game's television viewership was the highest for college football contest since the 1987 Fiesta Bowl between Penn State and Miami.

On two other occasions during the BCS era, Rose Bowl participation has expanded beyond the Big Ten and Pac-10. The 2003 game featured the first appearance by Oklahoma. The 2005 game featured Texas of the Big 12 Conference, selected, amid some controversy, over California of the Pac-10.

The 2004 game is also noteworthy. In this game, USC defeated Michigan, 28-14, thus earning the top ranking in the AP Poll and a share of the national championship with BCS champion LSU (USC, despite being #1 in both the Coaches' and AP polls, did not qualify for the BCS championship game because of their standing in the BCS system).

ponsorship and broadcasting rights

For many years the Rose Bowl eschewed sponsorship, but for the 1999 Rose Bowl, the game became known as The Rose Bowl Game presented by AT&T. Unlike the other bowl games, the sponsor was not added to the title of the game, but instead as a presenter. [RICHARD SANDOMIR - [ TV SPORTS; A Private Line for the Rose Bowl] . New York Times, January 1, 1999] In 2002 it was branded The Rose Bowl Game presented by PlayStation 2. Since 2003, when the agreement with Sony expired, the game has been presented by Citi.

From 1952 to 1988, the Rose Bowl was televised by NBC in a 1 p.m. PST time slot, the only New Year's bowl airing at that time. The 1962 Rose Bowl was the first college football game broadcast in color. Since 1989, it has been broadcast on ABC, usually at 2 p.m. PST. While FOX has secured the broadcasting rights to the other Bowl Championship Series games, the Rose Bowl, which negotiates its own television contracts independent of the BCS, has agreed to keep the game on ABC. The 2005 Rose Bowl was the first one broadcast in HDTV.

Except in the years when the Rose Bowl served as the BCS National Championship Game, the Rose Bowl Game has continued to be played in the afternoon. (Starting with the 2006 season (2007 game), there has been a separate BCS National Championship Game.) In 2010, the Tournament of Roses will host the BCS National Championship in a separate game to be held on January 7th at 5:00 P.M. The Rose Bowl Game will be held on January 1, 2010.

Frequent participants

USC has played the most times in the Rose Bowl, with 32 appearances, followed by Michigan (20), Washington (14), and Ohio State (13). Alabama, 4-1-1 in Rose Bowls, has made the most appearances of any team outside the Pac-10 and Big Ten conferences, and even references the game in its fight song.

USC has won the most Rose Bowls (23), followed by Michigan (8), Washington (7), and Ohio State (6). Michigan has lost the most (12), followed by USC (9), UCLA and Ohio State (7 each). Of teams appearing at the Rose Bowl at least 4 times, Alabama and Michigan St. have the greatest winning percentage (0.75), followed by USC (0.72) and Illinois (0.60).

The most frequent Rose Bowl matchup is USC-Michigan, occurring for the eighth time in 2007, with USC holding a 6-2 advantage. (Including rare meetings outside the Rose Bowl, USC leads this series 6-4.) The next most frequent matchup is USC-Ohio State, occurring for the seventh time in 1985, with USC holding a 4-3 advantage.

From the 1946 season (1947 Rose Bowl), when the Big Ten-Rose Bowl agreement began, through the 1971 season (1972 Rose Bowl), the Big Ten did not allow its teams to appear in the Rose Bowl in consecutive years. There was one exception: Minnesota played in the 1961 Rose Bowl and 1962 Rose Bowl games. (Several unusual circumstances occurred in the 1961 season: the Big Ten-Rose Bowl contract had been allowed to lapse, Big Ten champion Ohio State was invited anyway, and the Ohio State faculty turned down the bid.)

Also of note, during this era Big Ten and Pac-8 teams could play only in the Rose Bowl; this restriction was not lifted until the 1975 season.

Archie Griffin of Ohio State is the only player to ever start in four Rose Bowl games. Legendary coach Woody Hayes led Ohio State to the Rose Bowl from 1973-1976.

The only current member of the Pac-10 or the Big Ten to have never appeared in the Rose Bowl is the University of Arizona.cite web |url=|title=List of Rose Bowl Games from official website|] Idaho and Montana, who were members of the Pacific Coast Conference from 1922 until 1958 and 1950 respectively, never finished near the top in the PCC football standings. The University of Chicago discontinued football in 1939, and had their best years in the first decade of the 20th century.

The Rose Bowl was exclusively a Big Ten-Pac-10 affair for 52 years, from 1946 (1947 Rose Bowl) through 1997 (1998 Rose Bowl). While the Big Ten dominated the game in the late 1940s and 1950s, and the Pac-10 dominated during the 1970s and early 1980s, over the entire 52-year span, each conference won 26 games.

The BCS era now covers the past nine seasons, starting with 1998 (1999 Rose Bowl). Of the four games featuring the traditional Big Ten-Pac-10 matchup, the series is tied 2-2. The 2007 Rose Bowl and 2008 Rose Bowl did not feature the Big Ten champion, since Ohio State played in each seasons' BCS National Championship Game and USC, the Pac-10 champion, did not play in the 2005 Rose Bowl but instead played in the 2005 BCS National Championship game, the 2005 Orange Bowl.

Big Ten and Pac-10 schools

* denotes BCS National Championship Game
** Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the 1942 game was moved to Duke University's Wallace Wade Stadium in Durham, North Carolina, as officials were wary of allowing such a large crowd to congregate anywhere on the West Coast due to World War II security threats.

Rose Bowl Player of the Game Awards

The most valuable player in the Rose Bowl game is given a crystal trophy that is the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award. The award was created in 1953 and awarded retroactively for players all the way back to the 1902 Rose Bowl. Occasionally, the award has been shared by two players. Beginning with the 2005 Rose Bowl Game, the Rose Bowl Player of the Game Award has been given to both offensive and defensive players of the game. [ 2008 Rose Bowl Program] , 2008 Rose Bowl. Accessed January 26, 2008.]

Rose Bowl Hall of Fame

Inductees (by year):
*1989 - C.W. "Bump" Elliott, Michigan; W.W. "Woody" Hayes, Ohio State; Howard Jones, USC; Jim Plunkett, Stanford
*1990 - Archie Griffin, Ohio State; Bob Reynolds, Stanford; Neil Snow, Michigan; Wallace Wade, Brown, Alabama & Duke; Charles White, USC
*1991 - Rex Kern, Ohio State; John McKay, USC; Ernie Nevers, Stanford; Roy Riegels, California; Bob Schloredt, Washington; John Sciarra, UCLA; Russell Stein, Washington & Jefferson; Charley Trippi, Georgia; Ron Vander Kelen, Wisconsin; George Wilson, Washington
*1992 - Frank Albert, Stanford; Bob Chappuis, Michigan; Sam Cunningham, USC; Bill Daddio, Pittsburgh; Bob Griese, Purdue; Hollis Huntington, Oregon & Mare Island Marines; Shy Huntington, Oregon; Elmer Layden, Notre Dame; Jim Owens, Washington
*1993 - Frank Aschenbrenner, Northwestern; Dixie Howell, Alabama; Don Hutson, Alabama; Curly Morrison, Ohio State; Brick Muller, California; Julius Rykovich, Illinois; Bo Schembechler, Michigan; O.J. Simpson, USC; Bob Stiles, UCLA; Buddy Young, Illinois
*1994 - Vic Bottari, California; Jim Hardy, USC; Don James, Washington; Bob Jeter, Iowa; Lay Leishman, Tournament of Roses; Pat Richter, Wisconsin; Russell Sanders, USC
*1995Gary Beban, UCLA; Dick Butkus, Illinois; Harry Gilmer, Alabama; Pat Haden, USC; Al Krueger, USC; Doyle Nave, USC; Ted Shipkey, Stanford
*1996Eric Ball, UCLA; Pete Beathard, USC; John Ferraro, USC; Stan Hahn, Tournament of Roses; John Ralston, Stanford; Bill Tate, Illinois
*1997Terry Donahue, UCLA; Jim Grabowski, Illinois; Warren Moon, Washington; Erny Pinckert, USC; Ken Ploen, Iowa; Sandy Stephens, Minnesota
*1998 - Jack Crabtree, University of Oregon; Don Durdan, Oregon State; John (J.K.) McKay, USC; Rick Neuheisel, UCLA; Bill Nicholas, Tournament of Roses; Butch Woolfolk, University of Michigan
*1999 - Al Hoisch, UCLA; Keith Jackson, ABC Sports; Dave Kaiser, Michigan State University

*2000 - Johnny Mack Brown, Alabama; Marv Goux, USC
*2001 - No inductees
*2002 - Ambrose "Amblin' Amby" Schindler, USC; Mel Anthony, Michigan
*2003 - Harriman Cronk, Tournament of Roses; Danny O'Neil, Oregon; John Robinson, USC
*2004 - Alan Ameche, Wisconsin; Rudy Bukich, USC; Wayne Duke, Big Ten; Jim Stivers, Tournament of Roses
*2005 - Richard N. Frank, Lawry’s Restaurants (Beef Bowl); Curt Gowdy, Sports Broadcaster
*2006 - Steve Emtman, University of Washington; Rube Samuelsen, Sports Journalist; Jeff Van Raaphorst, Arizona State University
*2007 - Pete Johnson, Ohio State University; Tom Ramsey, UCLA; Dennis Swanson, Television Executive

Game arrangements

Beginning with the 1947 Rose Bowl, the Pacific Coast representative was the home team, and the Big Nine representative was with visiting team. This arrangement would alternate each year. The stadium seating started with the Big Nine representatives in the end zone, but eventually was set with the Big Ten fans and team on the West (press box) side, and Pacific-10 fans and team on the East side. The home team wears their home jerseys, and the visiting team wears the visiting jerseys. There have been exceptions. UCLA wore their home jerseys in the 1962, 1966, and 1976 Rose Bowl games.

Beginning with the 2002 Rose Bowl, Nebraska was the home team and fans and team were on the East sideline. Since 2006, the home team has been the team with the highest BCS season ending ranking. For the 2005 Rose Bowl, the Michigan team was on the East sideline, Texas was the visiting team and was on the West sideline. For the 2006 Rose Bowl, USC was the home team and Texas was the visiting team on the West sideline. Traditionallly, the Big Ten (or its BCS replacement) is on the West side (press box) and the Pac-10 team is on the East side.

The institution with the highest BCS ranking performs the national anthem, and performs first at halftime. Except in BCS championship years, the National Anthem is performed by the band. In BCS Championship years, a performer has been invited to sing the Anthem, the last being Le Ann Rimes in 2006. The Rose Bowl does not have other performers during the halftime show besides the school marching bands. As part of the television contract, a portion of each band's halftime performance is shown on television. Each school and each conference are allocated television spots to advertise.



*America's New Year Celebration. The Rose Parade & Rose Bowl Game. Albion Publishing Group, Santa Barbara, CA. 1999
*Samuelsen, Rube - The Rose Bowl Game. Doubleday Company and Inc. 1951
*Edelman, Joe and David Samson - Useless Knowledge. St. Martin's Press, NY, NY. 2002
*Big Ten Conference football media guide (PDF copy available at [] )
*Pacific-Ten Conference football media guide (PDF copy available at [] )

ee also

*Roy Riegels
*Great Rose Bowl Hoax
*List of college bowl games
*Tournament of Roses Parade

External links

* [ Rose Bowl Game official site]
* [ Rose Bowl Hall of Fame]
* [ Rose Bowl Game Timeline]

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