Kangaroo Island

Kangaroo Island
Kangaroo Island
Native name: Karta (Island of the Dead)

Map of Kangaroo Island
Location South Australia
Coordinates 35°50′S 137°15′E / 35.833°S 137.25°E / -35.833; 137.25
Area 4,405 km2 (1,700.8 sq mi)
Length 150 km (93 mi)
Width .9 km (0.6 mi) - -57 km (35 mi)
Coastline 540 km (336 mi)
Highest elevation 307 m (1,007 ft)
Highest point Prospect Hill
State  South Australia
LGA Kangaroo Island Council
Largest city Kingscote (pop. 1,200)
Population 4,259 (as of 2006)
Density 0.97 /km2 (2.51 /sq mi)

Kangaroo Island is Australia's third-largest island after Tasmania and Melville Island. It is 112 kilometres (70 mi) southwest of Adelaide at the entrance of Gulf St Vincent. Its closest point to the mainland is 13 kilometres (8 mi) off Cape Jervis, on the tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula in the state of South Australia. The island is 150 km (93 mi) long and between 900 m (980 yd) and 57 km (35 mi) wide, its area covering 4,405 km2 (1,701 sq mi). Its coastline is 540 kilometres (340 mi) long and highest altitude is 307 m (1,010 ft). It is separated from Yorke Peninsula to the northwest by Investigator Strait and from Cape Jervis to the northeast by Backstairs Passage.



Known as Karta (island of the dead) by mainland Aborigines, Kartan stone tools and shell middens suggest that Aboriginal people continuously occupied Kangaroo Island until at least 10,000 years ago when the island separated from mainland Australia due to a rise in sea level. The island apparently remained accessible to watercraft at low tide until the sea stabilised around 6,000 years ago when the Backstairs Passage became too rough. As a result of the complete separation, from around 5,000 to 2,000 years ago the climate gradually deteriorated. Several small campsites dated 6,000, 5,200 and 4,300 years have been found but it is unknown whether these belong to visitors or to a remnant population. As the available technology precludes intentional visits by Aboriginals, a remnant population of up to 200 individuals is the preferred option with the last dying 2,500 years ago which is indicated by signs of the regular burning of vegetation which ceased at this time. Mainland Aboriginal oral history tells the story of the Backstairs Passage flooding.[1]

"Long ago, Ngurunderi's two wives ran away from him, and he was forced to follow them. He pursued them and as he did so he crossed Lake Albert and went along the beach to Cape Jervis. When he arrived there he saw his wives wading half-way across the shallow channel which divided Naroongowie from the mainland. He was determined to punish his wives, and angrily ordered the water to rise up and drown them. with a terrific rush the waters roared and the women were carried back towards the mainland. Although they tried frantically to swim against the tidal wave they were powerless to do so and were drowned."

Theories about the extinction of the remnant population include disease and inbreeding, warfare, climatic change or exodus.[2]

In 1802 British explorer Matthew Flinders, Commanding HMS Investigator, named the land "Kanguroo (sic) Island"[3] after landing near Kangaroo Head on the north coast of Dudley Peninsula. He was closely followed by the French explorer Nicolas Baudin, who mapped much of the island (which is why so many areas have French names). Although the French and the British were at war at the time, the men met peacefully. They both used the fresh water seeping at what is now known as Hog Bay near Frenchman's Rock; the community is now called Penneshaw.

An unofficial community of sealers and others was set up on Kangaroo Island from 1802 to the time of South Australia's official settlement in 1836. The sealers were rough men and several kidnapped Aboriginal women from Tasmania and mainland South Australia. The women were forced to do the work of sealers, amongst other activities. Three Aboriginal women tried to escape and swim back to the mainland; one is on record as having survived the journey.[4] The first ship to arrive was the Duke of York commanded by Captain Robert Clark Morgan (1798–1864).

In 2011, fossils of six compound eyes dated to the Cambrian period (515 million years ago) were recovered from an archaeological dig on the Island. Described as one of the greatest fossils finds in modern history the eyes, similar in complexity to modern day arthropods, had evolved at a time when it was thought creatures still possessed only a very basic vision or proto-eyes.[5]


The biggest town on Kangaroo Island is Kingscote. Originally established at Reeves Point on 27 July 1836, it is South Australia's first official European settlement. It was later suggested that Kingscote could serve as the capital of South Australia, but the island's resources were insufficient to support such a large community, so the settlement of Adelaide was chosen.

Penneshaw, the second largest town on Kangaroo Island, has a population of around 300, and is located on the north eastern tip of the Dudley Peninsula, on the eastern end of the island. It contains the ferry terminal which brings most of the visitors to the island, along with all the necessary freight to sustain the local population. Parndana is the third largest town on Kangaroo Island, and is home to a population of around 150, however most of this population do not live in the town, they are sprawled within a few kilometres. The historic area to the south-east of the township, known as the Research Centre to locals, was home to the research station that was set up in the 1940s and 1950s to research the viability of agriculture in the area, and is still home to a small settlement of about 20 people. American River is the fourth largest town on the Island and is home to about 120 residents. Penneshaw, Parndana and American River each have basic facilities, including a general store and fuel and all are home to hotels. Facilities such as banking and large supermarkets are only available in Kingscote, although all towns have EFTPOS facilities of some sort.

Population and Economy

According to the 2006 Census, the island has a population of 4,259.[6] Population growth has slowed in past years, with the attraction of mainland Australia for younger adults being the key factor in this. Census information indicates the number of residents aged over 55 increased from 24.1% in 2001 to 29.8% in 2006.

The economy is mostly agricultural (wine, honey, wool, meat and grain). Traditionally sheep grazing has been the key element in agriculture on the Island, however in recent times, more diverse crops, such as potatoes and canola have been introduced. Cattle farming has grown as well, with good quality beef cattle being grown in the higher rainfall areas. Tourism and fishing also play significant roles, with the island experiencing over 186,000 visitors per annum (www.tomm.info), and some of the best southern rock lobster being sourced from the island's rugged south coast. Kangaroo Island has South Australia's only eucalyptus oil distillery with oil distilled from the endemic Kangaroo Island Narrow Leaf Mallee.

The island also has 28 wine growers.[7] The first vineyard was planted at Eastern Cove in 1976 and the first wine made in 1982. This was blended with Tolleys Barossa wine and sold from the cellar door of Eastern Cove Wine as KI-Barossa blend. The Florance vineyard was established under supervision of B. Hayes of Eastern Cove, who produced its first wine - Eastern Cove Cygnet - and introduced it at the University of South Australia, 1990. The wine carried a Kangaroo Island appellation label as first wine 100% of the region.

The future of over 19,000 hectares, which had been planted (or due to be planted ) with blue gum for future harvesting is now in doubt following the collapse of Great Southern Plantation Ltd in May 2009.

Ligurian Bees

Kangaroo Island is famous for its honey and for being the oldest bee sanctuary in the world.[citation needed] Ligurian honey bees came to Kangaroo Island when an Italian colony was set up. The bees flourished and are the only surviving Ligurian honey bees after disease killed all Ligurian honey bees in Italy. The Australian and Italian Prime Ministers made laws that the bees would not leave the island or be sent to Italy, because of risk of all Ligurian honey bees dying.[citation needed]

It’s impossible to identify the pedigree of the first two Ligurian hives of bees distributed to Kangaroo Island, one in Easter 1884 and the second in June. However, they were directly linked to the hive Arthur E. Bonney received from Queensland in December 1883. There are several lineage possibilities. Of the first five Ligurian queens Chas Fullwood of Brisbane, Queensland, personally took delivery of in London from Messrs. Neighbour – who presumably sourced the bees from Italy on Fullwood’s behalf – Fullwood retained two in October 1880. By May 1881 he’d increased their number to six. In April 1882 “I have two imported queens still in my apiary besides a number of their daughters that are giving satisfactory results.” In August 1882 Fullwood received five queens alive out of 12 sent from Italy. He may have given two away – possibly to his friend Jas Carroll - for he retained only three of them. A second importation from Italy was made and in August 1883 ten were received alive.

The Advertiser, 24 December 1883, reported “A few weeks since the Chamber of Manufactures forwarded an order to Mr. Carroll, a bee master, near Brisbane, for a swarm of Ligurian bees.” The American Bee Journal, 25 November 1885, stated “Several pure colonies were reared from this one, [the first hive from Queensland] and two of them were sent to Kangaroo Island, where they appear to thrive well.” An almost word perfect report in the British Bee Journal, 1 November 1885, added “They came from the apiary of Mr. Chas. Fullwood.” Whether forwarded by Carroll or Fullwood, the bees shipped to Adelaide must have been sourced from the latter’s importations and/or subsequent breeding activities by either of them.

Bonney’s first hive, ordered by the Chamber of Manufactures, was most likely a daughter or subsequent generation queen bred in Queensland. Knowing Carroll’s long held desire – and failed attempts – to source Italian bees over the previous decade, he would have relinquished Italian born queens only under duress. Fullwood most likely forwarded to South Australia a Queensland born queen for he highly valued the queens sourced directly from Italy, or initially, via England. Bonney quickly commenced queen bee breeding near Adelaide at his Upper Kensington apiary in January 1884. In the South Australian Advertiser, 7 March 1884, Bonney stated “About three weeks ago I divided the original colony, and the Chamber of Manufactures now possesses three good swarms of Ligurians; two of these will probably be ready to send out towards the end of the month.” And on 9 May 1884 “To show that I think highly of the Ligurians, I may say that in March I imported two more colonies from Queensland. … During Easter holidays Mr. Justice Boucaut took one queen [bred and mated in Adelaide] in a full colony to Mr. Buick, of American River, Kangaroo Island.” From the South Australian Advertiser, 1 August 1884 "On June 25 the original hive of Ligurian bees, imported by the chamber from Queensland, was sent safely to Mr. Turner, at Smith's Bay, Kangaroo Island.” [8]

Twelve Ligurian queen bees were subsequently imported from the Italian province of Liguria in October 1885, four of which were to be distributed to residents on the island, however one died so only three were sent, one each to Hog Bay (today's Penneshaw), Kingscote and Cygnet River. Island residents continued to request Ligurian queens and more mainland bred queens may well have been sent, including one to Mrs Willson of Hog Bay some time after July 1886. In October and November 1885, August Fiebig and his son Rudolph took to Hog Bay more than 24 hives of "black" bees, each headed by a Ligurian queen bred on the mainland or containing a mature queen cell, the queen to mate on the island once hatched. By November 1887 another apiary was reported at Cape Cassini. August and Rudolph Fiebig at Hog Bay produced their first batch of Ligurian queen bees for dispatch to customers soon after November 1887.

Kangaroo Island beekeepers claim to have the only pure strain of Ligurian bee in the world. The bees and their sanctuary are a living testament to the pioneering zeal of South Australia's leading 1880's beekeepers. The importation to Kangaroo Island of bees or any honey products is prohibited.

Local government

The Kangaroo Island Council provides local government for the entire island, and was formed in 1996 following amalgamation of the previous District Councils of Kingscote and Dudley. Kangaroo Island is in the federal Division of Mayo, represented by Jamie Briggs, and in the state Electoral district of Finniss, represented by Michael Pengilly, a former mayor of the Kangaroo Island Council.

A 2005 enquiry into the financial sustainability of local government in South Australia, determined that Kangaroo Island Council was unsustainable, due to its large land area, extensive road network, low population and high tourism visitation.[citation needed] A long term financial plan adopted by council includes a rate increase of 2% above CPI for the ten years from 2010.

On 13 May 2010 a new Development Plan was authorised, representing a comprehensive review of Kangaroo Island's planning regulations.[9]

Sea Transport

The Sealink 2000 arriving at Penneshaw.

From 1907 until 1961, Karatta was the prime freight and passenger vessel operating between Port Adelaide and Kingscote.

Following withdrawal from service of Karatta, RW. Miller operated the M.V. Troubridge, in later years as a joint venture with the South Australian Government. M.V. Troubridge was a roll on, roll off vessel of 1996 tons, which utilised specially designed loading gantries at Port Adelaide, Port Lincoln and Kingscote.

M.V. Troubridge operated until 1 June 1987, when it was replaced by the Government run AU$23 million Island Seaway.[10][11][12] Built locally in Port Adelaide by Eglo Engineering, Island Seaway utilised the same loading platforms as Troubridge. Island Seaway was severely criticised as being unsuitable for the Backstairs Passage crossing. Seventy-five sheep and cattle died on the inaugural trip due to carbon monoxide poisoning, and the ship was once described as 'steering like a shopping trolley'.[13] The vessel subsequently underwent a A$1 million refit of its propulsion system in September 1989 which improved its reliability.

Island Seaway began to experience competition from Kangaroo Island SeaLink which began services from Cape Jervis to Penneshaw in the 1980s.[14] SeaLink acquired the ferry service originally introduced by Peter March. His "Philanderer Ferries" pioneered the crossing from Cape Jervis to Penneshaw, with Philanderer 3 being a passenger and vehicle carrying catamaran style vessel. During the 1980s, two passenger only services, Hydroflite H33, and Islander, operated for a short time from Glenelg to Kingscote.

SeaLink has outlasted several competing companies since it began operations. Boat Torque, a Western Australian company, operated Superflyte from 1994 until 1997, sailing from Glenelg to Kingscote. Kangaroo Island Ferries had a short-lived venture with SeaWay, which travelled from Wirrina Cove to Kingscote from September 2004 until February 2005. SeaWay could not handle rough weather as well as SeaLink vessels which impacted the service's reliability. Under different proprietorship, SeaWay recommenced services in August 2007.[15] However, in May 2008, the operator of SeaWay announced suspension of services until October 2008, citing increased fuel prices.[16] In June 2008 the SeaWay's operating company was placed in administration and the vessel advertised for sale.[17]

With the introduction by SeaLink of the Island Navigator, the fate of Island Seaway was sealed, with the service subsequently withdrawn and SeaLink drawing on Government subsidies to operate all freight services to and from the Island. SeaLink now holds a virtual monopoly on sea transport to Kangaroo Island, primarily due to its long term lease of the Cape Jervis berth. Sealink's agreement with the SA Government, expiring in 2024, precludes other operators from utilising the Cape Jervis facility for one hour before, and one hour after any scheduled SeaLink service. Kangaroo Island residents have expressed displeasure with the exclusive arrangement granted to SeaLink.[18]

Air Transport

Guinea Airways operated the first commercial service to Kangaroo Island, commencing in the 1930s. In 1959, the airline was acquired by Airlines of South Australia (ASA), a subsidiary of Ansett Airlines. The airline's final service was on 4 April 1986. ASA primarily operated Convairs, Douglas DC-3 and Fokker F-27 aircraft. A Piaggio P166 was used infrequently in the 1970s, whilst Rossair operated Cessna 402's in an arrangement with ASA to replace the F27's in off-peak times.

Following the withdrawal of ASA, Kendell Airlines (another Ansett subsidiary), operated 19-seat Fairchild Metroliners and 34-seat SAAB aircraft to the Island. Upon Ansett's ultimate demise in 2002, Regional Express (Rex) acquired the Kendell aircraft and continued services which are maintained today.

In competition with the larger aircraft, and generally with more flexible timetables, a succession of smaller airlines from the 1970s tried with varying success to maintain a 'second string' presence. Island Air and Pagas operated briefly in the 1970s, whilst the most successful, Emu Airways, commenced in 1980 and made its final flight in November 2005. Emu flew Piper Chieftain aircraft to Kingscote, American River, Penneshaw and Parndana, before air regulations dictated abandonment of all airstrips except Kingscote. Air Kangaroo Island (formerly Air Transit), flew Cessna 402's to the Island during the 1990s. Keith Stevens operated Albatross Airlines for much of the 1980s and early 1990s.

From 1986 to 1990, Lloyd Aviation operated Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante aircraft, before flying the Irish-made Short 330. For several years during the 1980s, Commodore Airlines (eventually becoming State Air) offered another alternative service. QantasLink briefly operated a service after the demise of Emu Airways, commencing 18 December 2005, but withdrew less than six months later. QantasLink also operated direct flights from Kangaroo Island to Melbourne, the first time the route was operated.[19]

In January 2007 Air South [20] commenced four services daily using Titan nine seat aircraft, but ceased flights in October 2009.[21]

Wildlife and its protection

More than half of the island has never been cleared of vegetation[citation needed], and a quarter of it is conserved in National Parks, Conservation Parks, and five Wilderness Protection Areas.[22] The main protected areas are:

Because of its isolation from mainland Australia, foxes and rabbits are absent from and prohibited from entering the island. Registration and microchipping of cats is mandatory.[23] The Kangaroo Island Kangaroo, Rosenberg's Sand Goanna, Southern Brown Bandicoot, Tammar Wallaby, Common Brushtail Possum, Short-beaked Echidna and New Zealand Fur Seal are native to the island, as well as six bat and frog species. The sole endemic (found nowhere else) vertebrate species is a small marsupial carnivore called the Kangaroo Island Dunnart. The Koala, Common Ringtail Possum and Platypus have been introduced and still survive there.

The introduced Koalas have flourished on the island, to the degree that their preferred food source, the Manna Gum, is currently at risk of local extinction. Koalas have recently been forced to turn to other, less palatable, species. Management methods used include surgical sterilisation and transfer to suitable empty mainland sites. This does not appear to be keeping up with the breeding rate, though, so the only practical solution may be culling. The government is opposed to this though, fearing an economic backlash through tourism boycotts.


Kangaroo Island had a native species of Emu, the Kangaroo Island Emu; however, it became extinct between 1802 and official European settlement in 1836, perhaps owing to bushfires or from hunting by sealers or whalers. The island is also the last South Australian refuge of the endangered Glossy Black Cockatoo.

Kangaroo Island has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area (IBA) because it supports populations of the vulnerable Fairy Tern, the near threatened Bush Stone-curlew, Hooded Plover and Western Whipbird, and the biome-restricted Rock Parrot and Purple-gaped Honeyeater. It also supports over 1% of the world populations of Cape Barren Geese, Black-faced Cormorants, Pacific Gulls and Pied Oystercatchers, and sometimes of Musk Ducks, Blue-billed Ducks, Freckled Ducks, Australian Shelducks, Chestnut Teals and Banded Stilts.[24]


Burn scars show red in this false-colour satellite image

Lightning strikes on Thursday 6 December 2007 caused several fires on the Island. Before being contained on 16 December 2007, over 900 square kilometres (or 20% of the Island) had been burnt, principally within National Park and Conservation Reserves. The most serious outbreak occurred in Flinders Chase, with 630 square kilometres (or 85% of the total Park area) having been burnt.[25]


Remarkable Rocks
Admiral's Arch

Kangaroo Island is one of South Australia's most popular tourist attractions, attracting over 140,000 visitors each year, with international visitors, primarily from Europe, accounting for more than 25% of these visits.[26] Some of the most popular tourist spots are:

  • Seal Bay with ranger guided walks among basking Australian sea lions.
  • Flinders Chase National Park which includes Remarkable Rocks, Admiral's Arch, lighthouses at Cape Borda and Cape du Couedic, and multiple walking trails and camping areas.
  • Cape Willoughby
  • Kelly Hill Caves
  • Little Sahara, huge sand dunes on the south coast.
  • the lookout Mount Thisby (officially designated Prospect Hill in 2002 to honour Matthew Flinders' original naming) with a 360 degree view around the island.
  • Murray Lagoon with its abundant aquatic bird life.
  • Parndana Wildlife Park
  • Kangaroo Island Penguin Centre (formerly Kangaroo Island Marine Centre) at Kingscote.

Shipwrecks and lighthouses

Cape Borda Lighthouse
Cape Willoughby Lighthouse

Numerous ships have been wrecked on the Kangaroo Island coastline, the largest being Portland Maru of 5,865 tons, which sank at Cape Torrens on 20 March 1935. The greatest loss of life occurred with the wreck of Loch Sloy on 24 April 1899 at Maurpetius Bay, when 31 persons were drowned, and one initial survivor subsequently perished. 28 persons were drowned at West Bay in September 1905, when Loch Vennachar was wrecked.[27]

The first lighthouse built in South Australia was erected at Cape Willoughby in 1852. Cape Borda lighthouse was built in 1858, whilst the Cape du Couedic lighthouse was erected in 1906. All lighthouses continue to be operational.[28]


Murray Lagoon

Safe swimming is possible on the northern beaches, such as Emu Bay, Stokes Bay or Snellings Beach, and at Island Beach on the Dudley Peninsula. The south coast has dangerous undertows and is more suitable for stronger and experienced swimmers only.

Kangaroo Island has several organised sporting competitions, including Australian rules football (see Kangaroo Island Football League), cricket, darts, go kart racing, lawn bowls, netball, sailing, softball, squash and tennis.[citation needed]


Little Sahara

The winters between June and September are mild and wet, the summers usually warm and dry. Tempered by the ocean, particularly on the coastline, maximum temperatures in summer rarely exceed 35 degrees Celsius. Average temperatures in August range between 13 to 16 degrees and in February, the hottest month, between 20 and 25 degrees. Between May and September the island receives 2/3 of its annual rainfall, varying from 450 mm in Kingscote to around 900 mm near Roo Lagoon on the top of the central plateau. The wettest month is July.[29]

  • Average Annual Temperature: 11.6 - 19.1 °C
  • Average January Temperature: 14.9 - 23.6 °C
  • Average July Temperature: 8.4 - 14.6 °C
  • Days over 30 °C: 10.3
  • Days over 35 °C: 1.6
  • Days under 2 °C: 0.3
  • Days under 0 °C: 0.0
  • Annual Rainfall: 485.1 mm
  • Average Annual Windspeed: 14.7 - 17.7 km/h

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ A biography of the Australian continent; Karta: Island of the Dead - Kangaroo Island
  2. ^ Rebe Taylor (2002). Unearthed: The Aboriginal Tasmanians of Kangaroo Island. Kent Town: Wakefield Press. ISBN 1-86254-552-9. 
  3. ^ "Transcription of Journal of Matthew Flinders". State Library of South Australia. pp. 170 (23 March 1802). http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/encounter/collection/ocr_text/B12985211_263.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  4. ^ Tony Love (13 December 2002). "Colonial History; In the beginning". The Advertiser: pp. 19. http://hnn.us/comments/5828.html. Retrieved 2007-08-18 
  5. ^ Ancient discovery puts world's scientific eyes on Kangaroo Island ABC News (Australia) 30 June 2011
  6. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Kangaroo Island (DC) (Local Government Area)". 2006 Census QuickStats. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/LocationSearch?collection=Census&period=2006&areacode=LGA42750&producttype=QuickStats&breadcrumb=PL&action=401. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 
  7. ^ Bottled With Pride - Tourism SA, Kangaroo Island
  8. ^ Barrett, Peter (2010) The Immigrant Bees, Volume 5. Caloundra, Queensland
  9. ^ "Development Plan - Kangaroo Island Council". Government of South Australia. 13 May 2010. http://www.planning.sa.gov.au/edp/pdf/KI.PDF. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 
  10. ^ Smith, Andrea (June 2006) (PDF). The maritime cultural landscape of Kangaroo Island, South Australia: A study of Kingscote and West Bay. Flinders University, South Australia. http://wwwehlt.flinders.edu.au/archaeology/research/publications/PDF%20Theses/Andrea%20Smith%202006.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  11. ^ State Library of South Australia. "Loading sheep at Kingscote Jetty". Archived from the original on 2007-09-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20070906063120/http://www.samemory.sa.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=613&c=3553. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  12. ^ Newcastle Regional Museum. "Summary of R.W.Miller & Co.". http://archive.amol.org.au/newcastle/greta/rwmco.html. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  13. ^ Adelaide Advertiser, State Opposition statement attributed to Ted Chapman MP,26 August 1987
  14. ^ Our Company History - Sealink Web Site
  15. ^ "KI Ferries expected to be operating by week's end". ABC News. 30 July 2007. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/07/30/1991481.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  16. ^ Innes, Stuart (22 May 2008). "Fuel price leaves KI ferry high and dry". Adelaide Advertiser. http://www.news.com.au/adelaidenow/story/0,22606,23740398-5006301,00.html. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  17. ^ "Ferry for sale". The Islander. 19 June 2008. http://kangarooisland.yourguide.com.au/news/local/news/general/ferry-for-sale/793244.aspx. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  18. ^ ABC News Online (7 August 2002). "Kangaroo Island residents unhappy about ferry agreement". http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200208/s641804.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  19. ^ "Other News - 10/31/2005". Air Transport World. 1 November 2005. http://atwonline.com/airports-routes/news/other-news-10312005-0309. Retrieved 20 August 2011. "Qantas is expanding its QantasLink regional network into South Australia effective Dec. 18. It will operate 58 flights per week between Adelaide and Port Lincoln, daily service between Adelaide and Kangaroo Island and four weekly services between Melbourne and Kangaroo Island, all aboard Dash 8s." 
  20. ^ "Air South". http://www.airsouth.com.au. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  21. ^ "Air South calls it quits". The Islander. 10 September 2009. http://www.theislanderonline.com.au/news/local/news/general/air-south-calls-it-quits-on-ki-route/1620358.aspx. Retrieved 2009-09-17. 
  22. ^ "South Australian National Parks & Reserves - Kangaroo Island Region". South Australian Government Department for Environment and Heritage. http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/parks/visitor/kisland.html. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  23. ^ "Dog and Cat Management Plan" (PDF). Kangaroo Island Council. 2005. http://www.kangarooisland.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/Dog_and_Cat_Management_Plan_2005_MD_App.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  24. ^ "IBA: Kangaroo Island". Birdata. Birds Australia. http://www.birdata.com.au/iba.vm. Retrieved 2011-07-13. 
  25. ^ The Islander 2007-12-20
  26. ^ Kangaroo Island Tourism Optimisation Model (2005-2006). "Visitor Exit Surveys". http://www.tomm.info/reports_factsheets/visitor_exit_surveys/index.aspx. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  27. ^ Chapman,Gifford D,Kangaroo Island Shipwrecks: Roebuck Society Publications 1972, ISBN 0 909434 01 8
  28. ^ Chapman,Gifford D.Kangaroo Island Shipwrecks Roebruck Society Publication, 1972, ISBN 0 909434 01 8
  29. ^ Bureau of Meteorology, Australia. "Climate statistics for Australian locations". http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_022807.shtml. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 

External links

Coordinates: 35°50′S 137°15′E / 35.833°S 137.25°E / -35.833; 137.25

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