Cross Bronx Expressway

Cross Bronx Expressway

I-95.svg I-295 (long).svg

Cross Bronx Expressway
Route information
Maintained by NYSDOT
Length: 6.5 mi[1] (10.5 km)
Major junctions
West end: I-95 / US 1 (Trans-Manhattan)
  I-87 in Morris Heights
US 1 in Tremont
Bronx River Parkway in Soundview
I-95 / I-278 in Throgs Neck
East end: I-295 (Throgs Neck)
Highway system

Main route of the Interstate Highway System
Main • Auxiliary • Business

Numbered highways in New York
Interstate • U.S. • N.Y. (former) • Reference • County

The Cross Bronx Expressway is a major expressway (freeway) in the New York City borough of the Bronx, conceived by Robert Moses and built between 1948 and 1972. It helps carry traffic on Interstate 95 through the city, and serves as a portion of Interstate 295 toward Long Island; a portion is also designated U.S. Route 1.

The Cross Bronx begins at the Alexander Hamilton Bridge over the Harlem River, where the Trans-Manhattan Expressway continues west across Upper Manhattan to the George Washington Bridge. While I-95 leaves at the Bruckner Interchange in Throgs Neck, following the Bruckner Expressway and New England Thruway to Connecticut, the Cross Bronx Expressway Extension continues east, carrying I-295 to the merge with the Throgs Neck Expressway near the Throgs Neck Bridge.

The Cross Bronx Expressway was an engineering marvel, being the first highway built through a crowded urban environment; the most expensive mile of road ever built is part of the Cross Bronx, costing $40,000,000. At one point during construction, Moses' crews had to support the Grand Concourse (a major surface thoroughfare), a subway line and an elevated train line while the expressway was laboriously pushed through. However, the highway has severe traffic problems, and its construction has also been blamed for devastating a number of low-income neighborhoods in the South Bronx.


Route description

Eastward from Metropolitan Avenue

The Cross Bronx Expressway begins at the eastern end of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge as a continuation of the Trans-Manhattan Expressway and officially designated as both I-95 and US 1. Immediately after coming off the bridge, there is an interchange with the Major Deegan Expressway (I-87) for Yankee Stadium and points upstate. The highway soon intersects with Webster Avenue at a partial interchange allowing eastbound vehicles to exit and westbound ones to enter. Northbound US 1 leaves the Cross Bronx Expressway at this exit. About one and half miles later, comes a pair of closely spaced interchanges for the Sheridan Expressway (I-895) and the Bronx River Parkway. The exit for the Sheridan Expressway is an incomplete interchange and allows access from northbound and to southbound I-95 only.

The Cross Bronx Expressway reaches the Bruckner Interchange two miles (3 km) later. Going eastbound (I-95 northbound), the interchange allows access to southbound I-678, northbound I-95 (Bruckner Expressway) and southbound I-295. I-95 leaves the Cross Bronx Expressway here and continues north along the Bruckner Expressway. The Cross Bronx Expressway continues east of the interchange as I-295, which begins here. The Cross Bronx ends 1.5 miles (2.4 km) later at the Throgs Neck Expressway, where traffic from Interstate 695 merges on towards the Throgs Neck Bridge.[2]


Congestion is frequent on the Expressway

The 1929 Report on Highway Traffic Conditions and Proposed Traffic Relief Measures for the City of New York was the first citywide traffic study, classifying a number of projects that had been proposed by local interests. A "Cross-Bronx Route" along 161st and 163rd Streets was one of two proposed facilities, along with the "Nassau Boulevard" (which became the Long Island Expressway), picked by borough engineers as examples of important projects.[3] Although this routing was south of the present Cross Bronx Expressway, the report did suggest a "New Cross-Bronx Artery" near the present expressway that would link the Washington Bridge with the Clason Point Ferry to Queens. Though it would not be built to freeway standards, it would be 60 feet (18 m) wide with grade separations "where considered necessary and desirable". The George Washington Bridge then under construction was cited among reasons to build the highway, which would help connect New Jersey to Long Island via the bridges and ferry.[4]

The New York City Planning Commission adopted a plan in late 1940 for a network of highways. Except for the Bronx and Pelham Parkway, which lay to the north, no cross-Bronx highway had been built.[5] The report stated that the "Bronx Crosstown Highway", which would now connect on the east end to the Bronx-Whitestone Bridge (which had replaced the Clason Point Ferry), was "an essential part of a desirable highway pattern", taking traffic from the George Washington Bridge to Long Island and New England. The cost was estimated at $17,000,000, higher than most improvements because of the "topographical conditions, high land values, and heavily built-up areas".[6]

In 1936, the Regional Plan Association (RPA) proposed a Cross Bronx highway which would connect the George Washington, Triborough, and Bronx-Whitestone Bridges, as well as access to points north to New England. Five years later, the New York City Planning Planning Department recommended construction of the "Bronx Crosstown Highway."

Expressway goes under Walton Avenue and Grand Concourse

Robert Moses proposed a six-lane expressway to run through the middle of the Bronx in 1945. This project proved to be one of the most difficult expressway projects of the time: construction required blasting through ridges, crossing valleys and redirecting small rivers. In doing so, minimal disruption to the apartment buildings that topped the ridges in the area of Grand Concourse was a priority. Moreover, the expressway had to cross 113 streets, seven expressways and parkways (some of which were under construction), one subway line, five elevated lines, three commuter rail lines, and hundreds of utility, water and sewer lines, none of which could be interrupted.

Construction began in 1948. The roadway was carefully constructed with 12-foot-wide (3.7 m) lanes and 10-foot-wide (3.0 m) cobblestone shoulders. In 1963, the last of the three sections of roadway between the Alexander Hamilton and Throgs Neck Bridges were finished, completing the Cross Bronx Expressway.

Deegan interchange

The first portion, from the Bronx River Parkway east to the Bruckner Interchange, opened on November 5, 1955, at the same time as parts of the Queens Midtown and Major Deegan Expressways.[7] When the Throgs Neck Bridge opened on January 11, 1961, the Cross Bronx was extended east as one of its two northern approaches.[8] (The extension was part of I-78 until 1970, when it became I-295, its current designation.) A one-mile (1.5 km) western extension to a temporary interchange with Boston Road opened on April 23, 1956,[9] and on April 27, 1960, another 1.2-mile (2 km) piece opened, taking the road west to Webster Avenue.[10] The short 0.6-mile (1 km) piece from Webster Avenue west to Jerome Avenue opened on February 10, 1961.[11] With the opening of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge in April 1963, the $128 million Cross Bronx was completed.[12] This was, however, not the end of construction; the $12.6 million Highbridge Interchange with the Major Deegan Expressway (I-87) opened in November 1964,[13][14] and a $68 million reconstruction of the Bruckner Interchange, allowing Bruckner Expressway (I-95/I-278) traffic to bypass the old traffic circle, opened on January 2, 1972.[15][16] (Cross Bronx traffic passing through to the Throgs Neck Bridge had been able to avoid the circle, but drivers taking the Bruckner in either direction, including those bound for New England, had to exit onto the surface.)[17]


Many have blamed the Cross Bronx Expressway for worsening the decay of neighborhoods in the South Bronx, with the prominent example being the neighborhood of Tremont. In Robert Caro's The Power Broker, the author argues that Moses intentionally directed the expressway through this neighborhood, even though there was a more viable option only one block south.[18] Many of the neighborhoods it runs through have been continually poor since before its construction, primarily due to the lowered property value caused by the Expressway. This is partially responsible for the public opposition to many other planned expressways in New York City that were later cancelled – in particular, the Lower Manhattan Expressway.[19]

Traffic problems

The expressway is one of the main routes for shipping and transportation through New York City due to its connections with New Jersey via the George Washington Bridge, Long Island via the Throgs Neck and Whitestone Bridges, Upstate New York via Interstate 87 northbound and the Bronx River Parkway, Manhattan via Interstate 87 southbound to the Robert F. Kennedy (Triborough) Bridge, and New England via the New England Thruway (Interstate 95) and the Hutchinson River Parkway.

However, the expressway is known for its extreme traffic problems; on a typical day 145,000 vehicles travel on the six lanes of highway the road contains, and it is not uncommon for truckers to use the Cross-Westchester Expressway to the Major Deegan Expressway to get around this stretch of I-95. Proposals have been made to add a second deck to the road, although to no avail.[20]

In both 2008 and 2007, Inrix cited the Cross Bronx Expressway's west-bound exit 4B (Bronx River Parkway) as being the worst intersection in the US. In 2008, the expressway's exits included three out of the top four on the list, and four of the top five in 2007.[21]

As an option to using the Cross Bronx Expressway to accessing the George Washington Bridge from the north, many car services and chauffeur services recommend using the Cross County Parkway, which merges into the Sawmill Parkway and then the Henry Hudson Parkway. According to industry experts, this route bypasses much of the Bronx bound traffic found on the Cross Bronx Expressway.[22]

Exit list

Location Mile[23] Exit Destinations Notes
Morris Heights 0.00 Alexander Hamilton Bridge over the Harlem River
0.07 1C I-87 (Major Deegan Expressway) / Amsterdam Avenue – Albany, Robert F. Kennedy Bridge
0.65 2A Jerome Avenue
Tremont 1.28 2B US 1 north (Webster Avenue) East end of US 1 overlap; eastbound exit and westbound entrance
1.86 3 Third Avenue Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
West Farms 2.64 4A I-895 south (Sheridan Expressway) – Robert F. Kennedy Bridge Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Soundview 3.00 4B Bronx River Parkway / Rosedale Avenue
3.70 5A White Plains Road, Westchester Avenue
Castle Hill
5B Castle Hill Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Throggs Neck 5.05 6A I-678 south (Hutchinson River Expressway) – Whitestone Bridge Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
5.05 I-278 west (Bruckner Expressway) – Robert F. Kennedy Bridge Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
5.05 I-95 north – New England East end of I-95 overlap; west end of I-295 overlap; eastbound exit and westbound entrance
11 Randall Avenue
6.5 I-295 south – Throgs Neck Bridge Cross-Bronx Expressway ends at the Throgs Neck Expressway


  1. ^ Google Maps driving directions, accessed November 2007
  2. ^ New York City Department of Transportation, Truck Routes, accessed November 2007: shows that the Cross Bronx Expressway Extension ends at the Throgs Neck Expressway, while the Throgs Neck Expressway continues to the Throgs Neck Bridge
  3. ^ "Call Traffic Study City Planning Aid". The New York Times: p. 32. October 29, 1929. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  4. ^ Harland Bartholomew, Report to the Honorable James J. Walker, Mayor, on Highway Traffic Conditions and Proposed Traffic Relief Measures for the City of New York, Day & Zimmermann, 1929, OCLC 35914068
  5. ^ H.M. Gousha Company, New York City area, 1941
  6. ^ "Pattern of Highways for the City as Proposed in Board's Master Plan". The New York Times: p. 39. November 21, 1940. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  7. ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. (November 4, 1955). "3 Highway Links Open Tomorrow". The New York Times: p. 4. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  8. ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. (January 1, 1961). "Around the Town: New York City's System of Bypasses Is Beginning to Take Shape". The New York Times: p. X17. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Expressway Growing: Cross-Bronx Artery Will Be Extended a Mile Today". The New York Times: p. 29. April 23, 1956. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Cross-Bronx Route to Add Section". The New York Times: p. 23. April 25, 1960. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Cross Bronx Highway Link Ready". The New York Times: p. 13. January 31, 1961. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  12. ^ "New Bridge Completes L.I.-to-Jersey Bypass". The New York Times: p. 528. April 14, 1963. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  13. ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. (November 15, 1964). "New York Bypass: Narrows Bridge Adds More New Ways To Avoid City's Traffic Jams". The New York Times: p. XX1. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Expressway Ramps Opening". The New York Times: p. 39. November 19, 1964. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  15. ^ Prial, Frank J. (December 21, 1972). "The Bruckner Interchange Open at Last". The New York Times: p. 40. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Metropolitan Briefs". The New York Times: p. 36. December 31, 1972. Retrieved April 14, 2010. 
  17. ^ Rand McNally Road Atlas: United States, Canada and Mexico, 1964
  18. ^ Caro, Robert A. (1974). The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the fall of New York. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-394-48076-7. 
  19. ^ Ric Burns, New York: A Documentary Film, episode 7, The American Experience, PBS Television, WNET New York and WGBH Boston, 1999.
  20. ^ NYC Roads
  21. ^ Bruner, Jon (February 25, 2009). "America's Worst Intersections". Forbes. Retrieved March 1, 2009. 
  22. ^,
  23. ^ "Traffic Volume Report" (PDF). New York State Department of Transportation. July 16, 2007. 

External links

NY-blank (cutout).svg New York Roads portal

Coordinates: 40°50′33″N 73°53′21″W / 40.8425°N 73.88917°W / 40.8425; -73.88917

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cross Bronx Expressway — 40.8424 73.8893 Koordinaten: 40° 50′ 32,6″ N, 73° 53′ 21,5″ W …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bronx River Parkway — Route information Length: 19.12 mi[1] …   Wikipedia

  • Bronx Community Board 9 — is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Castle Hill, Parkchester, Soundview, Bruckner, Harding Park, Bronx River, Clason Point and Unionport. [ [ bronx.shtml… …   Wikipedia

  • Bronx Community Board 3 — is a local government unit in the New York City borough, of the Bronx, encompassing the neighborhoods of Crotona Park East, Claremont, Concourse Village, Melrose, and Morrisania. It is delimited by the Sheridan Expressway to the east, the Cross… …   Wikipedia

  • Bronx Community Board 6 — is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Bathgate, Belmont, East Tremont, and West Farms. It is delimited by Bronx Park to the east and north, Webster Avenue to the west, and Crotona Park North and the …   Wikipedia

  • Bronx Community Board 4 — is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Highbridge and Concourse. It is delimited by Webster Avenue and Park Avenue to the east, Washington Bridge and the Cross Bronx Expressway to the north, the… …   Wikipedia

  • Bronx Community Board 5 — is a local government unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Fordham, Morris Heights, Mount Hope, and University Heights. It is delimited by Webster Avenue to the east, Hall of Fame Terrace, West 183rd Street, and Fordham …   Wikipedia

  • Bronx-Whitestone Bridge — Infobox Bridge bridge name= Bronx Whitestone Bridge caption= View from Queens official name= The Bronx Whitestone Bridge also known as= Whitestone Bridge carries= 6 lanes of I 678 crosses= East River locale= New York City (Whitestone, Queens –… …   Wikipedia

  • The Bronx — Bronx redirects here. For other uses, see Bronx (disambiguation). The Bronx   Borough of New York City   Bronx County Motto: Ne cede malis Do not give way to evil …   Wikipedia

  • South Bronx, New York — thumb|250px|right|The Hub is the retail heart of the South Bronx.The South Bronx is a region of the New York City borough of the Bronx. It strictly refers to the south western portion of the borough, and should not be confused with the southern… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”