A television reporter holding a microphone.

A journalist collects and distributes news and other information. A journalist's work is referred to as journalism.

A reporter is a type of journalist who researchs, writes, and reports on information to be presented in mass media, including print media (newspapers and magazines), electronic media (television, radio, documentary film), and digital media (such as online journalism). Reporters cultivate sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, and make reports. The information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called "reporting," in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interview people. Reporters may be assigned a specific beat or area of coverage.

Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers, columnists, and visual journalists, such as photojournalists (journalists who use the medium of photography).

Journalism has developed a variety of ethics and standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are often considered important, some types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint.


Salaries and job outlook

The Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia has conducted its Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Graduates since 1997. According to its 2009 survey, the median salary earned by holders of either bachelor's or master's degrees in journalism and mass communication from colleges and universities in the United States (including Puerto Rico) entering the full-time job market in 2009 with $30,000. This was the same amount as in 2006, 2007, and 2008.[1]

According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook of the United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics, "employment of news analysts, reporters, and correspondents is expected to decline 6 percent between 2008 and 2018."[2] The Occupational Outlook Handbook report that the median annual wage for news analysts, reporters, and correspondents in the United States was $34,850 in May 2008, with the middle 50 percent earning between $25,760 and $52,160, and the bottom and top 10 percent earning less than $20,180 and more than $77,480, respectively. Median annual wages for reporters and correspondents were $33,430 in "newspaper, periodical, book, and directory publishing" and $37,710 in "radio and television broadcasting."[2]

Journalistic freedom

Journalists may expose themselves to danger, particularly when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press. Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that, 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder (71 percent), crossfire or combat (17 percent), or on dangerous assignment (12 percent). The "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq (151 deaths), Philippines (72), Algeria (60), Russia (52), Colombia (43), Pakistan (41), Somalia (35), India (27), Mexico (27), and Afghanistan (24).[3]

The Committee to Protect Journalists also reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists are jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. The countries with the ten countries largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are China (34 imprisoned), Iran (34), Eritrea (17), Burma (13), Uzbekistan (six), Vietnam (five), Cuba (four), Ethiopia (four), Turkey (four), and Sudan (three).[4]

See also


  1. ^ Lee B. Becker et al. "2009 Annual Survey of Journalism & Mass Communication Graduates" (August 4, 2010).
  2. ^ a b "News Analysts, Reporters, and Correspondents." Occupational Outlook Handbook (2010-11 ed.). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  3. ^ "887 Journalists Killed since 1992." Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  4. ^ "Iran, China drive prison tally to 14-year high" (December 8, 2010). Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved November 18, 2011.

Further reading

External links

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