- Advocacy journalism
Advocacy journalism is a
genreof journalismthat "intentionally" and "transparently" adopts a non-objective viewpoint, usually for some social or political purpose. Because it is intended to be factual, it is distinguished from propaganda. It is also distinct from instances of media biasand failures of objectivity in media outlets, which attempt to be—or which present themselves as—objective or neutral.
Traditionally, advocacy and criticism are restricted to
editorialand op-ed pages, which are clearly distinguished in the publication and in the organization's internal structure. News reports are intended to be objective and unbiased. In contrast, advocacy journalists have an opinion about the story they are writing. For example, that political corruption should be punished, that more environmentally friendly practices should be adopted by consumers, or that a government policy will be harmful to business interests and should not be adopted. This may be evident in small ways, such as tone or facial expression, or large ways, such as the selection of facts and opinions presented.
Some advocacy journalists reject that the traditional ideal of objectivity is possible in practice, either generally, or due to the presence of corporate sponsors in
advertising. Some feel that the public interestis better served by a diversity of media outlets with a variety of transparent points of view, or that advocacy journalism serves a similar role to muckrakers or whistleblowers.
"Advocacy journalism" is practiced by a broad range of mainstream media outlets and
alternative mediaand special interest publications and programs, but might also apply to a single article in an otherwise-neutral publication, such as political stories in " Rolling Stone"; there are also "advocacy journals", or "alternative publications", which are marketed to target groups based on their interests or biases, for example:
**"Xover Environment Magazine"
The New Republic"
The Weekly Standard"
Le Canard Enchaîné"
Perspectives from advocacy journalists
One writer for the "alternative" journalism collaborative, the
Independent Media Center, writes the following in a call to action::Classic tenets of journalism call for objectivity and neutrality. These are antiquated principles no longer universally observed.... We must absolutely not feel bound by them. If we are ever to create meaningful change, advocacy journalism will be the single most crucial element to enable the necessary organizing. It is therefore very important that we learn how to be successful advocacy journalists. For many, this will require a different way of identifying and pursuing goals. ["Advocacy Journalism, The Least You Can Do, and The No Confidence Movement." Dave Berman, 29 June 2004. Independent Media Center. [http://publish.indymedia.org/en/2004/06/854953.shtml] ]
In an April 2000 address to the Canadian Association of Journalists, Sue Careless gave the following commentary and advice to advocacy journalists, which seeks to establish a common view of what
journalistic standardsthe genre should follow. ["Advocacy journalism" by Sue Careless. "The Interim, May 2000." [http://www.theinterim.com/2000/may/10advocacy.html] Rules and advice for advocacy journalists.]
* Acknowledge your perspective up front.
* Be truthful, accurate, and credible. Don't spread propaganda, don't take quotes or facts out of context, "don't fabricate or falsify", and "don't judge or suppress vital facts or present half-truths"
* Don't give your opponents equal time, but don't ignore them, either.
* Explore arguments that challenge your perspective, and report embarrassing facts that support the opposition. Ask critical questions of people who agree with you.
* Avoid slogans, ranting, and polemics. Instead, "articulate complex issues clearly and carefully."
* Be fair and thorough.
* Make use of neutral sources to establish facts.
Sue Carelessalso criticized the mainstream mediafor unbalanced and politically biased coverage, for economicconflicts of interest, and for neglecting certain public causes. She said that alternative publications have advantages in independence, focus, and access, which make them more effective public-interest advocates than the mainstream media.
The Crisis", the official magazine of the NAACP, was founded in 1910. It describes itself as inheriting the tradition of advocacy journalism from "Freedom's Journal", [http://www.thecrisismagazine.com/his_dlewis.htm] , which began in 1827 as "the first African-American owned and operated newspaper published in the United States." [http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/libraryarchives/aanp/freedom/] Muckrakersare often claimed as the professional ancestors of modern advocacy journalists; for example: Nellie Bly, Ida M. Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, Upton Sinclair, George Seldes, and I.F. Stone.
French newspapers "
Libération", " Charlie Hebdo", " Le Canard Enchaîné" and " L'Humanité" all recuse what they consider pseudo-objective journalism for a purposeful explicited political stance on events. They oppose " Le Monde" neutral style, which doesn't impede it, according to those critics, from dissimulating various events or from abstaining to speak about certain subjects. On the other side, a newspaper like " Le Figaro" clearly assumes its conservative stance and pool of readers.
Advocacy journalists may reject the principle of objectivity in their work for several different reasons.
Many believe that there is no such thing as objective reporting, that there will always be some form of implicit bias, whether political, personal, or metaphysical, whether intentional or subconscious. This is not necessarily a rejection of the existence of an objective reality, merely a statement about our inability to report on it in a value-free fashion. This may sound like a radical idea, but many mainstream journalists accept the philosophical idea that pure "objectivity" is impossible, but still seek to minimize bias in their work. Other
journalistic standards, such as balance, and neutrality, may be used to describe a more practical kind of "objectivity".
"Alternative" critics often charge that the mainstream's media claims of being "bias free" are harmful because they paper over inevitable (often subconscious) biases. They also argue that media sources claiming to be free of bias often advance certain political ideas which are disguised in a so-called "objective" viewpoint. These critics contend that the mainstream media reinforce majority-held ideas, marginalizing dissent and retarding political and cultural discourse.
The proposed solution is to make biases "explicit", with the intention of promoting transparency and self-awareness that better serves media consumers. Advocacy journalists often assume that their audiences will share their biases (especially in politically charged alternative media), or will at least be conscious of them while evaluating what are supposed to be well-researched and persuasive arguments.
Some who believe that objective (or balanced, neutral, etc.) reporting "is" possible, or that it is a laudable goal, do not find that striving for objectivity is "always" an appropriate goal, perhaps depending on the publication and the purpose at hand. For example, it might be argued that when attempting to expose a waste, corruption, or abuse, a neutral position would "get in the way" of the exposition, and a "bias" against this kind of criminal activity would be quite acceptable to the intended audience.
Many advocacy journalists claim that they can reject objectivity while holding on to the goals of fairness and accuracy, and claim that corporate journalists often lack both.
In some instances, "advocacy journalism" is the same as
investigative journalismand muckraking, where these serve the public interestand the public's right to know. Investigative reports often focus on criminal or unethical activity, or aim to advance a generally accepted public interest, such as government accountability, alleviation of human suffering, etc. It might be argued that the journalist is assuming a point of view that public action is warranted to change the situation being described. The most famous example of this was Edward R. Murrow's 'See it Now' series of reports on Sen. Joseph McCarthy.
Criticism of advocacy journalism
Professional journalists and members of the public critical of the term assert that reporting without objectivity (termed "editorializing" or "sensationalizing") is bad journalism, and does not serve the public interest.Fact|date=November 2007
The term might also indicate a serious breach of journalistic canons and standards, such as
rumor mongering, yellow journalism, sensationalism or other ethically flawed reportageFact|date=November 2007 — for example, the 2004 revelations created by a press leak in the Plame affair, where a leak was alleged to be used to help an office holder's political position. (However, a critic of that politician, publicly admitted to being the source of that leak, not the politician in question. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/07/AR2006090701781.html Armitage Says He Was Source of CIA Leak] ] )
Some fear the activity of "advocacy journalists" will be harmful to the reputation of the mainstream press as an objective, reliable source of information. Another concern is that undiscriminating readers will accept the facts and opinions advanced in advocacy pieces as if they were objective and representative, becoming unknowingly and perhaps dangerously misinformed as a result.
Advocacy journalists vary in their response to these criticisms. Some believe that mainstream and "alternative" outlets serve different purposes, and sometimes different audiences entirely, and that the difference is readily apparent to the public.Fact|date=November 2007 Many believe that the mainstream press is "not" an objective and reliable source of information, and so doesn't deserve the reputation it seeks to maintain.Fact|date=November 2007
Objectivity (philosophy)main article discussing the concept of objectivity in various fields (history, science, journalism, philosophy, etc.)
Journalism ethics and standards
* [http://www.nycgrassrootsmedia.org The NYC Grassroots Media Coalition] seeks to "organize for increased resources for local communities and for media advocacy."
* "The Revolution in Journalism with an Emphasis on the 1960s and 1970s". Belinda Carberry. [http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1983/4/83.04.05.x.html] Brief history of alternative journalistic forms, including references for further reading. Designed for use by high school teachers. From the [http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/ Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute] .
* "Cornel West: The Uses of Advocacy Journalism". "The Tavis Smiley Show",
15 December 2004. "Commentator Cornel West and NPR's Tavis Smiley discuss the notion of advocacy journalism in America, in the tradition of W.E.B. Dubois, I. F. Stoneand Ida B. Wells." [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4229607] RealAudio or Windows Media audio program.
* "A Brief History of American Alternative Journalism in the Twentieth Century". Randolph T. Holhut. [http://www.brasscheck.com/seldes/history.html]
Criticism of advocacy journalism
* "Critical scan reveals that advocacy journalism is rampant" by Charles W. Moore. "The New Brunswick Telegraph Journal" 2004.06.29 [http://www.cbcwatch.ca/?q=node/view/271] . This article criticizes the mainstream Canadian press for engaging in "advocacy journalism" on behalf of liberal causes.
* "The sorry state of American journalism" by Dennis Campbell.
October 7, 2003. [http://www.renewamerica.us/columns/campbell/031007] Criticizes "advocacy journalism" of all political stripes as "opinion disguised as news" and "propagandizing". Identifies "advocacy journalism" as a post-Watergate phenomenon.
* [http://www.whocomments.org Who Comments?] - profiles of
columnistsand commentators in the UK pressalong with indexing of the subjects they write about.
* [http://www.urbanconservative.com/2007/02/13/best-conservative-blogs-on-the-internet/ "Best Conservative Blogs on the Internet," Urban Conservative, July 13, 2007] .
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