Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of
literatureor information– the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases authors may be their own publishers, meaning: originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content.
Traditionally, the term refers to the collecting of printed works such as
books (the "book trade") and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources, such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as websites, blogs, games and the like.
Publishing includes: the stages of the development, acquisition, copyediting, graphic design, production –
printing(and its electronic equivalents), and marketingand distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, softwareand other works dealing with information, including the electronic media.
Publication is also important as a legal concept: (1) as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy; (2) as the essential precondition of being able to claim
defamation; that is, the" alleged" libelmust have been published, and (3) for copyrightpurposes, where there is a difference in the protection of published and unpublished works.
The process of publishing
ubmission by author or agent
Book and magazine publishers spend no time at all buying or commissioning copy.At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material.But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers.
Writers often first submit a query letter or proposal. The majority of unsolicited submissions come from previously unpublished authors. When such manuscripts are unsolicited, they must go through the
slush pile, in which acquisitions editors sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to the editorial staff. Established authors are often represented by a literary agentto market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts.
Acceptance and negotiation
Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of
intellectual propertyrights and agree on royalty rates.
The authors of traditional printed materials sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed (i.e. the rights match the legal systems under which copyright protections can be enforced). In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the intended formats of publication -— mass-market paperback, "trade" paperback and hardback are the most common options.
The situation is slightly more complex if electronic formatting is to be used. Where distribution is to be by
CD-ROMor other physical media, there is no reason to treat this form differently from a paper format, and a national copyright is an acceptable approach. But the possibility of Internet download without the ability to restrict physical distribution within national boundaries presents legal problems that are usually solved by selling language or translation rights rather than national rights. Thus, Internet access across the European Unionis relatively open because of the laws forbidding discrimination based on nationality, but the fact of publication in, say, France, limits the target market to those who read French.
Having agreed on the scope of the publication and the formats, the parties in a book agreement must then agree on
royalty rates, the percentage of the gross retail price that will be paid to the author, and the advance payment. This is difficult because the publisher must estimate the potential sales in each market and balance projected revenue against production costs. Royalties usually range between 10-12% of recommended retail price. An advance is usually 1/3 of first print run total royalties. For example, if a book has a print run of 5000 copies and will be sold at $14.95 and the author receives 10% royalties, the total sum payable to the author if all copies are sold is $7475 (10% x $14.95 x 5000). The advance in this instance would roughly be $2490. Advances vary greatly between books, with established authors commanding large advances.
Once the immediate commercial decisions are taken and the technical legal issues resolved, the author may be asked to improve the quality of the work through rewriting or smaller changes, and the staff will edit the work. Publishers may maintain a
house style, and staff will copy editto ensure that the work matches the style and grammatical requirements of each market. Editing may also involve structural changes and requests for more information. Some publishers employ fact checkers.
When a final text is agreed upon, the next phase is
design. This may include artwork being commissioned or confirmation of layout. In publishing, the word "art" also indicates photographs. This process prepares the work for printingthrough processes such as typesetting, dust jacket composition, specification of paper quality, binding method and casing, and proofreading.
The activities of typesetting, page layout, the production of negatives, plates from the negatives and, for hardbacks, the preparation of brasses for the spine legend and
imprintare now all computerized. Prepress computerization evolved mainly in about the last twenty years of the 20th century. If the work is to be distributed electronically, the final files are saved as formats appropriate to the target operating systems of the hardware used for reading. These may include
Publishing as a business
The publisher usually controls the
advertisingand other marketingtasks, but may subcontractvarious aspects of the process to specialist publisher marketing agencies. In many companies, editing, proofreading, layout, design and other aspects of the production process are done by freelancers. [.
Book clubs are almost entirely direct-to-retail, and niche publishers pursue a mixed strategy to sell through all available outlets — their output is insignificant to the major booksellers, so lost revenue poses no threat to the traditional symbiotic relationships between the four activities of printing, publishing, distribution and retail.
The development of the
printing pressrepresented a revolution for communicating the latest hypotheses and research results to the academic community and supplemented what a scholar could do personally. But this improvement in the efficiency of communication created a challenge for libraries which have had to accommodate the weight and volume of literature.
To understand the scale of the problem, consider that approximately two centuries ago the number of scientific papers published annually was doubling every fifteen years. Today, the number of published papers doubles about every ten years. Modern academics now try to run electronic journals and distribute academic materials without the need for publishers.
One of the key functions that academic publishers provide is to manage the process of
peer review. Their role is to facilitate the impartial assessment of research and this vital role is not one that has yet been usurped, even with the advent of social networking and online document sharing.
Today, publishing academic journals and textbooks is a large part of an international industry. Critics claim that standardised accounting and profit-oriented policies have displaced the publishing ideal of providing access to all. In contrast to the commercial model, there is
non-profitpublishing, where the publishing organization is either organised specifically for the purpose of publishing, such as a university press, or is one of the functions of an organisation such as a medical charity, founded to achieve specific practical goals. An alternative approach to the corporate model is open access, the online distribution of individual articles and academic journals without charge to readers and libraries. The pioneers of Open Access journals are BioMed Centraland the Public Library of Science( PLoS).
A somewhat related development is
open sourcepublishing, which is participatory group editing, as exemplified by various wikiprojects, such as Wikiprofessional, Wikipedia, Wikiversity, and Citizendium.
Technically, radio, television, cinemas, VCDs and DVDs, music systems, games, computer hardware and mobile telephony publish information to their audiences. Indeed, the marketing of a major film often includes a
novelization, a graphic novel or comic version, the soundtrack album, a game, model, toys and endless promotional publications.
Some of the major publishers have entire divisions devoted to a single franchise, e.g. Ballantine Del Rey Lucasbooks has the exclusive rights to "Star Wars" in the United States; Random House UK (Bertelsmann)/Century LucasBooks holds the same rights in the United Kingdom. The game industry self-publishes through BL Publishing/Black Library (
Warhammer) and Wizards of the Coast ( Dragonlance, Forgotten Realms, etc). The BBC has its own publishing division which does very well with long-running series such as Doctor Who. These multimedia works are cross-marketed aggressively and sales frequently outperform the average stand-alone published work, making them a focus of corporate interest.Shelagh Vainker in Anne Farrer (ed), "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas" , 1990, British Museum publications, ISBN 0 7141 1447 2]
Independent publishing alternatives
Writers in a specialized field or with a narrower appeal have found smaller alternatives to the mass market in the form of
small presses and self-publishing. More recently, these options include print on demandand ebookformat. These publishing alternatives provide an avenue for authors who believe that mainstream publishing will not meet their needs or who are in a position to make more money from direct sales than they could from bookstoresales, such as popular speakers who sell books after speeches. Authors are more readily published by this means due to the much lower costs involved.
The Twenty First Century has brought a number of new technological changes to the Publishing industry. These changes cover
e-books, Print on demandand Accessible publishing. E-books have been quickly growing in availability since 2005. Amazonand Sonyhave been leaders in working with publishers and libraries to digitize books. Currently Amazon's Kindlereading device is dominating the market, although the Sony Readerand Palm are also strong in the market.
The ability to quickly and cost effectively
Print on Demandhas meant that publishers no longer have to store books at warehouses if the book is in low or unknown demand. This is a huge advantage to small publishers who can now operate without large overheads and large publishers who can now cost effectively sell their backlisted items. Market leaders in P.O.D. are Amazon's BookSurge [http://www.booksurge.com/category/1227569001/1/For-Publishers.htm] and Ingram Book Group's LightningSource [https://www.lightningsource.com/] . Accessible publishinguses the digitization of books to mark up books into XMLand then produces multiple formats from this to sell to consumers, often targetting those with difficulty reading. Formats include a variety larger print sizes, specialized print formats for dyslexia[http://papercuts.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/20/making-reading-easier/] , eye tracking problems and macular degeneration, as well as Braille, DAISY, Audiobooksand e-books[http://www.readhowyouwant.com/Technology/overview.aspx] . The current market leader is ReadHowYouWant [http://www.readhowyouwant.com/] .
Refer to the ISO divisions of ICS 01.140.40 and 35.240.30 for further information.cite web
International Organization for Standardization
title = 01.140.40: Publishing
url = http://www.iso.org/iso/products/standards/catalogue_ics_browse.htm?ICS1=01&ICS2=140&ICS3=40&
accessdate = 14 July
accessyear = 2008 ] cite web
International Organization for Standardization
title = 35.240.30: IT applications in information, documentation and publishing
url = http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_ics_browse?ICS1=35&ICS2=240&ICS3=30&
accessdate = 14 July
accessyear = 2008 ]
Association of American Publishers
Book Industry Study Group, Inc.
Concentration of media ownership
International Publishers Association
List of publishers
Open access publishing
Publication- hub article.
ZinesPublishing on specific contexts:
Books published per country per year
Document management systemPublishing tools:
* Web publishing tools
*Epstein, Jason. "Book Business: Publishing Past, Present, and Future".
*Schiffrin, André (2000). "The Business of Books: How the International Conglomerates Took Over Publishing and Changed the Way We Read".
*Ugrešić, Dubravka (2003). "Thank You for Not Reading".
* [http://mitworld.mit.edu/video/270/ Abelson et al ] (2005). "Open Networks and Open Society: The Relationship between Freedom, Law, and Technology"
* [http://www.bl.uk/collections/business/pdf/book_industry.pdf The British Library - finding information on the book publishing & retailing industry] (PDF)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.