Outline of ethics

Outline of ethics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ethics:

Ethics – major branch of philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life. It is significantly broader than the common conception of analyzing right and wrong. A central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or life that is simply satisfying, which is held by many philosophers to be more important than moral conduct.[1]

Nature of ethics

Main article: Ethics

Ethics can be described as:

Essence of ethics

Branches of ethics

Applied ethics

Applied ethics – using philosophical methods, attempts to identify the morally correct course of action in various fields of human life.

  • Business ethics – concerns questions such as the limits on managers in the pursuit of profit, or the duty of 'whistleblowers' to the general public as opposed to their employers.
  • Medical ethics (aka clinical ethics) – ethics to improve fulfillment of basic health needs.
    • Bioethics – concerned with identifying the correct approach to matters such as euthanasia, or the allocation of scarce health resources, or the use of human embryos in research.
  • Decision ethics – ethical theories and ethical decision processes.
  • Organizational ethics – ethics among organizations.
  • Professional ethics
  • Social ethics – ethics among nations and as one global unit.
  • Other
    • Bridge ethics – codes of ethics applied during play of the card game known as contact bridge.
    • Environmental ethics – concerned with issues such as the duties of humans towards landscapes and species.
      • Animal rights – also known as animal liberation, is the idea that the most basic interests of non-human animals should be afforded the same consideration as the similar interests of human beings.
      • Climate ethics – concerned with the ethical dimensions of climate change, and concepts such as climate justice.


  • Meta-ethics – concerns the nature of moral statements, that is, it studies what ethical terms and theories actually refer to.





Moral epistemology

Moral epistemology –

Metaphysics of morals

Metaphysics of morals –

  • Value realism –
  • Prescriptive realism –

Normative ethics

Normative ethics – concerns what people should believe to be right and wrong.

  • Consequentialism – moral theories that hold that the consequences of one's conduct are the true basis for any judgement about the morality of that conduct. Thus, a morally right act (or omission) is one that will produce a good outcome (the end justifies the means).
  • Deontological ethics – approach that judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules.
    • Moral absolutism – view that certain actions are absolutely right or wrong, regardless of other contexts such as their consequences or the intentions behind them. Thus stealing, for instance, might be considered to be always immoral, even if done to promote some other good (e.g., stealing food to feed a starving family), and even if it does in the end promote such a good.
    • Graded absolutism
  • Pragmatic ethics –
  • Virtue ethics – describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior.
    • Aristotelian ethics – the beginning of ethics as a subject, in the form of a systematic study of how individuals should best live. Aristotle believed one's goal should be living well and "eudaimonia", a Greek word often translated as "well-being" or "happiness". This could be achieved by the acquisition of a virtuous character, or in other words having well-chosen excellent habits.
  • Religious ethics –


Related areas

History of ethics

Main article: History of ethics

General ethics concepts

Ethical issues

Problem Areas in Archaeological Ethics

  • Human Remains
  • Responsibility of the Archaeologist vis-a-vis local traditions and cultures
  • Responsibility of the Archaeologist vis-a-vis the architectural remains that have been uncovered during an excavation
  • Responsibility of the Archaeologist vis-a-vis dissemination of the material uncovered, not only in academic circles but also to a broader public, both in the area of the excavation and from where the Sponsors come
  • Balancing World, National and regional claims to various parts of the archaeological record
  • protecting Archaeological sites and objects from illegal trade


Government agencies



Persons influential in the field of ethics




See also


  1. ^ Singer, P. (1993) Practical Ethics, 2nd edition (p.10), Cambrdige: Cambridge University Press
  2. ^ Bynum, Terrell Ward. "A Very Shory History of Computer Ethics". Southern Connecticut State University. Archived from the original on 2008-04-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20080418122849/http://www.southernct.edu/organizations/rccs/resources/research/introduction/bynum_shrt_hist.html. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 

External links

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