Nickel–hydrogen battery

Nickel–hydrogen battery
Nickel-hydrogen battery.jpg

A nickel–hydrogen battery (NiH2 or Ni–H2) is a rechargeable electrochemical power source based on nickel and hydrogen.[1] It differs from a nickel–metal hydride (NIMH) battery by the use of hydrogen in a pressurized cell at up to 1200 psi (82.7 bar) pressure.[2]

The cathode is made up of a dry sintered[3] porous nickel plaque, which contains nickel hydroxide, the negative hydrogen electrode utilises a teflon-bonded platinum black catalyst, the separator is knit zirconia cloth [4][5]

NiH2 cells using 26% potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an electrolyte have shown a service life of 15 years or more at 80% depth of discharge (DOD)[6] The energy density is 75 Wh/kg, 60 Wh/dm3[7] specific power 220 W/kg.[8] The open-circuit voltage is 1.55 V, discharge voltage 1.25 V,[9] and the voltage under load 1.5 V.

While the energy density is only around one third as that of a lithium battery, the specific property of the nickel–hydrogen battery is its long life: the cells handle more than 20,000 charge cycles[10] on 85% efficiency.

NiH2 rechargeable batteries possess good electrical properties which make them attractive for the energy storage of electrical energy in satellites[11] and space probes. For example, the ISS,[12] Mars Odyssey[13] and the Mars Global Surveyor[14] are equipped with nickel–hydrogen batteries. The Hubble Space Telescope, when its original batteries were changed in May 2009 more than 19 years after launch, led with the highest number of charge and discharge cycles of any NiH2 battery in low earth orbit.[15]



The development of the nickel hydrogen battery started in 1970 at Comsat[16] and was used for the first time in 1977 aboard the U.S. Navy's Navigation technology satellite-2 (NTS-2).[17]


Individual pressure vessel

The individual pressure vessel (IPV) design consists of a single unit of NiH2 cells in a pressure vessel. [18]

Common pressure vessel

The common pressure vessel (CPV) design consist of two NiH2 cell stacks in series in a common pressure vessel. The CPV provides a slightly higher specific energy than the IPV.

Single pressure vessel

The single pressure vessel (SPV) design combines up to 22 cells in series in a single pressure vessel.


The bipolar design is based on thick electrodes, positive-to-negative back-to-back stacked in a SPV. [19]

Dependent pressure vessel

The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost.[20]

Common/dependent pressure vessel

The common/dependent pressure vessel (C/DPV) is a hybrid of the common pressure vessel (CPV) and the dependent pressure vessel (DPV) with a high volumetric efficiency.[21]

See also


External links

External reading

  • Albert H. Zimmerman (ed), Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries Principles and Practice, The Aerospace Press, El Segundo, California

ISBN 1-884989-20-9

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nickel–cadmium battery — From top to bottom – Gumstick , AA, and AAA Ni–Cd batteries. specific energy 40–60 W·h/kg energy density 50–150 W·h/L specific power 150& …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel–iron battery — specific energy 30[1] −50[2] Wh/kg energy density 30[1] Wh/l specific power …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel–zinc battery — specific energy 100 W·h/kg energy density 280 W·h/L specific power > 900 W/kg Energy/consumer price 2–3Wh/US$ Cycle durability 400–1000[ …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel oxyhydroxide battery — (abb. NiOx) is a type of primary cell (non rechargeable). NiOx batteries excel in high drain applications such as digital cameras, and in this role, they can provide up to twice the life of an alkaline battery.[1] NiOx batteries of this chemistry …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel–lithium battery — The nickel–lithium battery, also known as Ni–Li, is an experimental battery using a nickel hydroxide cathode and lithium anode. The two metals cannot normally be used together in a battery, as there are no electrolytes compatible with both. The… …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel-cadmium battery — Batteries caption=From top to bottom Gumstick , AA, and AAA NiCd batteries. EtoW = 40–60 Wh/kg EtoS = 50–150 Wh/L PtoW = 150W/kg CtoDE= 70%–90% [ [ 11.htm Charging nickel based batteries ] ] EtoCP= ? US$… …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel-iron battery — Batteries EtoW=50 Wh/kg [ Accumulator and battery comparisons (pdf)] ] EtoS= PtoW=100 W/kg CtoDE=65% [ iron.htm Mpower: Nickel Iron Batteries] ,… …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel–cadmium battery (vented cell type) — Vented cell (wet cell, flooded cell) is a type of nickel–cadmium battery that is used when large capacities and high discharge rates are required. The term vented refers to a difference to common NiCd batteries which are sealed. They are used in… …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel-cadmium battery vented cell type — Vented cell (wet cell, flooded cell) is a type of nickel cadmium battery that is used when large capacities and discharge rates are required. The term vented refers to a difference to common NiCd batteries which are sealed .They are used in… …   Wikipedia

  • Nickel-Wasserstoff-Akku — Ein Nickel Wasserstoff Akku (NiH2) ist eine wiederaufladbare elektrochemische Spannungsquelle auf der Basis von Nickel und Wasserstoff. Wasserstoff wird in einer Druckzelle gespeichert und unterscheidet sich dadurch von den Nickel Metallhydrid… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”