- The Beatles' break-up
History of The BeatlesIn HamburgAt The Cavern ClubBeatlemania in the United KingdomNorth American releasesIn the United States1966Studio yearsIn IndiaBreak-upLine-upsReligious beliefsTimeline
The Beatles' break-up describes the events related to the break-up of The Beatles, one of the most popular and influential musical groups in history. The break-up has become almost as much of a legend as the band itself or the music they created while together. The Beatles were active from their formation in 1960 to the disintegration of the group in 1970.
There were numerous causes for the Beatles' break-up. It was not a single event but a long transition, including the cessation of touring in 1966, and the death of their manager, Brian Epstein, in 1967, meaning the Beatles were personally involved in financial and legal conflicts.
Conflict arose from differences between each member's artistic vision. Both George Harrison and Ringo Starr temporarily 'left' the group at various points during 1968–1969 and all four band members had begun working on solo projects by 1970 as the appeal of working together as a group began to wane. Ultimately, animosity made it impossible for the group to continue working together and Paul McCartney made the break-up public knowledge as part of the press release for his first solo album, McCartney.
Although there were sporadic collaborative recording efforts among the band members (most notably Starr's Ringo, 1973 being the only time that the four have—albeit on separate tracks—appeared on the same album post-break-up), all four Beatles never simultaneously collaborated as a recording or performing group ever again, and Starr's 1976 album Ringo's Rotogravure album is the last post-break-up album to which all four Beatles contribute and are credited on the same album: besides Ringo's drumming and songwriting contributions, Lennon, McCartney, and Harrison are all credited with composing one track apiece. After John Lennon's death in 1980, McCartney, Harrison, and Starr reconvened for Harrison's "All Those Years Ago". The trio reunited as the Beatles for the Anthology project in 1994; using the two unfinished Lennon demos "Free as a Bird" and "Real Love" for what would be the last two songs under the Beatles name.
Brian Epstein's death
Epstein was arguably the man most influential in launching and promoting the group's worldwide popularity. He also managed to hold the group together, as his management style was to let the group pursue its musical notions and projects, while often mediating when there was a conflict. However, this role began to diminish after the band stopped touring, although he still exercised a strong influence, settling disputes among members and, most importantly, handling the group's finances. When he died of a drug overdose in 1967, there was a void left in the band. Lennon had the closest personal relationship with Epstein and was the most affected by his death. McCartney likely sensed the precarious situation and sought to initiate projects for the group. The rest of the band progressively became perturbed by his growing domination in musical as well as other group ventures. Lennon later reflected that McCartney's efforts were important for the survival of the band, but he still believed that McCartney's desire to help came from McCartney's own misgivings about pursuing a solo career.
The foundation of Apple Corps was initiated under the oversight of Epstein as a tax shelter endeavour. His unexpected death left the future of Apple Corps in doubt. The lack of Epstein's supervision and the Beatles' inexperience as businessmen led to an unexpectedly chaotic venture that only added to stress when the band returned to the studio to produce The White Album. Epstein's role as band manager would never be replaced, and ultimately the lack of strong managerial leadership would be a major cause of the break-up.
George Harrison's emergence as a songwriter
In the early years, Lennon and McCartney were the two primary songwriters and vocalists, while the other two members, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, took more supporting roles in the band. Lennon and McCartney would often compose one song per album for Starr to sing, and let Harrison either cover an old standard, or record one of his own compositions. From 1965 onward, Harrison's compositions started to mature and become more appealing in their quality. Gradually the other band members acknowledged his potential as a songwriter. Though Harrison emerged as a proficient songwriter and producer, he nonetheless continued to have his song ideas for the most part rejected, especially when his compositions were offered during the Twickenham rehearsals. He became frustrated and this led to estrangement from the rest of the group.
Difficulty in collaboration
After the band had stopped touring, each of the members, to varying degrees, began to pursue their own musical tastes. When the band convened to resume recording in late 1966, there was still a camaraderie and desire to collaborate as musicians. However, their individual differences were becoming more apparent. McCartney, perhaps to a greater degree than the others, maintained a deep interest in the pop musical trends and styles emerging both in Britain and the United States, whereas Harrison developed an interest in Indian music and Lennon's compositions became more introspective and experimental. Consequently, McCartney began to assume the role of the initiator and, to a degree, leader of the artistic projects of the Beatles.
Each band member began to develop individual artistic agendas, which eventually compromised the enthusiasm among the musicians. Soon, each band member became impatient with the others. This became most evident on the album The Beatles (aka The White Album) in which personal artistic preferences began to dominate the recording sessions, which in turn further undermined the band's unity.
Lennon was in a fragile state of mind after returning from the band's sojourn in India in early 1968. He was disillusioned and resentful that the Maharishi did not fulfill his expectations. Coupled with renewed drug use and deterioration in his marriage and family life, his personal identity and his artistic role within the Beatles was a source of discontent. Although McCartney may have been the first to be exposed to the other forms of artistic developments and trends, Lennon began to develop a more intense interest in one artist in particular, Yoko Ono. A Japanese-American conceptual artist, Ono met Lennon at one of her exhibitions in 1966. The pair maintained a platonic relationship until the spring of 1968. In May 1968 they spent time together in his home studio while his wife, Cynthia, was away on holiday. They recorded an avant-garde tape that would eventually be released as Unfinished Music No.1: Two Virgins, before consummating their new relationship. From that point on, the two were almost always together, even as Lennon was working with the rest of the band in the studio. This violated a previous tacit agreement between the members not to let wives or girlfriends into the studio. However, as Lennon's artistic infatuation with Ono grew, he desired that she would be allotted artistic input into the band's recordings. Frequently, Ono would comment or make suggestions in the recording studio, which only served to increase the discontent between Ono and Lennon's bandmates.
The Beatles double album
The Beatles reconvened at Harrison's home in Esher in May 1968 to record demos that would ultimately become released in November 1968 as The Beatles. This was released as a double album and both the Beatles and the public alternately referred to it as The White Album. Contemporaneous reviews and retrospective commentary by the Beatles acknowledged that the album reflected the development of autonomous composers, musicians and artists.
Lennon and McCartney's artistic venues for the Beatles became more disparate. Harrison continued to develop as a songwriter; unfortunately he had little support from within the band. His composition "Not Guilty" reflected his state of mind during the recording of The Beatles. Starr began to develop and pursue cinematic opportunities during this period. He was also distressed by the increasingly sour and tense atmosphere that was characteristic of the recording sessions. At one point he felt so left out that he decided to leave and went on a break from the band for several weeks. On return he found his drum kit decorated with flowers (which were a gift from George Harrison).
As the sessions progressed there was a growing tension in the band. The disquiet was multifaceted in nature, but it was the artistic and personal discord that was most salient. The strain of the sessions took its toll on Geoff Emerick (recording engineer employed by EMI) and more notably Starr. Both left during the sessions, which commenced in June and concluded in October. These were the first substantive signs of the group's emerging disunity and antipathy. Rolling Stone described the double album as "four solo albums in one roof".
Upon completion and release of The Beatles the group did not give collective interviews or recorded appearances. The public relations were carried out individually. The most telling evidence of the group's collective alienation was the release of the 1968 Christmas fan club recording. The contributions were entirely individual and Lennon made disparaging remarks about his band mates' apparent disdain for Ono.
The Twickenham and Apple studio recording sessions
By the end of 1968, the Beatles' status as a group entity was in limbo. McCartney, who had unofficially assumed the mantle of leadership since Epstein's death, suggested a group project involving rehearsing, recording and performing the songs in a live concert. Though the recording sessions for the double album initially involved ensemble playing, the band was ill-prepared to settle comfortably back into this mode. Only eight days after rehearsals commenced, Harrison's frustration and resentment peaked and he informed his band mates that he was leaving. The combined patronising by McCartney and estrangement from Lennon had taken its toll. Thus, the band was on the verge of potential collapse and at an impasse. In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine cited a recording that exists from the Twickenham sessions the day after Harrison's departure in which Lennon suggested having Eric Clapton take over lead guitar duties.
Ultimately, complicated and heated negotiations brought Harrison back into the group's activities. The plan for a concert was abandoned and the recording sessions were resumed at Savile Row Apple Studios. The band gave its last public performance on the rooftop of Apple's headquarters in Savile Row, London, on 30 January 1969 as a substitute for an audience-based concert.
Business quagmire: Allen Klein, Lee Eastman and ATV-Northern Songs
Apple Corps during this period was plagued by business problems. Lennon and Ono met with Allen Klein regarding managerial advice. Subsequently, Lennon requested that Klein represent his business interests in the band. Harrison and Starr acquiesced, while McCartney had ambiguous feelings about Klein's managerial potential. McCartney's growing relationship with Linda Eastman opened the opportunity for Lee and John Eastman, Linda's father and brother, respectively, to become involved in advising the band's financial and legal decision-making. However, the band members' quarrels and disharmony over musical matters soon permeated their business discussions.
Dick James, who held substantial rights to Northern Songs (the Lennon/McCartney song catalogue), became increasingly concerned over the band's dissension and resentment towards him. Without informing the Beatles, he inconspicuously entertained offers to sell his substantial shares in Northern Songs. Klein and the Eastmans were caught off-guard and their attempts to reclaim control of the Beatles (via Maclen Music) failed. It soon became evident that the Eastmans and Klein had developed an adversarial relationship given their disparate advice and counsel. This further aggravated the underlying mistrust and antipathy experienced within the band.
The Get Back/Let It Be project from the January 1969 recordings and filming was aborted. However, the group continued to record together sporadically during the spring and summer of 1969. These recording sessions ultimately paved the way for the Beatles' last studio recording project, Abbey Road.
John Lennon's departure
Lennon's alleged pattern of heroin use inspired him to record "Cold Turkey" soon after the sessions for the album Abbey Road concluded. Offered to the Beatles for recording as a single, it was met with indifference. The formation of the Plastic Ono Band was originally conceived as an artistic outlet for Lennon and Ono in 1969. However, their enthusiastic reception as performers in Toronto's Rock and Roll Concert extravaganza in September 1969 ostensibly crystallised his decision to leave the band. He informed Klein and McCartney of his decision on 20 September 1969. Ironically, in the autumn of 1969, the band signed a renegotiated contract with a higher royalty rate. This was the group's last demonstration of unity, though transient in nature. Further disclosure revealed that the contract bound the members of the band until 1976 collectively and separately. Thus, this renegotiated contract precipitated the final legal actions abrogating the partnership in 1972.
Despite his efforts at maintaining the band's cohesiveness, McCartney acknowledged that the Beatles had effectively disbanded in a November 1969 interview conducted by Life magazine. At the beginning of 1970, McCartney, Harrison and Starr briefly reconvened to complete recordings for the album Let It Be. Each of the band members otherwise focused solely on individual projects.
During this time, McCartney grew deeply dissatisfied with Phil Spector's treatment of some songs on the upcoming Let It Be album, particularly "The Long and Winding Road". McCartney had conceived of the song as a simple piano ballad, but Spector dubbed in orchestral and female choral accompaniment. On 14 April 1970, McCartney sent a sharply worded letter to Apple Records business manager Klein demanding that the added instrumentation be reduced, the harp part eliminated, and "Don't ever do it again." These requests went unheeded, and the Spector version went on to be included in the album.
Another issue McCartney faced around this time frame surrounded his impending solo album. McCartney was scheduled for release on 17 April, but the other Beatles and Apple realised that the album's release date could conflict with the impending Let It Be album and film. When Starr was sent to request that McCartney delay his solo debut (for the sake of group harmony and loyalty), McCartney refused, asking Starr to leave for the only time in either one's life: "I had to do something like that in order to assert myself because I was just sinking." Although the McCartney album was released as planned, McCartney's bitterness over these incidents was a contributing factor to his public announcement concerning his departure from the band.
At the beginning of 1971, McCartney sued his band mates for the dissolution of the Beatles' contractual relationship and subsequently a receiver was appointed.
Apple's PR, Derek Taylor, wrote the press release for the break-up of the Beatles: "Spring is here and Leeds play Chelsea tomorrow and Ringo and John and George and Paul are alive and well and living in hope. The world is still spinning and so are we and so are you. When the spinning stops, that'll be the time to worry. Not before."
- ^ a b c Ian MacDonald : Revolution in the Head,PIMLICO ,2005
- ^ David Bennahum: The Beatles After the Break-Up: In Their Own Words ,Omnibus Press, 1991
- ^ a b Mark Hertsgaard: A Day in the Life: The Music and Artistry of The Beatles (Reprint edition), Delta, 1996
- ^ a b The Beatles: The Beatles Anthology, Chronicle Books, 2000
- ^ a b Bob Spitz: The Beatles : The Biography, Little, Brown and Company, 2005
- ^ a b c DK Publishing: The Beatles: 10 Years That Shook the World, DK Adult, 2004
- ^ a b Philip Norman: Shout!: The Beatles in Their Generation (second edition), Fireside, 2003
- ^ a b c Ray Coleman: Lennon: The Definitive Biography 3rd edition, Pan Publications, 2000
- ^ a b Barry Miles: Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now, Owl Books, 1998
- ^ a b c Jan Wenner: Lennon Remembers: The Rolling Stone Interviews, Popular Library, 1971
- ^ a b Peter McCabe: Apple to the Core: The Unmaking of The Beatles, Martin Brian and O'Keeffe Ltd, 1972
- ^ a b c Mark Lewisohn: Beatles Recording Sessions, Gardners Books, 2005
- ^ a b George Harrison:I Me Mine, Simon & Schuster, 1980
- ^ "George Harrison Interview", Crawdaddy magazine, February 1977
- ^ a b Geoff Emerick & Howard Massey: Here, There and Everywhere: My Life Recording the Music of the Beatles, Gotham, 2006
- ^ Andy Peebles and John Lennon: The Last Lennon Tapes, Dell, 1982
- ^ "John Lennon and Yoko Ono Interview", Playboy, January 1981
- ^ a b c John C. Winn: That Magic Feeling: The Beatles' Recorded Legacy (volume two) 1966-1970" Multiplus Books, 2003
- ^ Doug Sulpy & Ray Schweighardt: Get Back: The Unauthorised Chronicle of The Beatles' "Let It Be" Disaster, St. Martin's Griffin Pub., 1999
- ^ a b c Peter Doggett: Abbey Road/Let It Be: The Beatles (Classic Rock Albums Series), Schirmer Books, 1998
- ^ Peter Brown & Steven Gaines: The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of The Beatles (Reprint edition), NAL Trade, 2002
- ^ Anthony Fawcett: John Lennon: One Day at a Time : A Personal Biography of the Seventies (Revised edition), Grove Pr., 1980
- ^ "Paul McCartney: 'I Want to Live in Peace'", Life, 7 November 1969
- ^ The Beatles, Anthology, p. 350, (full letter)
- ^ "The Beatles Browser — Part One". Bill Harry/Mersey Beat Ltd.. http://www.triumphpc.com/mersey-beat/beatles/beatlesbrowser.shtml. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
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