- Darwin–Wedgwood family
The Darwin–Wedgwood family is actually two interrelated English families, descended from the prominent 18th century doctor, Erasmus Darwin, and Josiah Wedgwood, founder of the pottery firm, Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, the most notable member of which was Charles Darwin. The family contained at least ten Fellows of the Royal Society and several artists and poets (including the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams). Presented below are brief biographical sketches and genealogical information with links to articles on the members. The individuals are listed by year of birth and grouped into generations. The relationship to Francis Galton and his immediate ancestors is also given. Note the tree below does not include all descendants or even all prominent descendants.
The family is distantly linked to William Wedgwood Benn's family of Labour Party politicians (namely himself plus son Tony, grandson Hilary, and great-granddaughter Emily Benn) through Josiah Wedgwood's great-great uncle Aaron. It is linked to the intellectual Huxley family through Andrew Huxley's marriage to Jocelyn Richenda Gammell Pease, granddaughter of Josiah Wedgwood IV and by the marriage of Angela Huxley, great granddaughter of Thomas Huxley, to George Darwin, great grandson of Charles Darwin.
The first generation
Josiah Wedgwood (1730–1795) was a noted potter and a friend of Erasmus Darwin. In 1780, on the death of his long-time business partner Thomas Bentley, Josiah turned to his friend for help in running the business. As a result of the close association that grew up between the Wedgwood and Darwin families, one of Josiah's daughters later married Erasmus's son Robert. One of the children of that marriage, Charles Darwin, also married a Wedgwood — Emma, Josiah's granddaughter. Robert's inheritance of Josiah's money enabled him to fund Charles Darwin's chosen vocation in natural history that led to the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution. Subsequently Emma's inheritance made the Darwins a wealthy family.
Josiah Wedgwood married Sarah Wedgwood (1734–1815), and they had seven children, including:
- Josiah Wedgwood (1769–1843) (see below)
- Susannah Wedgwood (1765–1817) (later Darwin; see below)
- Thomas Wedgwood (1771-1805) (see below)
Erasmus Darwin (1731–1802) was a physician, botanist and poet from Lichfield, whose lengthy botanical poems gave insights into medicine and natural history, and outlined an evolutionist theory that anticipated both Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and his grandson Charles. He married twice, first in 1757 to Mary Howard (1740–1770), who died from alcohol-induced liver failure aged 31. She gave birth to:
- Charles Darwin (1758-1778) (not Charles Robert Darwin)
- Erasmus Darwin the Younger (1759–1799)
- Elizabeth Darwin, 1763 (survived 4 months)
- Robert Waring Darwin (see below)
- William Alvey Darwin, (1767) (survived 19 days)
He then had an extra-marital affair with a Miss Parker, producing two daughters:
- Susanna Parker (1772–1856)
- Mary Parker (1774–1859)
He then became smitten with Elizabeth Collier Sacheveral-Pole, who was married to Colonel Sacheveral-Pole and was the natural daughter of the Charles Colyear, 2nd Earl of Portmore. Sacheveral-Pole died shortly afterwards, and Erasmus married Elizabeth and they bore an additional seven children:
- Edward Darwin, (1782–1829)
- Frances Anne Violetta Darwin, (1783–1874); married Samuel Tertius Galton; mother of Francis Galton (see below)
- Emma Georgina Elizabeth Darwin (born 1784)
- Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin (1786–1859)
- John Darwin (1787–1865)
- Henry Darwin (born 1789)
- Harriot Darwin (1790–1825); later Harriott Maling.
Samuel "John" Galton
Samuel "John" Galton FRS (1753–1832) was an arms manufacturer from Birmingham.
The second generation
The son of Erasmus Darwin, Robert Darwin was a noted physician from Shrewsbury, whose own income as a physician to the rich together with astute investment of his inherited wealth enabled him to fund his son Charles Darwin's place on the Voyage of the Beagle and then give him the private income needed to support Charles' chosen vocation in natural history that led to the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution. He married Susannah Wedgwood, daughter of Josiah Wedgwood (see above), and they had the following children.
- Marianne Darwin (1798-?), married Henry Parker (1788–1858) in 1824.
- Caroline Sarah Darwin (1800–1888), married Josiah Wedgwood (grandson of the first Josiah Wedgwood)
- Susan Elizabeth Darwin (1803–1866)
- Erasmus Alvey Darwin (1804–1881)
- Charles Robert Darwin (1809–1882) (see below)
- Emily Catherine Darwin (1810–1866), was Charles Langton's second wife
- Josiah Wedgwood; (1795 – 1880) married Caroline Darwin, daughter of Robert Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood. They are grandparents of Ralph Vaughan Williams.
- Henry Allen Wedgwood (1799–1885)
- Francis Wedgwood (1800–1880); married April 26, 1832 at Rolleston on Dove, Staffordshire Frances Mosley daughter of Rev. John Peploe Mosley and Sarah Maria Paget and granddaughter of Sir John Parker Mosley and Elizabeth Bayley; and was the grandfather of Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood and great-grandfather of CV Wedgwood and Camilla Wedgwood
- Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–1891), etymologist, philologist and barrister, author of A Dictionary of English Etymology father of Frances Julia Wedgwood (1833–1913), and grandfather of Bishop J. I. Wedgwood.
- Charlotte Wedgwood (1797–1862) was Charles Langton's first wife, after her death he married her cousin, Emily Catherine Darwin. She is the ancestors of Hugh Massingberd, see below.
- Fanny Wedgwood; died unmarried in August 1832.
- Emma Wedgwood (1808–1896); married Charles Darwin, son of Robert Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood.
Samuel Tertius Galton
Samuel Tertius Galton married Frances Anne Violetta Darwin, (1783–1874) daughter of Erasmus Darwin, see above. They had three sons and four daughters including:
Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin
Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin was the son of Erasmus Darwin and Elizabeth (née Collier), daughter of Charles Colyear, 2nd Earl of Portmore. Francis was an accomplished travel writer, explorer and naturalist and bravely studied the ravages of the plague on Smyrna at great personal risk. He was the only one to return of his friends who set out for the East. A physician to George III, he was knighted by George IV.
On 16 December 1815 he married Jane Harriet Ryle (11 December 1794 - 19 April 1866) - at St. George, Hanover Square London. They had many children including:
- Mary Jane Darwin (12 February 1817 -1872), married Charles Carill-Worsley of Platt Hall, near Manchester, in 1840. (Their daughter, Elizabeth, who married Nicolas Tindal, later Tindal-Carill-Worsley, was the mother of Charles and Ralph Tindal-Carill-Worsley - see under 5th Generation)
- Frances Sarah Darwin (19 July 1822-1881), married Gustavus Barton in 1845, widowed 1846 and remarried to Marcus Huish in 1849. She is the stepmother of the art dealer Marcus Bourne Huish
- Edward Levett Darwin (12 April 1821 –23 April 1901), married Harriett Jessopp in 1850. A solicitor in Matlock Bath, Derbyshire, Edward Levett Darwin was the author under the pen name "High Elms" of Gameskeeper's Manual, a guide for tending game on large estates which shows keen observation of the habits of various animals.
The third generation
Charles Robert Darwin was a son of Robert Waring Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood. He married Emma Wedgwood, a daughter of Josiah Wedgwood II and Elizabeth Allen. Charles's mother, Susannah, was a sister to Emma's father, Josiah II. Thus, Charles and Emma were first cousins. Because of intermarriages in earlier generations, they were also related in other ways.
The Darwins had several children, three of whom died before reaching maturity.
- William Erasmus Darwin (27 December 1839 - 1914); graduate of Christ's College Cambridge, he was a banker in Southampton. He married the New Yorker Sara Ashburner (-1902), but they had no children.
- Anne Elizabeth Darwin (1841–1851) died in Great Malvern aged ten and her death caused her father much pain.
- Mary Eleanor Darwin (23 September 1842 - 16 October 1842) died as a baby.
- Henrietta Emma "Etty" Darwin (25 September 1843 - 1929); although she married Richard Litchfield in 1871, the couple never had any children. Etty Darwin edited her mother's private papers (published in 1904) and assisted her father with his work.
- George Howard Darwin (1845–1912) (see below)
- Elizabeth (Bessy) Darwin (8 July 1847–1926); never married and had no descendants.
- Charles Waring Darwin (6 December 1856 - 28 June 1858) was the tenth child and sixth son of Charles and Emma Darwin. His early death from scarlet fever kept Charles Darwin from attending the first publication of Darwin's theory at the joint reading of papers by Alfred Russel Wallace and himself at the meeting of the Linnean Society on 1 July 1858. Wallace was not present either - he was on an expedition.
Other notables from the same period
William Darwin Fox
The Rev. William Darwin Fox (1805–1880) was a second cousin of Charles Darwin and an amateur entomologist, naturalist and palaeontologist. Fox became a life-long friend of Charles Darwin following their first meeting at Christ's College, Cambridge. He married Harriet Fletcher, who gave him five children, and following her death married Ellen Sophia Woodd, who provided the remainder of his 17 children.
The fourth generation
George Howard Darwin
George Howard Darwin (1845–1912) was an astronomer and mathematician. He married Martha (Maud) du Puy of Philadelphia. They had four children:
- Charles Galton Darwin (see below)
- William Robert Darwin (married Sarah Monica Slingsby)
- Gwendoline "Gwen" Darwin, artist; (see below)
- Margaret Elizabeth (married Geoffrey Keynes, bibliophile) (see below)
Francis Darwin (1848–1925) was the botanist son of Charles Darwin and Emma Darwin (née Wedgwood). Francis Darwin married Amy Ruck in 1874, who died in 1876 after the birth of their son Bernard Darwin, an author on golf - see below. Francis married Ellen Crofts in September 1883 and they had a daughter Frances Crofts, who married and became known as the poet Frances Cornford (see below). In 1913 he married his third wife Florence Henrietta Darwin (née Fisher); there were no children of this marriage.
Horace Darwin (1851–1928) had the following children:
The fifth generation
Charles Galton Darwin
Charles Galton Darwin 1887-1962 was the son of George Howard Darwin (see above) and was a noted physicist of the age, and Director of the National Physics Laboratory. His son George Pember Darwin (1928–2001) married Angela Huxley, great granddaughter of Thomas Huxley.
Gwen Raverat (née Darwin) (1885–1957) was the daughter of George Howard Darwin and was an artist. She married the French artist Jacques Raverat in 1911 and had daughters Elizabeth Hambro and Sophie Pryor. Her dryly amusing childhood memoir, Period Piece, contains illustrations of and anecdotes about many of the Darwin — Wedgwood clan.
Margaret Keynes (née Darwin)
Margaret Keynes was the daughter of George Howard Darwin, (see above). She married Geoffrey Keynes, brother of the well-known economist John Maynard Keynes (see Keynes family) and had sons Richard Keynes, Quentin Keynes, Milo Keynes and Stephen Keynes.
Frances Cornford (née Darwin). Poet, daughter of Francis Darwin, see above.
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872–1958), British composer. His maternal grandmother, Caroline Sarah Darwin, was Charles Darwin's older sister, and his maternal grandfather, Josiah Wedgwood III, was the older brother of Darwin's wife Emma.
Nora Barlow (née Darwin)
Nora Darwin (1885–1989), the daughter of Horace Darwin (see above), married Sir Alan Barlow. She also edited the Autobiography of Charles Darwin (ISBN 0393310698 (hardback) and ISBN 0393004872 (paperback)). They had the following children:
- Sir Thomas Erasmus Barlow, (23 January 1914 - 12 October 2003), Royal Navy officer.
- Erasmus Darwin Barlow (1915–2005)
- Andrew Dalmahoy Barlow (1916–2006)
- Professor Horace Basil Barlow (born 1921) (see below)
- Hilda Horatia Barlow (b. 14 September 1919) married psychoanalyst John Hunter Padel; their daughter is the poet Ruth Padel (see below).
Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood (1872–1943), great-great-grandson of Josiah Wedgwood I, was a Liberal and Labour MP, and served in the military during the Second Boer War and the First World War. He was raised to the peerage in 1942.
Capt Charles Tindal-Carill-Worsley, RN, (d1920) a great grandson of Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin, was a successful naval officer in the First World War.
Cmdr Ralph Tindal-Carill-Worsley, RN, (1886–1966), brother of Charles, naval officer and bon viveur, served in the royal yacht HMY Victoria and Albert III under King Edward VII before World War I. He retired from the Royal Navy after the First World War but was recalled during World War II, when he was commandant of a training school for WRENS (members of the Women's Royal Naval Service). He married Kathleen, daughter of Simon Mangan of Dunboyne Castle, Lord Lieutenant of Meath and a first cousin of Brig Gen Paul Kenna, VC, and had three children.
The sixth generation
Erasmus Darwin Barlow
Erasmus Darwin Barlow (1915–2005) was a psychiatrist, physiologist and businessman. Son of Nora Barlow.
Horace Barlow (b. 1921) was Professor of Physiology, Berkeley, California, USA; Royal Society Research Professor, Physiological Laboratory, Cambridge (1973–87).
John Cornford was a poet. Son of Frances Cornford, see above.
George Erasmus Darwin
George Erasmus Darwin, (b. 1927) is a metallurgist. Son of William Robert Darwin, see above.
Henry Galton Darwin
Henry Galton Darwin (1929–1992) was a lawyer and diplomat. Son of Charles Galton Darwin.
Robert Vere "Robin" Darwin (1910–1974) was an artist. He is the son of Bernard Darwin, see above.
Quentin Keynes (1921–2003) was a bibliophile and explorer. Son of Margaret Keynes, née Darwin, see above.
Professor Richard Darwin Keynes FRS (1919–2010) was a British physiologist. Son of Margaret Keynes, née Darwin, see above.
Cicely Veronica (CV) Wedgwood
Cicely Veronica Wedgwood (1910–1997), historian. Daughter of Ralph Wedgwood
The seventh generation
Martin Thomas Barlow
Martin T. Barlow (b. 1953) is a mathematician; son of Andrew Dalmahoy Barlow.
Phyllida Barlow (b.1944) is a sculptor and art academic; daughter of Erasmus Darwin Barlow.
Matthew Chapman (b. 1950), screenwriter, author, grandson of Frances Cornford see above.
Carola Darwin (b.1967), Singer, musicologist, granddaughter of Charles Galton Darwin, see above, and sister of Emma Darwin the novelist, see below.
Chris Darwin (b. 1961), conservationist and adventurer, son of George Erasmus Darwin, see above, and brother of Sarah Darwin, see below.
Emma Darwin (Novelist) (b.1964), novelist, granddaughter of Charles Galton Darwin, see above.
Sarah Darwin (b.1964), botanist, daughter of George Erasmus Darwin, see above, and sister of Chris Darwin, see above.
Randal Keynes (b.1948), conservationist and author, son of Richard Keynes, see above.
Simon Keynes (b.1952), Elrington and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse, and Celtic at Cambridge University, son of Richard Keynes, see above, and brother of Randal Keynes, see above.
Hugh Massingberd (1947–2007) was an obituaries editor for the Daily Telegraph, a journalist and the author of many books on genealogy and architectural history. He was the great great grandson of Charlotte Langton (née Wedgwood), sister of Emma Darwin (Charles Darwin's wife) and granddaughter of Josiah Wedgwood I.
Ruth Padel (b.1946), Poet, granddaughter of Sir Alan and Lady (Nora) Barlow (née Darwin), see above.
R. Sebastian 'Bas' Pease
R. Sebastian 'Bas' Pease (1922–2004), physicist, Director of Culham Laboratory for Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion (1968–1981), head of the British chapter of Pugwash, grandson of the fourth Josiah Wedgwood (see above). His sister, Jocelyn Richenda 'Chenda' Gammell Pease (1925–2003), married Andrew Huxley.
Lucy Rawlinson (née Pryor) (b.1948), painter (as Lucy Raverat), granddaughter of Gwen Raverat (née Darwin), see above.
The eighth generation
There was a notable history of intermarriage within the family. In the period under discussion, Josiah Wedgwood married his third cousin Sarah Wedgwood; Charles Darwin married his first cousin Emma Wedgwood; his sister, Caroline Darwin, married Emma's brother (and Caroline's first cousin), Josiah Wedgwood III. There were other instances of cousin marriage both up and down the family tree. Cousin marriage was not uncommon in Britain during the 19th century though why is debated: poorer communications, keeping wealth within the family, more opportunity of evaluating a relative of the opposite sex as a suitable marriage partner (unmarried young women of the upper and upper middle classes were closely chaperoned when meeting men outside the family in the 19th century), more security for the woman as she would not be leaving her family (though legal rights for married women increased during the century, as a rule her property became his and she had little legal recourse if he chose to abuse her).
Coat of arms
These arms were granted to Reginald Darwin, of Fern, Derbyshire, for himself and certain descendants of his father, Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin, and his uncle Robert Waring Darwin (Father of Charles), on 6 March 1890. As Charles Darwin fell within the destination, they have been used in connection with him, despite being granted after his death. Something similar is used by Darwin College, Cambridge.Arms of Darwin–Wedgwood family
NotesThe arms of Reginald Darwin  and his heirs consist of: CrestUpon a wreath of the colours, in front of a demi-griffin Vert, holding between the claws an escallop Or, three escallops fesswise Argent. EscutcheonArgent, on a bend Gules cottised Vert, between two mullets each within an annulet Gules, three escallops Or. MottoCave et aude (Beware and dare)
- ^ a b Milner, 1.
- ^ "Person Page - 13257". ThePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p13257.htm. Retrieved 2011-05-31.
- ^ Ian Sinclair (28 September 1992). "Obituary: Henry Darwin". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-henry-darwin-1554167.html.
- ^ Obituary, Daily Telegraph, 27th December, 2007.
- ^ Wagner, Anthony (1939), Historic Heraldry of Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 98
- ^ Macauly, Gregor (2009). "The Arms of Charles Darwin". The New Zealand Armorist: The Journal of the Heraldry Society of New Zealand 112 (Spring 2009): 12–14.
- Milner, Richard (1994). Charles Darwin: Evolution of a Naturalist. Makers of Modern Science. New York: Facts on File, Inc.. ISBN 0816025576.
- Freeman, Richard Broke (1982). "The Darwin family". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 17 (1): 9–21. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1982.tb02010.x.
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