- Emma Darwin
Emma Darwin (
néeWedgwood, 2 May 1808– 7 October 1896) was the wife of the English naturalist Charles Darwin(they were also cousins), and mother of their ten children.
Emma Wedgwood was born in 1808 at the family estate of
Maer Hall, Maer, Staffordshire, the youngest of seven [Harvard reference
Surname1 = Desmond
Given1 = Adrian
Surname2 = Moore
Given2 = James
Authorlink2 = James Moore (biographer)
Year = 1991
Title = Darwin
Publisher = London: Michael Joseph, Penguin Group
ID = ISBN 0-7181-3430-3] children of
Josiah Wedgwood IIand his wife Bessy (Elizabeth). She grew up in a wealthy manufacturing family; her grandfather Josiah Wedgwoodhad made his fortune in pottery, and like many others who were not part of the aristocracy they were nonconformist, belonging to the Unitarianchurch. Charles Darwinwas her first cousin; their shared grandparents were Josiah Wedgwoodand his wife Sarah; and as the Wedgwood and Darwin families were closely allied, she had been acquainted with him since childhood.
She was very close to her sister Fanny, the two being known by the family as the "Doveleys", and was charming and messy, getting called "Little Miss Slip-Slop". She helped her older sister Elizabeth with the Sunday school which was held in Maer Hall laundry, writing simple moral tales to aid instruction and giving sixty village children their only formal training in reading, writing and religion.
For a time in her youth she was sent to
Paris, where she studied pianowith the celebrated composer Frédéric Chopin, and conducted a grand tourof Europe. In 1826 she went with her sister Fanny to stay with their Aunt Jessie (Madame de Sismondi, wife of the historian Jean Charles Leonard de Sismondi) for eight months near Geneva. When her father went to collect them he was accompanied by Caroline Darwinand also took Charles Darwin as far as Paris, where they all met up again before returning home in July 1827. She was keen on outdoor sports and became a "Dragoness" at archery.
At Maer on
31 August 1831she was with her family when they helped Charles Darwin to overturn his father's objections to the Voyage of the Beagle. During the voyage Charles's sisters kept him informed of news including the untimely death of Emma's sister Fanny and the gossip that his brother Erasmus Alvey Darwinwas "paired off" with Emma to avert "an "action" in the Papers" over his "carrying on" with Hensleigh Wedgwood's wife. When Charles returned and was quick to visit Maer she joined in the interest in his travels.
Emma herself had turned down several offers of marriage, but after her mother suffered a seizure and became bedridden Emma had to nurse her as well as looking after her elder sister Elizabeth who was dwarfish and had severe spinal curvature.
She accepted Charles' marriage proposal on
11 November 1838, at the age of 30, and they were married on 29 January 1839at St. Peter's AnglicanChurch in Maer, Staffordshire. Their cousin, the Reverend John Allen Wedgwoodofficiated. Following a brief period of residence in London, they moved permanently to Down House, located in what was then the rural village of Down, close to the city.
Charles and Emma had ten children. They raised them in a distinctly non-authoritarian manner, and several of them later achieved considerable success in their chosen careers. Sir
George Darwin, for example, became a scientist.
Emma Darwin is especially remembered for her patience and fortitude in dealing with her husband's long-term illness which became apparent shortly after their marriage. In nursing and humouring Charles through his many ups and downs, she was a crucial factor in her husband's scientific accomplishments. She also nursed her children through frequent illnesses, and endured the deaths of three of them: Anne, Mary, and Charles Waring. By the mid 1850s she was known throughout the parish for helping in the way a parson's wife might be expected to, giving out bread tokens to the hungry and "small pensions for the old, dainties for the ailing, and medical comforts and simple medicine" based on Dr. Robert Darwin's old prescription book.
A source of difficulty in the Darwins' marriage was conflict between Charles' scientific findings (most particularly, the origin of humanity in the undirected process of
evolution) and Emma's own devout Christianbeliefs. The difficulty was increased when, following the painful and emotionally devastating death of their 10-year-old daughter Anne, Charles no longer accepted the orthodox Christian view of God. After T.H. Huxley coined the word " agnostic" around 1868, Darwin used it to describe himself. Charles was evidently pained by the anxieties his beliefs produced in Emma, and tried to express them as gently as he could.
Emma often played the piano for Charles, and in Charles' 1871 "
The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex", Darwin spent several pages on the evolution of musical ability by means of sexual selection.
Emma is buried at
Downetogether with Charles' brother, Erasmus.
Social history of the piano
Emma Darwin (Novelist)
List of coupled cousins
* William Erasmus Darwin (1839-1914)
* Anne Elizabeth Darwin (1841-1851)
Mary Eleanor Darwin(1842)
* Henrietta Emma "Etty" Darwin (1843-1927)
* George Howard Darwin (1845-1912)
* Elizabeth Darwin (1847-1926)
Charles Waring Darwin(1856-1858)
The Darwins also brought up Francis' son
Bernard Darwinafter the death of Bernard's mother.
*Healey, E. "Emma Darwin: The Inspirational Wife of a Genius" ISBN 0-7472-7579-3 [http://www.newscientist.com/opinion/opbooks.jsp?id=ns23178 New Scientist review]
*cite web |url=http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=A27b&viewtype=text&pageseq=1 |title=Charles Darwin: A companion |author=Freeman, R. B. |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= 2007 |format= |work= |publisher=Darwin Online |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=Wedgwood, Emma [I] , 1808 May 2 at Maer Hall-1896 Oct. 2 at Down House. |accessdate=2008-06-18
* H. Litchfield (ed) (1915). "Darwin, a century of family letters, 1792-1896, in two volumes. London, John Murray.
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=LCCN26026970&id=vMgEAAAAIAAJ&printsec=toc "Emma Darwin, a Century of Family Letters, 1792-1896"] - edited by her daughter Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield (1915).
* [http://darwin-online.org.uk/EmmaDiaries.html Emma Darwin's diaries 1824-1896]
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