National Emblem of Indonesia

National Emblem of Indonesia
Garuda Pancasila
Coat of Arms of Indonesia Garuda Pancasila.svg
Details
Armiger Republic of Indonesia
Adopted 11 February 1950
Escutcheon On the midsection of the Garuda, representing Pancasila, the national ideology
Supporters Garuda
Motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity)
Other elements The feathers of the Garuda are arranged to represent the date of 17 August 1945, the day of independence
Use - The great seal of state (e.g. on Republic of Indonesia passports and on state documents)
- The symbol (emblem) of nationhood and national ideology
- Other governmental purposes

The National Emblem of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila. The main part of Indonesian national emblem is the Garuda with a heraldic shield on its chest and a scroll gripped by its leg. The shield's five emblems represent Pancasila, the five principles of Indonesia's national philosophy. The Garuda claws gripping a white ribbon scroll inscribed with the national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika written in black text, which can be loosely translated as "Unity in Diversity". Garuda Pancasila was designed by Sultan Hamid II from Pontianak, supervised by Sukarno, and was adopted as national national emblem on 11 February 1950.

Contents

History

Statue of King Airlangga depicted as Vishnu mounting Garuda.

Garuda, the vehicle (vahana) of Vishnu appears in many temples of ancient Indonesia. Temples such as Prambanan, Penataran, Belahan, and Sukuh depict the images (bas-relief or statue) of Garuda. In Prambanan temple complex there is a single temple located in front of Vishnu temple, dedicated to Garuda. However there is no statue of Garuda inside the chamber today. In the Shiva temple, also in Prambanan complex, there is a relief telling an episode of Ramayana about Garuda's nephew whom also belongs to the bird-god race, Jatayu, tried to rescue Sita from Ravana's hand. The deified statue of King Airlangga depicted as Vishnu mounting Garuda from Belahan, probably the most famous statue of Garuda from ancient Java. Now the statue is one of the important collection of Trowulan Museum.

Garuda appear in many traditions and stories, especially in Java and Bali. In many stories Garuda symbolizes the virtue of knowledge, power, bravery, loyalty, and discipline. As the vehicle of Vishnu, Garuda also bears the attributes of Vishnu, which symbolize preservation of cosmic order. Balinese tradition venerated Garuda as "the lord of all flying creatures", and "the majestic king of birds". In Bali, Garuda traditionally portrayed as a divine creature with head, beak, wings, and claw of an eagle, while has the body of a human. Usually portrayed in intricate carving with golden and vivid colors, as the vehicle of Vishnu or in battle scene against Nāga (dragon) serpents. The important and noble position of Garuda in Indonesian tradition since ancient times has venerated Garuda as the national symbol of Indonesia, the embodiment of Indonesian ideology, Pancasila. Garuda also chosen as the name of Indonesian national airlines, Garuda Indonesia. Next to Indonesia, Thailand also uses the Garuda as its national symbol.

After the Indonesian National Revolution 1945-1949, followed by the acknowledgement of the independence Indonesia from The Netherlands in 1949, there is a need to create a national national emblem of United States of Indonesia. In 10 January 1950 the Committee of State Seal was formed, under coordination of Sultan Hamid II of Pontianak as the State Minister Zonder Porto Folio, with Muhammad Yamin as the chairman, and Ki Hajar Dewantoro, M A Pellaupessy, Moh Natsir, and RM Ng Purbatjaraka as committee members. The committee task is to select the proposals of United States of Indonesia national emblem to be presented to the government.

The initial design of Garuda Pancasila by Sultan Hamid II still featuring anthropomorphic Garuda.
The Garuda Pancasila adopted on 11 February 1950, still without crest and with different position of talons.

According to Mohammad Hatta in his memoire "Bung Hatta Menjawab" to fulfill the mandate of the Cabinet, Minister Priyono had launched the design competition. After the competition was held, there was two proposed designs selected as the finalist; one is the work of Sultan Hamid II and the other one is the work of Muhammad Yamin. In further process the design proposed by Sultan Hamid II was accepted by both People's Consultative Assembly (DPR) and the Government, while the M. Yamin's design was rejected because featuring shining sun emblem that deemed clearly demonstrate the influence of Japanese Empire. Sukarno as The President of United States of Indonesia together with Mohammad Hatta as the Prime Minister, asked Sultan Hamid II to change the red and white ribbon being hold by Garuda talons to white scroll bearing the national motto "Bhineka Tunggal Ika". In 8 February 1950 the design created by Sultan Hamid II was presented to President Sukarno. The design featuring Garuda in its anthropomorphic form, similar to traditional depiction of Garuda in ancient Javanese, Balinese and Siamese art. However Masyumi Islamic party expressed their objection and stated that the bird with human neck and shoulders with both hands holding Pancasila shield was too mythical.[1]

Sultan Hamid II edited his design and proposed the new version, this time discarding the anthropomorphic form, the eagle-like Garuda was done in stylized naturalistic style and named Rajawali (eagle) Garuda Pancasila. President Sukarno presented this design to the cabinet and Prime Minister Hatta. According to AG Pringgodigdo in his book "Sekitar Pancasila" published by Département of Defense and Security, the improved design of Garuda Pancasila by Sultan Hamid II was officially adopted in United States of Indonesia Cabinet Assembly on 11 February 1950.[2] At that time the Rajawali Garuda Pancasila was still "bald" without crest crowning its head like current version. President Sukarno introduced the national national emblem of Indonesia to the public at Hotel Des Indes, Jakarta, on 15 February 1950.

Sukarno continued to improve the design of Garuda Pancasila. In 20 March 1950 Sukarno ordered the palace artist Dullah to done several improvements; such as the addition of crest and the change of talons position to the scroll, under suggestion of Sukarno. It was believed that Sukarno suggested the crest addition because the "bald" Garuda was considered too similar to the bald eagle of United States.[3] Finally Sultan Hamid II gave the final touch and create the official national emblem rules on scale and color guide. The design of this last version was still remain the same eversince, and officially recognized and used as the national national emblem of the Republic of Indonesia.

Scroll and Motto

The Garuda clutches in its talons a scroll bearing the National Motto of Indonesia, "Bhinneka Tunggal lka" which is an Old Javanese stanza of the epic poem "Sutasoma" attributed to the 14th century poet sage of the Javanese Majapahit Empire, Empu Tantular.[4] The text was redesicovered by the Dutch scholar Brandes from among the many lontar manuscripts among the Dutch booty called the Lombok treasure — looted from the destroyed Lombok palace in 1894.[5] who is said to have committed the phrase to writing for the first time.

The poem expounded a doctrine of reconciliation between the Hindu and Buddhist faiths: meaning literally "Although diverse, both truthful to Dharma — thus there exists no duality in Truth".[6][7] This spirit of religious tolerance was an essential element in the foundation and security of the newly emerging State of Majapahit and the thusly fledgling Republic of Indonesia. It is roughly rendered, Diverse, yet united[8] or perhaps more poetically in English: Unity in Diversity.[9]

Symbolism

The statue of Garuda Pancasila, displayed at Ruang Kemerdekaan (Independence Room) in National Monument (Monas), Jakarta.

Garuda

The Garuda is the mythical golden eagle, common to both Hindu and Buddhist mythology. The Garuda was a chimera, having the wings, beak, and feet of the golden eagle, but a man's arms and trunk. The Garuda is commonly used as an emblem in South and Southeast Asian nations. The use of the Garuda in Indonesia's coat-of-arms invokes the pre-colonial Hindu kingdoms that spanned across the archipelago, from which the present-day Republic of Indonesia is understood to be descended.

However, unlike the traditional anthropomorphic form of Garuda as featured in ancient temples in Java, the Balinese Garuda, or the national emblem of Thailand, the design of Indonesia's Garuda Pancasila is rendered in modern naturalist style. The design of Garuda Pancasila was inspired by the Elang Jawa or Javan Hawk-eagle (Nisaetus bartelsi) an endangered raptor endemic to the mountainous forest regions of Java. The Javan Hawk-eagle resemblance to the Garuda Pancasila is most obvious with the prominent crest crowning its head and the plumage coloured dark-brownish to chestnut-gold. By Presidential decree, the Javan Hawk-eagle was legally registered as considered as the national bird of Indonesia, and thus attributing the endangered species very high protection.[10]

As for the national emblem, the Garuda symbolizes strength and power, while the gold colour symbolizes greatness and glory.

The feathers on the Garuda of the Indonesian coat-of-arms are arranged so that they invoke the date of 17 August 1945, the officially recognized Indonesian Day of Independence. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the tail, 19 on the base of the tail (below the shield), 45 on the neck, corresponding to the "17/8/1945" international date format for Independence.

Emblems

Each section of the shield has a symbol corresponding to the Pancasila principles laid down by its founder, President Sukarno.

Pancasila Perisai.svg

Shield

The shield is a martial symbol, standing for defense of the country. It is divided into five sections: a background divided into quarters, colored red and white (the colors of the national flag) in a checkerboard pattern; and a smaller, concentric shield, black in background. A thick, black line lies horizontally across the shield, symbolizing the equator which passes through the Indonesian archipelago.

Pancasila Sila 1 Star.svg

The Star

The black shield bearing the golden star at center corresponds to the first Pancasila principle, belief in one supreme divinity or God (Ketuhanan yang Maha Esa). The color black represent the color of nature. Upon this shield at center is a golden, five-pointed star. This is a symbol common not only among Indonesia's sanctioned faiths of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, but of the secular ideology of socialism as well.[11]

This tenet of Pancasila has always been controversial, for it suggests compulsory religious belief as well as compulsory monotheism. Supporters of Sukarno's legacy, however, believe that this tenet was meant to unify Indonesia's population, who have diverse faiths and beliefs.

Pancasila Sila 2 Chain.svg

The Chain

In the bottom right quarter, on a red background, is a chain made up of square and round links. This chain represents successive human generations, with the round links representing women and the square links representing men. The chain corresponds to the second principle of the Pancasila, of belief in a commonly bound humanity.

Pancasila Sila 3 Banyan Tree.svg

The Tree

At the upper right quarter, on a white background, is the banyan tree (Indonesian, beringin). This symbol corresponds to the third Pancasila principle, the unity of Indonesia. The banyan is known for having expansive above-ground roots and branches. The Republic of Indonesia, as an ideal conceived by Sukarno and the Nationalists, is one country out of many far-flung cultural roots.

Pancasila Sila 4 Buffalo's Head.svg

The Bull

In the upper left quarter, on a red background, is the head of the Javanese wild bull, the banteng. This represents the fourth principle of Pancasila, democracy by deliberation and consensus among representatives. The banteng was chosen to symbolize democracy as Indonesians saw it as a social animal. The banteng was also adopted as a symbol of Sukarno's Nationalists, and later by his daughter Megawati Sukarnoputri's Indonesia Democratic Party of Struggle.

Pancasila Sila 5 Rice and Cotton.svg

Rice and Cotton

In the lower left quarter, on a white background, are a gold-and-white paddy and cotton. These represent the fifth Pancasila principle of social justice. The rice and cotton represent sustenance and livelihood.


See also

References

  • Department of Information, Republic of Indonesia (1999) Indonesia 1999: An Official Handbook (No ISBN)

Notes

  1. ^ Lambang Garuda Pancasila Dirancang Seorang Sultan
  2. ^ Kepustakaan Presiden Republik Indonesia, Hamid II
  3. ^ Lambang Garuda Pancasila Dirancang Seorang Sultan
  4. ^ Purwadi, Kisah cinta Ken Arok-Ken Dedes. Media Abadi: 2004. ISBN 9793525088: 200 pages. PP 155-157.
  5. ^ Wahyu Ernawati: Chapter 8 The Lombok Treasure in Colonial collections revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Volume 152 of CNWS publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 9789057891526. 296 pages. pp186-203
  6. ^ Bhinneka Tunggal Ika:

    Rwâneka dhâtu winuwus Buddha Wiswa, Bhinnêki rakwa ring apan kena parwanosen, Mangka ng Jinatwa kalawan Siwatatwa tunggal, Bhinnêka tunggal ika tan hana dharma mangrwa.

  7. ^ Santoso, Soewito Sutasoma. 1975. A Study in Old Javanese Wajrayana. New Delhi: International Academy of Culture. 1975. Page 578.
  8. ^ Heri Akhmadi, 2009. Breaking the Chains of Oppression of the Indonesian People. ISBN 9786028397414. Equinox 2009. 276 pages. xcviii, footnote 65.
  9. ^ http://www.depkumham.go.id/xdepkumhamweb/xPeraturan/xUUD
  10. ^ Keputusan Presiden No. 4/1993, issued on 10 January 1993, the status of Elang Jawa (Javan Hawk-eagle) as the national bird of Indonesia (Widyastuti 1993, Sözer et al. 1998).
  11. ^ Department of Information, Republic of Indonesia (1999), pp46-47



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