- Timeline of Indonesian history
This is a timeline of
Pleistocene: The modern geological form of Indonesia appears, linked to Asian mainland.
*2 million to 500,000 years ago: Indonesia is inhabited by
Homo erectus, now popularly known as the ' Java Man'. [cite journal |last=Pope |title=Recent advances in far eastern paleoanthropology |journal=Annual Review of Anthropology |volume=17 |pages=43–77 |publisher=Annual Review |date=1988 |accessdate= |doi=10.1146/annurev.an.17.100188.000355 cited in cite book |last=Whitten |first=T |coauthors=Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. |title=The Ecology of Java and Bali |publisher=Periplus Editions Ltd |date=1996 |location=Hong Kong |pages=309-312 |id=; cite journal |last=Pope |first=G |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Evidence on the Age of the Asian Hominidae |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |volume=80 |issue=16 |pages=4,988–4992 |publisher=National Academy of Sciences |date=August 15, 1983 |url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/16/4988 |accessdate=|pmid=6410399|doi=10.1073/pnas.80.16.4988 cited incite book |last=Whitten |first=T |coauthors=Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. |title=The Ecology of Java and Bali |publisher=Periplus Editions Ltd |date=1996 |location=Hong Kong |pages=309 |id=; cited in cite book |last=Whitten |first=T |coauthors=Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. |title=The Ecology of Java and Bali |publisher=Periplus Editions Ltd |date=1996 |location=Hong Kong |pages=309 |id=]
*40,000 BCE: Earliest human societies first thought to have existed in parts of the Indonesian archipelago,
New Guinea, Melanesia, Australia, highlands of the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines. [Taylor (2003), p. 5.]
*3,000 BCE: The modern peoples of Indonesia of
Austronesianorigins are thought to have first reached the northern Philippines. They reach eastern Indonesian and Borneo by 2,000 BCE, and New Guinea, Java and Sumatra between 1,500BCE and 1,000BCE. [Taylor (2003), p. 7.]
*200 BCE: Dvipantara or Jawa Dwipa
Hindukingdom is thought to have existed in Java and Sumatra.
*5th century: Stone inscriptions in west Java announce decrees of
Purnavarman, king of Tarumanagara. [Taylor (2003), p. 19.]
*700 CE: Wet-field rice cultivation, small towns and kingdoms flourish. Trade links are established with both
Chinaand India. [Taylor (2003), pp. 8-9, 15-18]
Sanjaya dynastyfounded around this time according to Canggal inscription. [Miksic (1997)]
*3rd to 15th century: The
Sumatra-based Srivijayanaval kingdom flourishes and declines. [Taylor (2003), pp. 22–26; Ricklefs (1991), p. 3.]
*8th century to 832 CE: The agriculturally-based Buddhist
Sailendrakingdom flourishes and declines. [Miksic (1997)]
*760 CE to 830CE:
BorobudurBuddhist monument constructed. [Taylor (2003), p. 37.]
PrambananHindu temple thought to have been completed. [Miksic (1997)]
*752 to 1045: The Hindu Mataram dynasty flourishes and declines. [Miksic (2003)]
*1006 CE: King Dharmawangsa's Medang kingdom falls under invasion of Wurawari (
Srivijayan ally).Fact|date=April 2008
Airlanggaestablishes the Kingdom of Kahuripan.Fact|date=April 2008
Islamis first thought to establish itself in the Acehregion.
*1293: The Hindu
Majapahitkingdom is founded in eastern Java
Jayanagarasucceeds Kertajasa Jayawardhanaas ruler of Majapahit.Ricklefs (1991), page 18]
*1328: Kalagamet, styled
Jayanagarasucceeds Jayanagara as ruler of Majapahit.
Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara succeeds Jayanagara as ruler of Majapahit; his reign is considered the empire's 'Golden Age'.
*1350: Under its military commander
Gajah Mada, Majapahit stretches over much of modern day Indonesia.
Old Javanesetext " Nagarakertagama" is written.
*1377: Majapahit sends a
punitive expeditionagainst Palembangin Sumatra. Palembang's prince, Parameswara(later Iskandar Syah) flees, eventually finding his way to Malaccaand establishing it as a major international port.
Wikramawardhanasucceeds Sri Rajasanagara as ruler of Majapahit.
*1400s: Islam becomes Indonesia's dominant religion.
Suhitasucceeds Wikramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.
*1447: Wijayaparakramawardhana, succeeds Suhita as ruler of Majapahit.
*1451: Rajasawardhana, born Bhre Pamotan, styled Brawijaya II succeeds Wijayaparakramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.
*1453: Reign of Rajasawardhana ends.
*1456: Girindrawardhana, styled Brawijaya VI becomes ruler of Majapahit.
*1466: Singhawikramawardhana, succeeds Girindrawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.
*1478: Reign of Singhawikramawardhana ends.
*1509: The Portuguese king sends
Diogo Lopes de Sequeirato find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade. After initially receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Syah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape.Ricklefs (1991), p.23] The Javanese fleet is also destroyed in Malacca.
Alfonso de Albuquerqueafter sailing from Portuguese Goa conquers the Sultanate of Malacca with a force of 1,200 and seventeen or eighteen ships.
*1512: The first Portuguese exploratory expedition was sent eastward from Malacca to search for the '
Spice Islands' ( Maluku) led by Francisco Serrão. Serrao is shipwrecked but struggles on to Hitu(northern Ambon) and wins the favour of the local rulers.Ricklefs (1991), page 24]
*1520: In 1520 the Portuguese established a
trading postin the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of Soloras a transit harbour between Malukuand Malacca.
Ali Mughayat Shahof Acehbegins an expansionist campaign capturing Daya on the west Sumatrancoast, and the pepper and gold producing lands on the east coast.
Ferdinand Magellan's expedition reaches Maluku and after trade with Ternatereturns to Europe with a load of cloves.
*1522: The Portuguese ally themselves with the rulers of Ternate and begin construction of a fort.
*1535: The Portuguese in Ternate depose King Tabariji (or Tabarija) and send him to Portuguese Goa where he converts to Christianity and bequeaths his Portuguese godfather
Jordao de Freitasthe island of Ambon.Ricklefs (1991), page 25]
*1546 - 1547:
Francis Xavierworks among the peoples of Ambon, Ternate and Morotai(Moro) laying the foundations for a permanent mission.
*1562: Portuguese Dominican priests build a palm-trunk fortress which Javanese
Muslims burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the Christianisation of the local population.
*1570: Sultan Hairun of Ternate is killed by the Portuguese.
*1575: Following a five-year siege, the Ternateans expel the Portuguese who move to nearby
*1578: The Portuguese establish a fort on
Tidorebut the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.
*1579: The British navigator
Sir Francis Drakepasses through Maluku on his circumnavigation of the world.The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidorebut the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.cite book | last =Miller | first =George (ed.) | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia | publisher =Oxford University Press | date =1996 | location =New York| pages =page xv | url = | doi = | id = ISBN 967-65-3099-9 ]
* 1595: First Dutch expedition to Indonesia sets sail for the East Indies with two hundred and forty-nine men and sixty-four cannons led by
Cornelis de Houtman.Ricklefs (1991), page 27]
* 1596, June: de Houtman’s expedition reaches
Bantenthe main pepper port of West Java where they clash with both the Portuguese and Indonesians. It then sails east along the north coast of Javalosing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayuand killing a local ruler in Madura.
* 1597: de Houtman’s expedition returns to the Netherlands with enough spices to make a considerable profit.
*1598-1599: The Portuguese require an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising.Ricklefs (1991), page 25]
* 1598: More Dutch fleets leave for Indonesia and most are profitble.
* 1599, March: Leaving Europe the previous year, a fleet of twenty-two ships under
Jacob van Neckof five different companies was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku.
* 1599 - 1600: The van Neck expedition returns to Europe. Although eight ships are lost, the expedition makes a 400 per cent profit.
*1600: The Portuguese win a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon. Later in the year, the Dutch join forces with the local Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch would have the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu.
Elizabeth Igrants a charter to the British East India Companybeginning the English advance in Asia.
*1602: The Portuguese send a major (and last) expeditionary force from Malacca which succeeded in reimposing a degree of Portuguese control.
Dutch East India Company(VOC) is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies.Ricklefs (1991), page 28]
*1602, June: British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by
Sir James Lancaster, arrives in Acehand sails on to Bantam where he is allowed to build trading post which becomes the centre of British trade in Indonesia until 1682.Ricklefs (1991), page 29]
*1603: First permanent Dutch trading post is established in
Banten, West Java.
*1604: A second English East India Company voyage commanded by
Sir Henry Middletonreaches Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda. Fierce VOC hostility is encountered in Banda thus beginning Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices
*1605, February: The VOC in alliance with Hitu prepare to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon but the Portuguese surrender.
*1606: A Spanish fleet occupies Ternate and Tidore.
*1610: The VOC establishes the post of Governor General to enable firmer control of their affairs in Asia.
*1611-1617: The English establish trading posts at
Sukadana(southwest Kalimantan), Makassar, Jayakartaand Jeparain Java, and Aceh, Pariamanand Jambiin ( Sumatra) threatening Dutch ambitions for a monopoly on East Indies trade.
*1611: The Dutch establish a post at
Jayakarta(later 'Batavia' and then 'Jakarta').
*1613: The Dutch expel the Portuguese from their
Jan Pieterszoon Coenappointed Governor-General of the VOC who would show he had no scruples about using brute force to establish the VOC on a firm footing.
*1619, 30 May: Coen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, storms the Jayakarta driving out the Banten forces, and from the ashes of Jayakarta, establishes Batavia as the VOC headquarters.
*1620s: Almost the entire native population of
Banda Islandswas deported, driven away, starved to death or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch colonial slave labour.
*1620: Diplomatic agreements in Europe commence a three-year period of cooperation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade.
*1623: In a notorious but disputed incident, known as the '
Amboyna massacre', ten English and ten Japanese traders are arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch Government.cite book | last =Miller | first =George (ed.) | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia | publisher =Oxford University Press | date =1996 | location =New York| pages =p.xvi | url = | doi = | id = ISBN 967-65-3099-9 ] The English quietly withdraw from most of their Indonesian activities (except trading in Bantam) and focus on other Asian interests.
*1636: The Portuguese are expelled again from their Solor fort by the Dutch following a reoccupation.
Sultan Agungof Mataram dies - and is buried at his graveyard at Imogiri
*1667: As a result of the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch secured a worldwide monopoly on
nutmegby forcing England to give up their claim on Run, the most remote of the Banda Islands.
*1700: With the decline of the
spice trade, textiles are now the most important trade item in the Dutch East Indies.Ricklefs (1991), page 63]
*1704-1708: First Javanese War of Succession.Ricklefs (1991), page 82]
Surabayarebels against the VOC.Ricklefs (1991), page 84]
*1712: The first shipment of
coffeefrom Java reaches Amsterdam.Moore (Ed) (1999), p90]
*1719-1723:' Second Javanese War of Succession.
*1735:' Governor-General Dirk van Cloon dies, one of many victims of disease in Batavia.Ricklefs (1991), page 86]
*1740, 9 October: A massacre of Batavia's ethnic Chinese begins after they are suspected by the VOC of planning a rebellion. Approximately 10,000 are killed and the Chinese quarter is burned.Ricklefs (1991), page 87]
*1755, 13 February: The Treaty of Giyanto is signed, effectively partitioning the
Mataram Sultanate. The VOC recognizes Mangkubumi as Sultan Hamengkubuwana I, who rules half of Central Java. Hamengkubuwana I then moves to Yogya and renames the city YogyakartaRicklefs (1991), page 93]
*1769-72: French expeditions capture
cloveplants in Ambon, ending the VOC monopoly of the plant.Ricklefs (1991), page 102]
James Cookstops at Onrust Island in the Bay of Batavia for repairs to his ship Endeavour on his round the world voyage.Heuken (2000), page 307]
*1792, March: Hamengkubuwana I dies.Ricklefs (1991), page 101]
*1800, 1 January: The bankrupt
Dutch East India Company(VOC) is formally dissolved and the nationalised Dutch East Indiesis established.Ricklefs (1991), page 106]
*1870: Beginning of a 'Liberal Policy' of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies.Vickers (2005), page xii]
*1873: The beginning of the bloody
Aceh Warfor Dutch occupation of the province.
*1888: Founding of the shipping line "Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij" (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy.
General van Heutzbecomes chief of staff of Aceh campaign. Wilhelminabecomes queen of the Netherlands.
*1901: Ethical Policy is proclaimed.
*1903: Aceh declared conquered.
*1904: Van Heutz becomes Governor General.
Tirto Adhi Suryofounds civil servants' association " Sarekat Priyayi".
Budi Utomois proclaimed as the first official nationalist movement. Last Balinese rulers wiped out in "puputan" ('suicidal battle to death').
Tirto Adhi Suryofounds the Islamic Traders' League.
*1912: Islamic League (
Sarekat Islam) becomes the first mass-based nationalist party.
World War Ibreaks out; the Netherlands is a neutral country in the war.
*1917: East Indies trade with Europe cut off by the war. Russian Revolution
*1918: Tirto Adhi Suryo dies.
Communist Party of Indonesia("PKI") is founded. Economic downturn.
*1925: Birth of
Pramoedya Ananta Toer. A sharp rise in world commodity prices brings prosperity to the Indies.
Great Depressionin America.
Sukarno's famous nationalist speech, 'Indonesia Accuses', given as defence in his political trial.Vickers (2005), page xiii]
Japanese Occupation (1942 - 1945)
*1942, February: Imperial Japan occupies Indonesia during
World War II, over throwing the Dutch East Indiesand install their own imperial structure.
*1945, 28 May: First meeting of the Investigatory Commission for Indonesian IndependenceSaafroedin et al (1992)] .
*1945, 1 June: Sukarno's "Pancasila" speech
*1945, 16 July: Draft of constitution for the Republic completed.
*1945, 15 August: Japanese surrender to
Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1950)
*1945, 17 August: "Proclamation of Indonesian Independence," signed by
*1945, late August: Republican government established in Jakarta and constitution adopted.
Central Indonesian National Committee(KNIP) established.
*1945, 3 November: Vice President Hatta proclaims right of the people to form political parties.
*1945, 10 November:
Battle of Surabaya.
*1945, August to September: Euphoria of revolution spreads across the country, while local Japanese commanders and their troops often abandoned urban areas to avoid confrontation. Many discreetly allowed Indonesian youths to acquire arms. Republican youths take over infrastructure facilities in large Javan cities and mass pro-Republic rallies are held.
*1946: Social revolutions, including the Three Regions ("Tiga Daerah") Revolt.
*1946: Federal states, including the
State of East Indonesiaare set up by Dutch in the outer islands.
*1947, 25 March:
Linggajati Agreement, first ceasfire.
*1947, 20 July: Major Dutch military offensive to resolve differences by force.
*1948, 19 January:
Renville Agreementestablishes the Van Mook line between Republican and Dutch held territories.
*1948, August: Fall of
Amir Syarifuddingovernment largely from Renville Agreement fallout.
*1948, 18 September to October: Madiun Affair: Communist leaders launch a revolt in
Central Javain an attempt to take over the Revolution but are suppressed by Republican troops.
*1948, 19 December: Dutch undertake second military offensive capturing Republican capital at
Yogyakartaand most of the Republican cabinet. Amir Syarifuddin executed by fleeing Republicans.
Tan Malakaexecuted by Republican Army.
*1949, 1 August: Official ceasefire.
*1949, December: International pressure leads Netherlands Government to transfer power to the
United States of Indonesia(RUSI) at the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference.
*1950, 29 January: General
Sudirman, commander of Indonesia's armed forces, dies at 34
*1950, 25 April: The Republic of South Moluccas (RMS) is proclaimed in Ambon
*1950, 17 August: Following RUSI endorsement of a new constitution, the
federationis dissolved and Sukarno proclaims a unitarystate, the 'Republic of Indonesia'.
*1948 - 1962:
Darul Islamrebellions begin in West Java, spread to other provinces but conclude with the execution of its leader Kartosoewiryo.
*1950, 6 September: The first cabinet of the unitary state is established. It is led by Prime Minister Mohammad Natsir.Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975a)]
*1950, 27 September:Indonesia becomes the 60th member of the
*1951, 21 March: The Natsir cabinet fallsFeith (2002)]
*1951, 26 April: The composition of the new cabinet is announced. The new Prime Minister is Dr. Sukiman Wirjosanjojo.
*1952, 25 February: Amid bitter disputes over the signing of a Mutual Security Agreement with the US, the Sukiman cabinet resigns.
*1952, 3 April: The new cabinet, led by Prime Minister
*1952, 17 October: Army-organized demonstrations take place in Jakarta to demand the dissolution of the legislature. Tank guns and machine guns are trained on the presidential palace..This leads to the suspension of
General Nasutionas army chief of staff following army indiscipline over command and support that threatens the government.Friend (2003), page 528]
*1953, 2 June: The Wilopo cabinet resigns.
*1953, 31 July: After lengthy negotiations, the composition of the new cabinet is announced. Serving his first term as prime minister is Ali Sastroamidjojo.
*1955, March - 1961, August: Regional rebellions in
*1955, 18 - 25 April: The city of
Bandunghosts the Asia-Africa Conference. It is the first meeting of the Non-Aligned Movementand is attended by world leaders including China's Zhou Enlai, India's Nehru, Egypt's Nasser and Yugoslavia's Tito.Friend (2003), page 529]
*1955, 24 July: After a dispute with the Army over appointments, the cabinet resigns.
*1955, 12 August: Led by Prime Minister Burhanuddin Harahap, the new cabinet is sworn in.
*1955, 29 September: Indonesia holds general parliamentary elections; the last free national elections until 1999; support for the parties is widely distributed with four parties each gaining 16-22 per cent and the remaining votes split between 24 parties.
*1955, 15 December: Elections are held for the Constitutional Assembly
*1956, 3 March: The cabinet falls as a result of its policy toward the Dutch.
*1955, 24 March: The second cabinet to be led by Ali Sastroamidjojo takes office.
*1956, 3 May: Indonesia unilaterally abrogates the Round Table Agreement signed with the Dutch in 1949.
*1956, 1 December:
Hattaresigns as vice-president.
*1957, 21 February: President
Sukarnoannounces his "Conception" ("Konsepsi") of the nature of Indonesia. This will eventually lead to Guided Democracy
*1957, March - 1961, August: Regional rebellions in Sumatra and Sulawesi.
*1957, 14 March:
Martial Lawis proclaimed. On the same day, the cabinet resigns.
*1957, 9 April: Sukarno appoints a "Working Cabinet" with Djuanda as prime minister.
*1957, 30 November: An attempt is made to assassinate President Sukarno. Grenades are thrown at him as he visits a school in Cikini, Jakarta.
*1958, May 18:
US Air Forcepilot Allen Popeis shot down over Ambon, revealing covert American support of regional rebellions, and ends the Dulles brothers' failure to subvert the Sukarnogovernment.
*1959, 5 July: With armed forces support, Sukarno issues a decree dissolving the Constituent Assembly and reintroducing the Constitution of 1945 with strong presidential powers, and assumes the additional role of Prime Minister, which completes the structure of 'Guided Democracy'.
*1959, 10 July: President Sukarno appoints a "Working Cabinet" with himself as prime minister.Simanjuntak(2003)]
*1950/60s: Military articulation of doctrines "
dwifungsi" and " hankamrata": a military role in sociopolitical development as well as security; a requirement that the resources of the people be at the call of the armed forces.
*1960, 9 March Second Lieutenant Daniel Alexander Maukar of the
Indonesian Air Forceuses a MiG-17 fighter to strafe the Presidential Palace in Jakarta, oil tanks at Tanjung Priok in North Jakartaand then the Bogor Palace.
*1960, 18 February: President Sukarno reshuffles the cabinet and appoints the second "Working Cabinet".
*1950, 24 June:The House of Representatives-Mutual cooperation (DPR-GR), composed of members chosen by President
*1960, 17 August:Indonesia severs diplomatic links with the Netherlands in protest over its refusal to hand over
*1960, 30 September: President Sukarno addresses the
United NationsGeneral Assembly.
*1961, March 4: An agreement is signed in Jakarta with the
Soviet Unionto buy arms with long term loans.
*1961, 17 August:Building officially starts on the Monas National Monument in the center of Jakarta.
*1962, January 2:The Manadala Command to "free"
West Papuafrom the Dutch is established. Its commander is Brigadier general Suharto.
*1962, 15 January: Deputy chief of staff of the
Indonesian NavyCommodore Yos Sudarso is killed in a Dutch air attack on the motor torpedo boat ( MTB) force he is commanding.
*1962, 8 March:President Sukarno again reshuffles his cabinet.
*1962, 15 August:The
New York Agreementtransferring sovereignty of West Papua to Indonesia is signed at the United Nations.
*1962, 24 August - 4 September: Indonesia hosts the Fourth
*1963, 18 May: Parliament elects Sukarno 'President-for-life'.
*1963, 1 May: Following pressure from the
United Nationsand the American government of President John F. Kennedy, the Netherlandsyields West Irian (Papua) to temporary UN supervision.
*1963 - 1965: Sole years of American Peace Corps program in Indonesia.
*1963, 18 September': Following demonstrations in Jakarta to protest at the creation of
Malaysia, the British Embassy is burned by a mob.
*1963, 13 November: President Sukarno conducts the final reshuffle of the "Working Cabinet".
*1963 - 1965: Sukarno leads the "
Konfrontasi" campaign against the newly created Malaysia.
*1964, 27 August: President Sukarno appoints the Dwikora Cabinet
*1965, 7 January: Indonesia withdraws from membership of the UN.Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975b)]
*1965, 14 January: The Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) calls for workers and peasants to be armed.
*1965, 11-16 April: The Third Session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly is held in
*1965, 26 May: Foreign Minister
Subandrioreports to President Sukarno the existence of the Gilchrist Document, a letter purporting to be from the British ambassador which discusses western military involvement in Indonesia.
*1965, 30 September: An abortive coup in
Jakartaresults in the murder of six army generals, and disposal of bodies at Lubang Buaya.
*1965, 1 October: A counter coup led by General Suharto that leads to the Overthrow of Sukarno
*1965, October to 1966, March: A violent anti-communist purge leads to the killing of approximately 1/2 million Indonesians.
*1965, 14 October: President Sukarno appoints Major General
SuhartoMinister/Commander of the Army.
*1965, 16 October: The Jakarta Military Command temporarily suspends the activities of the PKI and its organizations in the Jakarta region.
*1965, 13 December: The rupiah is devalued by a factor of 1,000 in an effort to control inflation.
*1966, 10 January: Anti-communist organizations grouped under the Pancasila Front issue the "Three Demands of the People" (Tritura), namely the dissolution of the PKI, the cleansing of the cabinet of elements involved in the 30 September Movement, and lower prices and economic improvements.
*1966, 14 February: The Extraordinary Military Court trials of people allegedly involved in the 30 September Movement begin.
*1966, 24 February: President Sukarno reshuffles his cabinet, creating what becomes known as the "cabinet of 100 ministers".
*1966, 11 March: General Suharto forces Sukarno to delegate presidential powers to himself by signing the "
Supersemar". The following day, Suharto dissolves the Indonesian Communist Party.Vickers (2005), page xiv]
*1966, 18 March: A total of 14 cabinet ministers are taken into "protective custody".
*1966, 2 May: Following large-scale demonstrations, the leadership of the Mutual-Assistance House of Representatives (DPR-GR) is replaced.
*1966, 20 June-5 July: The Fourth Session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly is held in
Jakarta. It raises the status of the Supersemar into a decree, meaning Sukarno cannot revoke it, bans the PKI and its teachings and rejects Presidents Sukarno's accountability speech.
*1966, 11 August: Indonesia and
Malaysiaagree to normalize diplomatic relations.
*1966, 28 September: Indonesia rejoins the
*1967, 10 January: New investment laws designed to bring in foreign capital are passed; restrictions are introduced regarding status of
Indonesian Chinese, their names and their religions.
*1967, 22 February: In a ceremony at the presidential palace, Sukarno hands over authority to Suharto.
*1967, 7-12 March: A Special Session of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly strips Sukarno of his powers and appoints Suharto acting president.
*1967, 1 October: Diplomatic relations with the
People's Republic of Chinaare suspended.
*1968, March: Parliament confers full presidential title on Suharto; Sukarno is under effective house arrest.
*1968 - 1971:
Soedjatmokois Indonesian ambassador to the United States; bilateral relations warm.
*1969: Papuan representatives agree to join Indonesia following the controversial '
Act of Free Choice'.
*1970, 21 June: Sukarno dies. He is buried at
Blitar, East Java.
Nurcholish Madjid, a young Muslimmodernist, begins to lay out religious developmental principles for Indonesia—'Islam, yes; Islamic party, no'.
*1971, 3 July: Indonesia's second parliamentary election and the first under the New Order is held.
Golkarwins an outright majority.
*1971: Suharto's wife inspired by a visit to
Disneyland, conceives a national cultural theme park.Friend (2003), page 530]
*1973: Government forces fusion of political parties; Nationalist and Christian parties are merged into the
Indonesian Democratic Party(PDI) and Muslim parties into the United Development Party(PPP). The new three party system is dominated by Golkar.
*1974: The 'Malari' uprising in Jakarta against
Japanese penetration of the economy, Chinese Indonesianinfluence, and official corruption.
*1975, April: Mrs Suharto dedicates the vast 'Beautiful Indonesia-in-Miniature Park' ("Taman Mini") on the outskirts of Jakarta.
*1975, April: Civil war breaks out in the former Portuguese colony of
*1975, 6 December: U.S. President
Gerald Fordand Secretary of State Kissinger, returning from China, make a hastily rescheduled one-day visit to Jakarta.
*1975, 7 December: Indonesia launches an invasion of East Timor.
*1976, March: General
Ibnu Sutowois 'dismissed with honour' after a decade as head of Pertamina, the state oil corporation.
*1976, 17 July: Suharto signs a bill integrating East Timor into Indonesia as its 27th province.
*1976, 19 November:
UN General Assemblyrejects Indonesia's annexation of East Timor.
*1977: The United States surpasses Japan as Indonesia's biggest oil customer.
Sawito Kartowibowo's trial for 'subversion' begins.
People's Consultative Assembly(MPR) elevates Pancasila to the status of compulsory moral education of youth and government officials.
*1978: Suharto appoints B.J. Habibie as state minister for research and technology.
*1979, December: Writer
Pramoedya Ananta Toeris released after fourteen years imprisonment with hard labour on Buru Island.
*1980, May: The
Petition of Fifty—a statement of concern to parliament about the use of government power, propaganda, and presidential personality cult—is begun.
*1982 - 1983: The height of "Petrus" ('mysterious shootings') of thousands of suspected criminals by government security forces.
Prabowo Subianto, then a major in ABRImarries Suharto's daughter Titiekat Taman Mini.
*1984, 12 September: Muslim concerned protesting over alleged insensitivities to Islam at
Tanjung Priok; a riot ensues resulting in many deaths. Clamp down on Islamic political leaders.
*1984, December: Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur) is elected chairman of
Nahdlatul Ulamaa position previously held by both his father and grandfather.
*1985: The Indonesian government require all organisations of any kind to adopt Pancasila as their sole basis.
*1987: Sukarno's daughter
Megawati Sukarnoputribecomes a member of parliament; Suharto prohibits display of images of Sukarno although they appear frequently nonetheless.Friend (2003), page 531]
*1988: Suharto is elected to a fifth term as president.
*1989: The Free Aceh Movement (GAM) reemerges following its 1976 founding; suppression of its guerilla activities leads to 2,000 deaths by 1991 in
*1991: Indonesia wins presidency of the Non-Aligned Movement.
*1991, 12 November: ABRI troops fire on demonstrative funeral procession in
Dili, East Timor. TV images of the killings put East Timor high on the international human rights agenda.
*1992: Suharto successfully defies Dutch efforts to link human rights to aid administerd since 1967 by the International Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI).
*1992-1993: East Timorese resistance leader
Xanana Gusmãois captured by Prabowo and is tried and sentenced.
* 1993: Suharto seeks a sixth term and is easily re-elected.
* 1994, June: Suharto shuts down "Tempo" and two other publications for critical reporting of Habibie’s purchase of the former East German navy.
* 1996: The Free Papua Movement (OPM) kidnaps fourteen scientists and foresters in Iran Jaya garnering international attention. After four months, the abductees are rescued in a bloody operation lead by Prabowo.
* 1996, April: Ibu Tien Suharto, the president’s wife of 48 years, dies of a heart attack.
* 1996, July: Military-backed thugs burst into headquarters of PDI, Megawati's party, and evict her supporters in a violent climax to government efforts to vitiate her party’s popularity.
* 1997, February: Alarmed at a "dukun's" prediction that 'the nail of Java has come loose', Suharto commands a massive "Ruat Dunia" ceremony ('Cleansing of the world') near
* 1997, June:
Pacific Oceantrade winds shift heralding the onset of the El Niño; severe drought across much of Indonesia follows in the ensuing months accompanied by highly destructive forest fires.
*1997, July: The collapse of the Thai "
baht" starts the East Asian financial crisisand over the ensuing months Indonesia is the country hardest hit.
*1997 - 1998: Severe social unrest breaks out across Indonesian cities against Chinese Indonesians, Christians, symbols of wealth, the police and bureaucracy.
*1998, 11 March: Suharto unanimously elected by the MPR to his seventh presidential term.Friend (2003), page 532]
*1998, late March: Largely peaceful student demonstrations against the regime rise to national prominence.
*1998, 12 May: Four student demonstrators at
Trisakti Universityare shot dead by bullets unproven but thought likely to have been from army sources.
*1998, 13 May: Memorial services for killed students leads to vandalism, arson, looting and rape by roving mobs which continue unchecked by security forces for two days leaving 1,200 dead.
*1998, 20 May: For National Awakening Day,
Amien Raispledges to bring a million protestors into the streets to demonstrate against at the National Monument in Jakarta. Faced with barbed wire and massed troops he calls off the rally fearing bloodshed.
*1998, 21 May, 9 a.m.: After being deserted by his cabinet, Suharto resigns the presidency.
*1998, August: General Wiranto announces the discharge of Lieutenant General Prabowo from active duty, with full pension benefits—and without court-martial for allegations of abduction and torture of student activist (some of whom remain missing as of 2003).
*1998, 10 November: Megawati, Rais, and the sultan of Yogya, meet at Wahid's home in
Ciganjur, and issue a series of statements including a demand for the military to end their role in politics within six years.
*1998, 13 November: On the last day of the MPR sessions, soldiers open fire on demonstrating students killing at least fifteen and injuring hundreds.
*1999, 19 January: An petty argument between in the city of Ambon triggers Christian-Muslim clashes that last for three years across
Maluku. As many as 10,000 are killed and 700,000 or one third of the region are displaced.
*1999, 7 June: Indonesia's first free and fair national elections since 1955 take place with almost no disruption and wide participation. Votes however are distributed across forty-eight parties with no party achieving a majority.
East Timorvotes to secede from Indonesia in a referendum conducted under UN auspices. Four-fifths of voters choose independence for East Timor over integration with Indonesia. Pro-integration militias trained and paid by ABRI immediately resort to a scorched earth policy that leaves 1,000 dead and most of the territory's infrastructure ruined.
*1999, 13 September: President Habibie relents to international pressure and allows a UN peacekeeping force known as '
INTERFET' to enter East Timor and restore order.
*1999, October: The Indonesian parliament rejects President Habibie's accountability speech. Wahid who's party received one eighth of the popular vote is elected president by the MPR. Megawati who's party received one third of the vote (the highest) is elected vice president.Friend (2003), page 533]
*2000, Christmas Eve: In a coordinated attack involving more than three dozen sites across the country, churches are bombed and eighteen people killed. It is later proven to have been planned by
Jemaah Islamiyahin retaliation for Christian killings of Muslims in the Maluku conflict.
*2001 - Ethnic violence in Kalimantan as indigenous Dayaks force out Madurese transmigrants. Mass political demonstrations by Wahid's supporters and opponents. IMF stops further loans citing lack of progress in tackling corruption.
*2000 - 2001: President Wahid's administration is marred by failures to stabilise the economy, patterns of political favouritism, economic corruption (although Wahid himself is not accused of corruption), inability to reform the military, personal eccentricity and pettiness, ineffectiveness in dealing with major religious violence in Maluku and Sulawesi, major ethnic violence (
Dayaks vs. Madurese) in Kalimantan, and separatisms in Aceh and Irian Jaya.
*2001, July: President Wahid is impeached chiefly on grounds of incompetence. The parliament elects Megawati president by 592 votes to 0.
Hamzah Hazdefeats Akbar Tandjungand Lieutenant General (ret.) Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
*2001, September: President Megawati visits President George Bush a week after the 9/11 terrorist attacks and welcomes American investment. On her return to Indonesia, the Islamic right criticises her cooperation with America's war in
Afghanistan, and the nationalist left criticises here for being too suppliant to foreign investors.
*2002: Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, the largest Muslim organisations in Indonesia, issue joint statements critical of militant Islamists.
*2002, February: Peace talks in
Maliano, South Sulawesiappear to end three years of Christian-Muslim violence in Maluku and Poso.
Tommy Suhartois sentenced to fifteen years jail for illegal possession of arms, contempt of law, and masterminding the assassination of a Supreme Court judge who had convicted him for graft.
*2002, September: House Speaker Akbar Tandjung is sentenced to three years jail for corruption.
*2002, October 12: Bombs in the
Kutanightclub district in Balikill 202 people the world's deadliest terrorist attack since 11 September, 2001. Indonesian police, aided by ten nations, track down Jemaah Islamiyah operatives.
Eurico Guterresis sentenced to ten years prison for crimes committed following the 1999 ballot in East Timor.
*2002, December: The Indonesian government and GAM sign a peace accord aimed at ending decades of violence in Aceh. The deal breaks down the following year.
*2003, August: Jemaah Islamiyah bomb Jakarta's Marriott hotel killing twelve. All but one of those killed are Indonesians.
*2004, April: Parliamentary and local elections: Golkar party of former President Suharto wins greatest share of vote, with Megawati Sukarnoputri's PDI-P coming second.cite web
last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Timeline: Indonesia | work =BBC News | publisher =BBC | date =23 August 2007 | url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1260546.stm | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-09-03 ]
*2004, October: Indonesia's first direct presidential election elects Bambang Yudhoyono following popular disillusionment with incumbent Megawati.
*2004, 9 September: A bomb blast outside the
Australianembassy in Jakarta kills 11 and injures up to 100 people.
*2004, 26 December: An earthquake-triggered tsunami kills an estimated 160,000 and causes widespread devastation.
*2005: Bombings in Bali kill 20 people.
*2005: Government and
Free Aceh Movementseparatists sign a peace deal providing for rebel disarmament and the withdrawal of government soldiers from the province. Rebels begin handing in weapons in September; government completes troop pull-out in December.
*2006, May: A powerful earthquake kills thousands of people in the
Yogyakartaregion in central Java.
Adam AirFlight 574 crashes into the sea off Sulawesi, killing all 102 onboard.
Suhartodies from multiple organ failure. [cite web| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7211565.stm| title= Indonesia ex-leader Suharto dies] He is buried in the family Mausoleum near Solo. [ [http://www.tempointeraktif.com/hg/nasional/2008/01/28/brk,20080128-116371,id.html tempointeraktif.com (Indonesian)] ]
* Feith, Herbert (2007) "The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia " Equinox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd, ISBN 979-3870-45-2
* Heuken SJ, A (2000). "Historical Sites of Jakarta". Cipta Loka Caraka, Jakarta
* Miksic, John (1997). "Java's Ancient "Indianized" Kingdoms". Found in Citation | last = Oey | first = Eric (ed) | title = Java | place = Singapore | publisher = Periplus Editions | year = 1997 | edition = Third | isbn = 962-593-244-5.
* Moore, R.I (General Editor)(1999). "Philip's Atlas of World History". Chancellor Press. ISBN 0-75370-085-9
* Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). "A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200". Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4480-7
* Saafroedin Bahar,Ananda B.Kusuma,Nannie Hudawati, eds, (1992) "Risalah Sidang Badan Penyelidik Usahah Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesian (BPUPKI) Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI) (Minutes of the Meetings of the Agency for Investigating Efforts for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence)", Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia, Jakarta
* Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975a) "30 Tahun Indonesia Merdeka: Jilid 2 (1950-1964) (30 Years of Indonesian Independence: Volume 2 (1950-1964)"
* Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975b) "30 Tahun Indonesia Merdeka: Jilid 3 (1965-1973) (30 Years of Indonesian Independence: Volume 3 (1965-1973)"
* Simanjuntak, P.H.H (2003) "Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi (Cabinets of the Republic of Indonesia: From the Start of Independence to the Reform era", Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta, ISBN 979-428-499-8
*cite book |last=Taylor |first=Jean Gelman|title=Indonesia |publisher=Yale University Press |date= |location=New Haven and London |id=ISBN 0-300-10518-5
History of Indonesia
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