- Papua (Indonesian province)
Infobox Provinces of Indonesia
name = Province of Papua
motto =Karya Swadaya
administrative= 27 districs, 2 cities, 214 wards
ethnicity=Indigenous: Melanesian (including
Aitinyo, Aefak, Asmat, Agast, Dani, Ayamaru, Mandacan Biak, Serui), Non-indigenous (including Javanese, Bugis, Bataknese, Minahasanese, Chinese.)
Protestant(51.2%), Roman Catholic(25.42%), Islam(23%), others (2.5%)
language=Indonesian (official), 200-700 indigenous Papuan and
Papua is the largest province of
Indonesia, comprising a majority part of the western half of the island of New Guineaand nearby islands (see also Western New Guinea). The province originally covered the entire western half of New Guinea, but in 2003, the western portion of the province, on the Bird's Head Peninsula, was declared by the Indonesian Governmentas a separate province named West Irian Jaya (now West Papua). The legality of this separation has been disputed as it appears to conflict with the conditions of the Special Autonomy status awarded to Papua in the year 2000, but it has already resolved as of early 2007.
"Papua" is the official Indonesian and internationally recognised name for the province. During the Dutch colonial era the region was known as part of "Dutch New Guinea" or "
Netherlands New Guinea". The province was known as "West Irian" or "Irian Barat" from 1969 to 1973, and then renamed "Irian Jaya" (roughly translated, "Glorious Irian") by the Suhartoadministration. This was the official name until "Papua" was adopted in 2002. Today, natives of this province prefer to call themselves Papuans rather than Irianese. This may be due to etymology (variously identified as a real etymologyor a folk etymology) of the name Irian which stems from the acronym "Ikut Republik Indonesia, Anti Nederland" (join/follow the Republic of Indonesia, rejecting The Netherlands).Fact|date=March 2007
The name "West Papua" was adopted in 1961 by the
New Guinea Counciluntil the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA) transferred administration to the Republic of Indonesia in 1963. "West Papua" has since been used among Papuan separatists and usually refers to the whole of the Indonesian portion of New Guinea. The other Indonesian province that shares New Guinea, West Irian Jaya, has been officially renamed as "West Papua".
The province of Papua is governed by a directly-elected governor (currently
Barnabas Suebu) and a regional legislature, DPRP (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Papua). A unique government organisation that only exists in Papua is the MRP (Majelis Rakyat Papua / Papuan People's Council) that was formed by the Indonesian Government in 2005 as a coalition of Papuan tribal chiefs, tasked with arbitration and speaking on behalf of Papuan tribal customs.
Indonesian governance of Papua is controversial with international opinion varying a great deal. Some view it as naked
colonialism, others maintain that Indonesia represents a legitimate authority with a willing people.Fact|date=January 2008 Frank expression of views is complicated by the delicate and troubled relationship many nations have with Indonesia. The Free Papua Movementstrives for independence of the area from Indonesia. Like the rest of Indonesia, governance of the province has traditionally been strong and centralised from Jakarta. Papua was a major beneficiary of a nation-wide decentralisation process started in 1999 and the Special Autonomy status introduced in 2002. Measures included the formation of the MRP and redistribution of resource revenues. The implementation, however, of the Special Autonomy measures has been criticized by many as only being half-hearted.Fact|date=February 2007
In 1999 it was proposed to split the province into three government-controlled sectors, sparking Papuan protests (see [http://www.worldevangelical.org/persec_papua_21nov03.html external article] ). In January 2003 President
Megawati Sukarnoputrisigned an order dividing Papua into three provinces: Central Irian Jaya (Irian Jaya Tengah), Papua (or East Irian Jaya, Irian Jaya Timur), and West Papua (Irian Jaya Barat). The formality of installing a local government for Jaraka in Irian Jaya Barat (West) took place in February 2003 and a governor was appointed in November; a government for Irian Jaya Tengah (central) was delayed from August 2003 due to violent local protests. The creation of this separate central province was blocked by Indonesian courts, who declared it to be unconstitutional and in contravention of the Papua's special autonomy agreement. The previous division into two provinces was allowed to stand as an established fact. (King, 2004, p. 91)
In January 2006, 43 refugees landed on the coast of Australia and stated that the Indonesian military is carrying out a genocide in Papua. They were transported to an Australian immigration detention facility on
Christmas Island, 360 km south of the western end of Java. On March 23, 2006, the Australian government granted temporary visas to 42 of the 43 asylum seekers (the 43rd, who had a Japanese visa at the time of his arrival, finally received an Australian visa in early August 2006). [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4835788.stm "Papua refugees get Australia visa"] , "BBC News" - 23 March 2006] On March 24 2006 Indonesia recalled its ambassador to Australia. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4839762.stm "Indonesia recalls Australia envoy"] , "BBC News" - 24 March 2006]
Indonesia structures regions by regencies and subdistricts within those. Though names and areas of control of these regional structures can vary over time in accord with changing political and other requirements, in 2005 Papua province consisted of 19 regencies ("kabupaten").
The regencies ("kabupaten") are: Asmat;
Biak-Numfor; Boven Digoel; Jayapura; Jayawijaya; Keerom; Mappi; Merauke; Mimika; Nabire; Paniai; Pegunungan Bintang; Puncak Jaya; Sarmi; Supiori; Tolikara; Waropen; Yahukimoand Yapen Waropen. In addition to these, the city of Jayapuraalso has the status of a regency. Jayapura, founded on 7 March 1910as "Hollandia", had by 1962 developed into a city with modern civil, educational, and medical services. Since Indonesian administration these services have been replaced by Indonesian equivalents such as the TNI (the army) replacing the Papua Battalion. The name of the city has been changed to Kotabaru, then to Sukarnopura and finally to its current official name. Among ethnic Papuans, it is also known as Port Numbai, the former name before the arrival of immigrants.
Jayapura is the largest city, boasting a small but active tourism industry, it is built on a slope overlooking the bay.
Cenderawasih University("UNCEN") campus at Abepura houses the University Museum. Both Tanjung Riabeach, near the market at Hamadi—site of the 22 April1944 Allied invasion during World War II—and the site of General Douglas MacArthur's World War II headquarters at Ifar Gununghave monuments commemorating the events.
A central east-west
mountain rangedominates the geography of New Guinea, over 1600 km in total length. The western section is around 600 km long and 100 km across. The province contains the highest mountains between the Himalayasand the Andes, rising up to 4884 m high, and ensuring a steady supply of rain from the tropical atmosphere. The tree lineis around 4000 m elevationand the tallest peaks contain permanent equatorial glaciers, increasingly melting due to a changing climate. Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both north and west of the central ranges. Except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season.
The third major habitat feature are the vast southern and northern lowlands. Stretching for hundreds of kilometers, these include lowland rainforests, extensive
wetlands, savannagrasslands, and some of the largest expanses of mangroveforest in the world. The southern lowlands are the site of Lorentz National Park, also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Mamberamoriver, sometimes referred to as the "Amazon of Papua" is the province's largest river which winds through the northern part of the province. The result is a large area of lakes and rivers known as the Lakes Plains region. The famous Baliem Valley, home of the Dani people is a tableland 1600 m above sea level in the midst of the central mountain range; Puncak Jaya, sometimes known by its former Dutch name Carstensz Pyramid, is a mist covered limestonemountain peak 4884 m above sea level.
The following are some of the most well-known tribes of Papua:
The population of Papua province and the neighboring West Papua province, both of which are still under a united administration, totalled 2,646,489 in 2005. [ [http://irja.bps.go.id/LEFT%20FRAME/Proyeksi%20Penduduk%20%20menurut%20Kabupaten.htm BPS Papua] ] Since the early 1990s Papua has had the highest population growth rate of all Indonesian provinces at over 3% annually. This is partly a result of high birth rates, but also from immigration from other regions in Indonesia.
According to the 2000 census, 78% of the Papuans identified themselves as Christian with 54% being Protestant and 24% being Roman Catholic. 21% of the population was Muslim and less than 1% were Buddhist or Hindu. [ [http://eng.papua.go.id/profil/profilpapua.html Profile of Papua - official website] ] There is also substantial practice of
animismby Papuans, which is not recognized by the Indonesian government in line with the policy of Pancasila.Fact|date=February 2007
A vital tropical rainforest with the tallest tropical trees and vast biodiversity, Papua's known forest fauna includes
marsupials(including possums, wallabies, tree-kangaroos, cuscuses), other mammals (including the endangered Long-beaked Echidna), many bird species (including birds of paradise, cassowaries, parrots, cockatoos), the world's longest lizards (Papua monitor) and the world's largest butterflies.
The island has an estimated 16,000 species of plant, 124 genera of which are endemic.
The extensive waterways and wetlands of Papua are also home to salt and freshwater
crocodile, tree monitors, flying foxes, osprey, batsand other animals; while the equatorial glacier fields remain largely unexplored.
In February 2006, a team of scientists exploring the
Foja Mountains, Sarmi, discovered numerous new species of birds, butterflies, amphibians, and plants, including a species of rhododendronwhich may have the largest bloom of the genus. [Robin McDowell, [http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/story.html?id=978c0a2b-4d79-4d09-b5a6-074e7daaabb9 "'Lost world' yields exotic new species"] , Associated Pressstory in "The Vancouver Sun", February 8 2006]
Ecological threats include logging-induced
deforestation, forest conversion for plantation agriculture (especially oil palm), smallholder agricultural conversion, the introduction and potential spread of non-native alien species such as the Crab-eating Macaquewhich preys on and competes with indigenous species, the illegal species trade, and water pollution from oil and mining operations.
Papua's ancient rain forests have recently come under an even greater threat of deforestation after the Chinese government has placed an order of 1 billion US dollar or 800,000 cubic meters of the threatened
merbau(intsia spp) rainforest timbers, to be used in constructions for the 2008 Summer Olympics[http://www.rainforestportal.org/alerts/send.asp?id=olympic_timber]
In remote forested valleys, several thousand small-holder farmers are growing Arabica coffee in the shade of Kaliandara, Erytrhina and Abizia trees. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are not available in these valleys. Since there are no roads, the coffee is being flown out and then exported from the port of Jayapura. [Papuan specialty coffee: [http://www.papuanspecialtycoffees.com] , Retrieved on
British New Guinea
Dutch New Guinea
Free Papua Movement
German New Guinea
Human rights in western New Guinea
Western New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
* [http://www.papua.go.id/ Official website]
* [http://www.irja.org/index2.shtml Online Library West Papua]
* [http://www.eco-action.org/ssp/resources.html#westpapua Solidarity South Pacific - West Papua]
* [http://www.papuaweb.org/info/news/index.html PapuaWeb]
* [http://www.law.yale.edu/outside/html/Public_Affairs/426/westpapuahrights.pdf "Human Abuse in West Papua - Application of Law to Genocide"]
* [http://www.nzz.ch/dossiers/2001/westpapua/2000.12.22-engl-article72F07.html "Prison, Torture and Murder in Jayapura - Twelve Days in an Indonesian Jail" ("Neue Zürcher Zeitung", 2000)]
* [http://www.papuaweb.org/goi/pp/peta-hr.gifMap showing the three new provinces]
* [http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB128/index.htm Declassified US documents on "Act of free choice"]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=IDP Languages and Ethnic Groups of Papua Province, SIL Ethnologue]
* [http://russbaker.com/The%20Nation%20-%20The%20Deforesting%20of%20Irian%20Jaya.htm The Deforesting of Irian Jaya, 1994]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20040726043852/veederandld.20m.com/primnews/10201.html Monkeys Threaten New Guinea's Wildlife] , October 2, 2001, Wall Street Journal (archived)
* [http://www.sidsnet.org/archives/biodiversity-newswire/2001/0055.html An article on biodiversity]
* [http://www.wetlands.or.id/irj20.htm Wetlands Study]
* King, Peter, "West Papua Since Suharto: Independence, Autonomy, or Chaos?". University of New South Wales Press, 2004, ISBN 0-86840-676-7.
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