Shivaji

Shivaji
Shivaji Raje Bhosle
Chhatrapati

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Reign 1642–1680 CE
Coronation 6 June 1674
Full name Shivaji Shahaji Raje Bhonsle
Marathi छत्रपति शिवाजीराजे भोसले (Chhatrapati Shivajiraje Bhonsle)
Titles Kshatriya Kulavataunsha.
Born 19 February 1627[1][2]
Birthplace Shivneri Fort, near Pune, India
Died 3 April 1680, Tuesday
Place of death Raigad Fort
Successor Sambhaji
Wives Sai bai (Nimbalkar)
Soyarabai (Mohite)
Putalabai (Palkar)
Laxmibai (Vichare)
Kashibai (Jadhav)
Sagunabai (Shirke)
Gunvantibai (Ingale)
Sakavaarbai (Gaikwad)[3][4]
Offspring Sambhaji, Rajaram, and six daughters Sakhubai Nimbalkar, Ranubai Jadhav, Ambikabai Mahadik, Deepabai, Rajkunvarbai Shirke, Kamlabai Palkar.
Father Shahaji
Mother Jijabai
Religious beliefs Hinduism
Maratha empire was founded by Chhatrapati Shivaji

Shivaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: शिवाजीराजे भोसले [ʃiʋaˑɟiˑraˑɟeˑ bʱoˑs(ə)leˑ]; 19 February 1630 – 3 April 1680), with the royal title Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी महाराज), was a Maratha aristocrat of the Bhonsle clan who founded the Maratha empire.[5][6] Shivaji led a resistance to free the Maratha kingdom from the Sultanate of Bijapur, and establish Hindavi Swarajya ("self-rule of Hindu people"[7]). He created an independent Maratha kingdom with Vedant Raigad as its capital,[6] and successfully fought against the Mughals to defend his kingdom.[5] He was crowned as Chhatrapati ("sovereign") of the Maratha kingdom in 1674.[5][6]

He achieved the re-establishment of Hindu rule in the region after being ruled and dominated by various foreign Muslim dynasties for several hundred years. He established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of a well-regulated and disciplined military and well-structured administrative organizations. The prevalent practices of treating women as spoils of war, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji was a religious Hindu.[8] He also innovated rules of military engagement, pioneering the "Shiva sutra" or ganimi kava (guerrilla tactics), which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies[8] and built many sea-forts.[9][10]

Contents

Early life

Chhatrapati's birthplace on Shivneri Fort

Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri, near the Junnar city in Pune district. While his mother Jijabai was pregnant, she had prayed to the local deity Shivai for blessings for her expected child. Shivaji was named after this local deity.[11]

There are no contemporary records of Shivaji's exact birthdate and boyhood.[11] The birthdates of Shivaji given by various records include:

  • the 3rd day of the dark half of Phalguna, 1551 of Shaka calendar (Friday, 19 February 1630).[2] This date is accepted by the Maharashtra state government as the official birthdate of Shivaji.[12]
  • the second day of the light half of Vaisakha in the year 1549 of Saka calendar.[2] (Thursday, 6 April 1627), or other dates near this day.[11][13]

Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle served alongside Malik Ambar, who defended the Deccan region against the Mughals. His mother Jijabai was the daughter of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed. During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates – Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Shahaji kept changing his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, Adil Shah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his ''jagir (fiefdom) at Pune and his small army with him. Gomaji Naik Pansambal, a trusted master of state-craft, was deputed by Lakhuji Jadhavrao to look after Jijabai. He remained with Jijabai and Shivaji throughout his life, and advised Shivaji in making certain crucial decisions which had far-reaching effects on the character of the Maratha empire. Gomaji also taught the art of swordsmanship to Shivaji, and especially the effective use of lance, the characteristic Maratha weapon. Further Shahaji placed his jagir in the poona region under Dadoji Kondev, who had shown good administrative skills as the kulkarni (land-steward) of Malthan. In a short time, Shivaji became a skilled swordsman, strategist and an accomplished horseman, trained rigorously by Maratha warriors like Baji Pasalkar. At the age of 12, Shivaji was taken to Banglore where he was further formally trained. At age of 14, he returned to Pune with a rajmudra (sovereign seal) and council of minister.

Shivaji with Jijamata

Shivaji was extremely devoted to his mother Jijabai, who was deeply religious. This religious environment had a profound influence on Shivaji, and he carefully studied the two great Hindu epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata. The morality and spiritual messages of the epics made a great impression on him. Throughout his life he was deeply interested in religious teachings, and sought the company of Hindu and Sufi (an esoteric Muslim sect) saints throughout his life.[11]

Shivaji drew his earliest trusted comrades and a large number of his soldiers from the Maval region,[which?] including Yesaji Kank, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare. In the company of his Maval comrades, a young Shivaji wandered over the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range, hardening himself and acquiring first-hand knowledge of the land. By 1639, he commanded a hardy and loyal band of officers and soldiers.[11]

Confrontation with the regional sultanates

In 1645, at the age of 16, Shivaji carried out his first military action by attacking and capturing Torna Fort of the Bijapur kingdom. By 1647 he had captured Kondana and Rajgad forts and had control of much of the southern Pune region. By 1654 Shivaji had captured forts in the Western Ghats and along the Konkan coast. In a bid to contain Shivaji, Adilshah imprisoned Shivaji's father in 1648–49 and sent an army led by Farradkhan against Shahji's other son Sambhaji at Bangalore, and another army led by Fattekhan against Shivaji at Purandhar. Both Bhonsle brothers defeated the invading armies. Shivaji petitioned Emperor Shahjahan's son, Dara Shikoh, who was governor of Deccan, pledging his loyalty to the Mughals to seek his support in securing the release of his father. The Mughals recognised Shivaji as a Mughal sardar and pressured Adilshah to release Shahaji. In return Shivaji had to cede a fort and Sambhaji had to cede Bangalore city and a fort to Adilshah.

Battles

Goddess Bhavani giving 'Bhavani Talwar' to Shivaji, at Tuljapur

Pratapgad

Adilshah's attack and negotiations

Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, an experienced and veteran general to destroy Shivaji in an effort to put down what he saw as a regional revolt. Afzal Khan desecrated Hindu temples at Tuljapur and Pandharpur hoping to draw Shivaji to the plains to retaliate with his limited military resources and thus lead him and his budding military power to easy destruction by the numerically bigger, better-armed and more professional Bijapur army. Afzal Khan may have expected Shivaji to meet his army in the plains, however Shivaji, upon carefully weighing his options, decided to meet Afzal Khan on his home turf on pretext of diplomatic negotiations. Shivaji sent a letter to Afzal Khan stating that he was eager for a meeting. The meeting was arranged between Afzal Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort on the day 10 November 1659 Pratapgad.[8]

Afzal Khan and Shivaji conference

This event is one of the most important in Shivaji's life. Shivaji got a pledge from ministers to never submit in case he fell. It is said that during this period, Shivaji had a vision of Goddess Bhavani promising full protection on the confrontation and victory.[14]

Shivaji counter-attacks Afzal Khan

Shivaji armed himself with a concealable weapons: bichhwa (dagger) and wagh nakh (tiger claws) and wore a chilkhat (chain-mail armour) under his clothing for the meeting. What transpired during the meeting was not recorded by scribes, but folklore has it that per then custom they embraced and Afzal Khan stabbed Shivaji in the back. Shivaji survived the attack, protected by the chain mail armour and his agility. He counterattacked and disembowled Afzal Khan with wagh nakh and bichwa which made Afzal Khan stumble on to his knees and then out the tent, collapsing into a waiting palanquin, where he was slain before he could raise the alarm. Meanwhile Krishna Bhasker Kulkarni - Afzal Khan's legal representative and Sayyed Banda - a bodyguard, attacked Shivaji. He responded by killing Bhasker Kulkarni while Jiva Mahal (Shivaji's bodyguard) severed Banda's arm with a slash of his sword.

Meanwhile, Afzal Khan's bearers placed their wounded leader in his palki (litter vehicle), but they were attacked by Sambhaji Kavji. Sambhaji eventually killed Afzal Khan by decapitating him.

Battle of Pratapgarh

In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought in the dense forest of Javli on 10 November 1659, Shivaji's armies attacked Vijapur's (Afzal Khan's) forces and engaged them in swift flanking maneuvers. Maratha troops under Kanhoji Jedhe attacked Afzal Khan's 1,500 strong musketeers and routed them at the foothills of the fort. Then in a rapid march, a section of Adilshahi forces commanded by Musekhan was attacked. Musekhan was wounded and subsequently fled, abandoning his soldiers who were then set upon and decimated by the Marathas.

Commander Moropant Pingale led the infantry in a lighting attack on to the left flank of the Adilshahi troops. Adilshah's artillery was rendered ineffective by the suddenness of this attack at close quarters. At the same time commander Ragho Atre swiftly attacked Adilshahi cavalry before it was fully prepared for battle and almost completely wiped it out. Shivaji's cavalry headed by Netaji Palkar rushed towards Wai in hot pursuit of retreating Adilshahi forces who were attempting to join reserve forces stationed there. The retreating forces of Afzal Khan were engaged in battle and were routed.[8]

Fall of Bijapur Army

This unexpected and unlikely victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. The large quantities of captured weapons, horses, armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha army. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb now identified Shivaji as a major threat to the mighty Mughal Empire. Soon thereafter Shivaji, Shahaji Raje and Netaji Palkar (the chief of the Maratha cavalry) decided to attack and defeat the Adilshahi kingdom at Bijapur. But things did not go as planned as Shahaji's health deteriorated and they were forced to postpone the planned attack. However, Netaji Palkar undertook this mission mounting smaller scale attacks and military harassment of the Adilshahi kingdom.

Subsequently, the Sultan of Bijapur sent an army composed mainly of Afghan mercenaries to subdue and defeat Shivaji before he could substantially expand his army. In the ensuing battle, Bijapur's army was defeated by the Maratha troops. This intense and bloody battle ended in the unconditional surrender of the Bijapuri forces to Shivaji.

Battle of Kolhapur

To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's renowned Abyssinian general Rustamjaman. With a cavalry of 5,000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on 28 December 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while other two portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustamjaman ignominiously fled the battlefield.[8] Adilshahi forces lost about 2,000 horses and 12 elephants to the Marathas. This victory alarmed the mighty Mughal empire who now derisively referred to Shivaji as the "Mountain Rat". Aurangzeb the Mughal emperor was now actively preparing to bring the full might and resources of the Mughal Empire to bear down on the potential Maratha threat.

Siege of Panhala

M.V. Dhurandhar's painting of Shivaji.

Upon the request of Badi Begum of Bijapur, Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle (brother of late Queen Mumtaz Mahal) Shaista Khan, with an army numbering over 100,000 along with a powerful artillery division in January 1660 to defeat Shivaji. Khan was accompanied by eminent commanders like Turktaj, Hussain, Haider, Naamdar Khan, Kartalab Khan, Uzbek Khan, Fateh Jung and Rajputs namely Bhau Singh, Shyam Singh, Rai Singh Sisodiya, Pradyuman and many more.[15] Khan was an experienced commander who had defeated Shahaji in the same region in 1636.[8] He was ordered to attack the Maratha kingdom in conjunction with Bijapur's army led by Siddi Jauhar. Aurangzeb ordered Shaista Khan to capture the Maratha kingdom to add to the empire (he intended to deceive the Adilshah), after Shivaji's expected defeat by Jauhar. Shivaji now prepared to face a combined attack of Mughals and Adilshahi forces.[15]

Per the terms of the Mughal-Adilshahi plan, Adil Shah in 1660 sent Siddi Jauhar, an accomplished general to attack Shivaji on his southern borders, preceding the expected major Mughal attack from the north. He ordered his army of 40,000 north to Kolhapur to confront and defeat Shivaji as a part of their grand alliance with the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. He secured the support of local chieftains such as Jasvantrao Dalvi of Palavani and Suryarao Surve of Sringarpur to defeat Shivaji.[8] At that time, Shivaji was camped at the Panhala fort near present day Kolhapur with 8,000 Marathas.

Siddi Jauhar's army besieged Panhala on 2 March 1660, cutting off supply routes to the fort.[15] Helping with siege were Baji Ghorpade and Siddi Masud from the west, Sadat khan and Bhai khan from the north, Rustam Zaman and Bade khan from the east, Siddi Jauhar and Fazal Khan from the south. Netaji Palkar, the Commander of the Maratha forces was on a mission away from Panhala harassing and attacking Adilshahi territory and was not able to come to the aid of Shivaji. At this point of time, Shaista Khan had moved from Baramati to Shirwal.[15]

Panhala was a formidable fort and Adilshahi army was repulsed repeatedly by effective cannon fire and heavy rock-pelting.[15] Siddi Jauhar approached Henry Revington, the British chief at the Rajapur port to seek long-range and more powerful cannons. Henry decided to help him in return for future favours, and began pounding Panhala fort. In spite of this Marathas continued defending Panhala and persevered in keeping Siddi Jauhar at bay.[15]

Marathas even raided the Adilshahi camp a few times but without much success. However, in one such raid, Tryambak Bhaskar and Kondaji Farzand presented themselves as allies of the British and Adlishahi forces. They came down to the Adilshahi camp and met Henry Revington and his associates. They managed to kill one British officer and injured Henry. Thereafter, they sabotaged the cannons and made them ineffective. Jauhar, livid at this, tightened the siege further.[15]

Jauhar did not leave any stone unturned to ensure that the siege around Panhala was unyielding, he personally took utmost care that no one in his army was complacent. He even braved the tumultuous monsoon season and continued the siege even during heaviest downpours.[15] On hearing about the ever tightening siege of Panhala, Netaji Palkar returned from Bijapur and attacked the Adilshahi forces surrounding Panhala. He tried to break the siege but his smaller forces were pushed back by a much larger Adilshahi army.[15]

Thereafter, Shivaji decided to escape to a nearby fort Vishalgad, where he could regroup his soldiers. He then sent misleading messages to Siddi Jauhar indicating that he was willing to negotiate and was looking for accommodation and mutual understanding. With this news, Adilshahi soldiers relaxed somewhat and Shivaji escaped under the cover of a stormy night on 12 July 1660.[15]

Meanwhile Jauhar's soldiers captured a small group of Marathas apparently including Shivaji only to realize he was a look-alike named Shiva Kashid dressed like Shivaji and sent out to create a diversion and facilitate the real Shivaji's escape. Siddi Johar's soldiers realized that the imposter was Shivaji's barber and that Shivaji and his army were headed to Vishalgad, immediately thereafter a massive chase was undertaken to intercept Shivaji and deal with him and his army, once and for all.[8]

Pavan Khind

Plaque to commemorate the entrance to Paavankhind

Observing that enemy cavalry was fast closing in on them, Shivaji sought to avoid defeat and capture. Baji Prabhu Deshpande, a Maratha sardar of Bandal Deshmukh along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Ghod Khind (a mountain pass in Gajapur which is 4 miles (6.4 km) south of Vishalgad) to give Shivaji and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of the Vishalgad fort.[8][15]

In the ensuing Battle of Pavan Khind, Baji Prabhu Deshpande fought relentlessly. He was wounded but he held on and continued the fight until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishalgad, signalling Shivaji had safely reached the fort. The result of this intense and heroic battle was the death of 300 Marathas and 1,286 of Adilshah's troops who were engaged in a fierce combat. The Marathas were heroically committed to this fatal fight to ensure Shivaji's reaching the fort and they were held off a larger enemy force for 7 hours using 2 swords one in each hand[8] allowing Shivaji to reach the safety of the fort on 13 July 1660. [15]

Thereafter a truce was made between Shivaji and Adilshah through Shahaji Raje. In addition, as the terms of this accord, Panhala Fort was awarded to Siddi Johar.[8] Ghod Khind (khind meaning "a narrow mountain pass") was renamed Paavan Khind (Sacred Pass) in honor of Bajiprabhu Deshpande, Shibosingh Jadhav, Fuloji, people from Bandal community and all other soldiers who fought in Ghod Khind. People from the Bandal community were specially selected by Shivaji while escaping from Panhala for their knowledge of the region, rock climbing skills, and martial qualities.[16]

Clash with the Mughals

Battle of Umberkhind

An Uzbek general, Kartalab Khan, was sent by Shaista Khan on a mission to attack and reduce the number of forts under Shivaji's control in the Konkan region on 3 February 1661. He left his camp near Pune with 30,000 troops. This time the Mughals did not march openly and took circuitous back country routes, as they sought to surprise Shivaji.[15] But instead Shivaji surprised them at a pass known as Umber Khind (in a dense forest, near present-day Pen), and attacked them from all sides. Marathas hidden in the dense forest executed a well co-ordinated ambush attack on the Mughal army.[15] Shivaji himself took the forward position with an elite cavalry unit. The other three sides were flanked by Shivaji's light infantry.

In a well co-ordinated movement of light infantry and cavalry, Shivaji prevailed over the attackers. A Maratha lady commander, Raibagan, who co-led the Mughal forces, analyzed the situation and realised that defeat was imminent and advised Kartalab Khan to accept defeat and initiate a compromise with Shivaji.[8][15] Within four hours into the attack the enemy accepted defeat and surrendered all the supplies, arms and assets. The Mughal army suffered high casualties. The defeated army was allowed a safe passage. Kartalab Khan and Raibagan were released with honour in accordance with Shivaji's terms and his long standing policy towards women and unarmed civilians.[8]

Attack on Shaista Khan

Shaista Khan was ordered by Aurangzeb to attack Shivaji per the Mughal-Adilshahi accord. Shaista Khan, with his better equipped and provisioned army of 150,000 that was many times the size of the Maratha forces, seized Pune and the nearby fort of Chakan. At the time, Firangoji Narsala was the killedar (commander) of fort Chakan, which was defended by 300–350 Maratha soldiers. They were able to withstand the Mughal attack on the fort for one and a half month. Then, a burj (outer wall) was blown up with explosives. This created an opening to the fort allowing hordes of Mughals to breach the exterior portion of the fort. Firangoji, himself led the Maratha counter attack against a larger Mughal army.[8][15] Eventually, the fort was lost with the capture of Firangoji, who then was brought before Shaista Khan, who, appreciating his bravery, offered him a jahagir (military commission) on the condition that he join the Mughal forces, which Firangoji declined. Admiring his loyalty, Shaista Khan pardoned Firangoji and set him free. Firangoji returned home and Shivaji awarded him a fort named Bhupalgad.[15]

Shaista Khan pressed his advantage of larger, better provisioned and heavily armed Mughal army and made inroads into some of the Maratha territory. Although he held Pune for almost a year, he had little further success. He had set up his residence at Lal Mahal, Shivaji's palace, in the city of Pune.[8]

Shaista Khan kept a tight security in Pune. However, Shivaji planned an attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom's procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palace of Lal Mahal.[8] Chimanaji Deshpande- one of the childhood friends of Shivaji aided him in this attack offering his services as a personal bodyguard. According to Babasaheb Purandare, since Mughal army also consisted of Maratha soldiers, it was difficult for someone to distinguish between Shivaji's Maratha soldiers and the Maratha soldiers of the Mughal army. Thus, taking advantage of this situation, Shivaji, along with a few of his trusted men, infiltrated the Mughal camp.

After overpowering and slaying of the palace guards, the Marathas broke into the mansion by breaching an outer wall. Chimnaji and Netaji Palkar entered first along with Babaji Deshpande, another of Shivaji's long time loyal associates, they approached Shaista Khan's quarters. Shivaji then personally confronted Shaista Khan in a face to face attack. Meanwhile, perceiving danger, one of Shaista's wives turned off the lights. Shivaji pursued Shaista Khan and severed three of his fingers with his sword (in the darkness) as he fled through an open window. Shaista Khan narrowly escaped death and lost his son and many of his guards and soldiers in the raid.[8]

Within twenty-four hours of this attack, Shaista Khan left Pune and headed North towards Agra. An angered Aurangzeb transferred him to distant Bengal as a punishment for bringing embarrassment to the Mughals with his ignoble defeat in Pune.

In 1664 Shivaji invaded Surat, an important and wealthy Mughal trading city, and looted it to replenish his now depleted treasury and also as a revenge for the capture and looting of Maratha territory by Shaista Khan. (Surat was again sacked by Shivaji in 1670.)[8]

Aurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I with an army numbering well over 150,000 to defeat Shivaji. Jai Singh planned and executed his battle strategies so well with his vast army that the Mughal forces under him made significant gains and captured many Maratha forts. Shivaji came to terms with Aurangzeb rather than lose more forts and men.

In the ensuing treaty of Purander, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh on 11 June 1665, Shivaji agreed to give up 23 of his forts and pay compensation of 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal Sardar, serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb and fight with Mughals against Bijapur. He actually fought along side Raja Jai Singh's Mughal forces against Bijapur's forces for a few months. His commander, Netaji Palkar, joined Mughals, was rewarded very well for his bravery, converted to Islam, changed his name to Quli Mohammed Khan in 1666 and was sent to the Afghan frontier to fight the restive tribes. He returned to Shivaji's service after ten years in 1676 and was accepted back as a Hindu on Shivaji's order.

Arrest in Agra and escape

In 1666, Aurangzeb invited Shivaji to Agra, along with his nine-year-old son Sambhaji. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Kandahar, modern day Afghanistan to consolidate the Mughal Empire's north-western frontier. However, in the court, on 12 May 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdārs (military commanders) of his court.[8] Shivaji took offense at this seeming insult and stormed out of court and was promptly placed under house arrest, under the watch of Faulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra. From his spies, Shivaji learned that Aurangzeb planned to move his residence to Raja Vitthaldas's Haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier. As a result Shivaji planned his escape.

He feigned almost fatal sickness and requested to send most of his contingent back to the Deccan, thereby ensuring the safety of his army and deceiving Aurangzeb. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra as offerings for getting well.[8] After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Shivaji and his nine year old son Sambhaji hid themselves in two of the boxes and managed to escape. Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhus (holy men). After the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji.[8]

Dr. Ajit Joshi in the Marathi book Agryahun Sutka, after evaluating all available evidence on the event and reconstructing it, concluded that Shivaji most likely disguised himself as a Brahmin priest after performance of religious rites at the haveli grounds and escaped by mingling in within the departing priestly entourage of Pandit Kavindra Paramananda.[17] The thesis also discusses inadequacies of all other theories and stories of Shivaji's escape.

Reconquest and Battle of Salher

After this escape , both sides maintained calm and a treaty was concluded for some time.However it was broken at the end of the year 1670.Shivaji launched a major offensive against mughals .In a span of four months he recovered a major portion of the terroteries surrendered to mughals.During this phase the valiant Tanaji Malusare won the prestigious fort of Sinhgad ,although he lost his life.Subsequently Shivaji sacked surat for second time in 1670.When shivaji was returning from surat,mughals under daud khan tried to intercept him ,but they defeated in the Battle of Vani -dindori near presentday Nashik. Peshwa Moropant Pingale won a a number of forts in this area.Senapati prataprao gujar defeated mughals in various campaign.In order to subdue this maratha resurgence, dilerkhan was sent alongwith bahlol khan and other generals.During this phase , the combined forces of moropant and prataprao defeated the mughals in an open battle of Salher.This is a first major battle in which mughals were defeated by any oponent.This greatly rasied the status of marathas and shivaji in particular.Against this background of victories shivaji decided to coronate himself thereby giving soverignity to the maratha people.However a tragedy struck in that shivaji lost his trusted cavalry general Prataprao in the following Battle of Nesari.

Battle of Nesari

In 1674, Prataprao Gujar, the then Commander-in chief of the Maratha forces, was sent to push back the invading force led by the Adil Shahi general, Bahlol Khan. Shivaji had directed Prataprao to finish off Bahlol Khan, who had proved to be treacherous in the past. The Maratha army surrounded the camp of Bahlol Khan at the village of Nesari. Prataprao's forces defeated and captured the opposing general in the battle after cutting-off their water supply by encircling a strategically located lake, which prompted Bahlol khan to sue for peace. In spite of Shivaji's specific warnings against doing so Prataprao released Bahlol Khan. Days after his release Bahlol Khan started preparing for a fresh invasion.[18]

When Shivaji heard of Prataprao's decision he was greatly displeased and sent a letter to Prataprao refusing him audience until Bahlol Khan was re-captured. Prataprao realised the full extent of his strategic error and was so upset about it, that he now desperately wanted to redeem himself. In the ensuing days, he learnt of Bahlol Khan having camped nearby. Prataprao decided to confront Bahlol Khan at Nesari near Kolhapur.

The potential battle would have had Gujar with 1,200 troops facings Khan with 15,000. Given the uneven match Prataprao reasoned that there was no point in leading his 1,200 cavalrymen into a suicide charge. So in a fit of desperation and anguish and in an over-reaction to Shivaji's letter, he left by himself, without asking his cavalry to accompany him. It was his personal honor at stake, not his army's. On seeing their leader head to certain death six other Maratha sardars joined him in the charge, they attacked the enemy camp and were cut down before they could reach Bahlol Khan.

Anandrao Mohite, though, stayed back. The seven Maratha officers were Prataprao Gujar, Visaji Ballal, Dipoji Rautrao, Vithal Pilaji Atre, Krishnaji Bhaskar, Siddi Hilal and Vithoji Shinde. It was an impulsive and seeemingly irrational decision, and the loss of Prataprao Gujar was a big loss to the Marathas. Anandrao Mohite managed to withdraw the army to safer areas.[19]

Shivaji's army then avenged the death of their general, by defeating Bahlol Khan and capturing his jagir (fiefdom) under the leadership of Anaji and Hambirao Mohite. Shivaji was deeply grieved on hearing of Pratprao's death. He arranged for the marriage of his second son, Rajaram, to the daughter of Prataprao Gujar, who was later to be the Queen of the Maratha Empire, Maharani Tarabai. Anandrao Mohite became Hambirrao Mohite, the new sarnaubat (Commander-in-chief of the Maratha forces).

Coronation

Chhattrapati Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Confederacy

According to Geneology of mewar shown in the city palace of Udaipur, Shivaji's ancestors from his paternal side had migrated from Mewar to Deccan.[20] A number of historical accounts support this assertion (see Bhonsle#Origin for details), but later on the Rajput origin of the Bhonsle has been contested by some academics in 20th century.[21] According to this hypothessis, many local Brahmins questioned Shivaji's Kshatriya ancestory before his coronation, but the Marathas secured support of Pandit Gaga Bhatt of Varanasi who presented a genealogy claiming Shivaji's ancestors were Kshatriyas descended from the solar line of the Rajput Ranas of Mewar.[22]

Gaga Bhatt officially presided over the ceremony, and had a gold vessel filled with the seven sacred waters of the rivers Yamuna, Sindhu, Ganga, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. He held the vessel over Shivaji's head and chanted the coronation mantras, as the water kept dripping from the several tiny holes in the vessel. After the abulation, Shivaji bowed before Jijamata and touched her feet. Nearly fifty thousand people gathered at Raigad for the ceremonies.[8] Shivaji was bestowed with the sacred thread jaanva, with the Vedas and was bathed in an abhisheka. Shivaji then had the title of "shakakarta" conferred upon him.

His mother Jijabai died on 18 June 1674 within a few days of the coronation. This was considered a bad omen. Therefore a second coronation was carried out in September 1674, this time according to the Bengal school of Tantricism and presided over by Nischal Puri.

Southern expedition

In October 1674, the Marathas raided Khandesh. On 17 April 1675 Shivaji captured Phonda from Bijapuris. Karwar was occupied by mid 1675 and Kolhapur in July 1675. There were naval skirmishes with the Siddis of Janjira in November 1675. In early 1676, Peshwa Pingale engaged Raja of Ramnagar in battle en route to Surat. Shivaji raided Athni in March 1676. By the end of 1676, Shivaji besieged Belgaum and Vayem Rayim in current day northern Karnataka.

At the end of 1676, Shivaji Maharaj launched a wave of conquests in southern India with a massive force of 50,000 (30,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry).[8] He captured the forts at Vellore and Jinji that belonged to the sultanate of Bijapur and are in modern-day Tamilnadu. In the run-up to this expedition Shivaji appealed to a sense of Deccani patriotsm, that the "Deccan" or Southern India was a homeland that should be protected from outsiders.[23] His appeal was somewhat successful and he entered into a treaty with the Qutubshah of the Golconda sultanate that covered the eastern Deccan. Shivají's conquests in the south proved quite crucial during future wars.

Jinjee served as Maratha capital for nine years during the War of 27 years. However, his main intention was to reconcile with his stepbrother Vyankoji (his father Shahaji's son from his second wife, who came from the Mohite family) who ruled Thanjavur after Shahaji. They had talks, Venkoji (Ekoji I) showed signs of uniting with Shivaji but then no concrete result was obtained.[8] On return to Raigad, Shivaji seized most of Ekoji's possessions in the Mysore plateau. Ekoji's wife brought reconciliation between the two brothers so they were not enemies and maintained the status quo of co-existing independent.

Rule and Administration

Shivaji statue at Pratapgad.

Rule

Shivaji was an able administrator who established a government that included modern concepts such as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal), foreign affairs (Dabir) and internal intelligence.[24] Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy. Maynak Bhandari was one of the first chiefs of the Maratha Navy under Shivaji, and helped in both building the Maratha Navy and safeguarding the coastline of the emerging Maratha Empire. He built new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijaydurg on the west coast.[8] The Maratha navy held its own against the British, Portuguese and Dutch.[25]

Shivaji is well known for his benevolent attitude towards his subjects. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He encouraged all accomplished and competent individuals to participate in the ongoing political/military struggle. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. He brought revolutionary changes in military organisation, fort architecture, society and politics.[8]

Administration

The organization of Shivaji's administration was composed of eight ministers of pradhaanas:[26]

  • Peshwa : Mukhya (main) Pradhan, next to the king, for supervising and governing under king's orders in his absence. The king's orders bore the Peshwa's seal
  • Mazumdar: An auditor to take care of income and expenditure checks, keep the king informed of finances and sign districts-level accounts
  • Navis or Waqia Mantri: to record daily activities of the royal family and to serve as master of ceremony
  • Shru Navis or Sachiv: to oversee the king's correspondence to ensure letter and style adherence to wishes of the king and check accounts of palace and Parganas
  • Sumant or Dabir: for foreign affairs and to receive ambassadors
  • Senapati or Sir-nobut: To keep troops ready and the king fully informed
  • Panditrao: to promote learning, spirituality and settle religious disputes
  • Nyayadhish: the highest judicial authority

Military

Sindhudurg fortress from mainland, a sea fort constructed by Shivaji

Shivaji demonstrated great skill in creating his military organisation, which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions, then known as ganimi kava.[27] His Mavala army's war cry was Har Har Mahadev ("Hail Lord Our God", Har and Mahadev being common names of Shiva).[8] Shivaji was responsible for many significant changes in military organization:

  • A standing army belonging to the state, called paga
  • All war horses belonged to the state; responsibility for their upkeep rested on the Sovereign
  • Creation of part time soldiers from peasants who worked for eight months in their fields and supported four months in war for which they were paid
  • Highly mobile and light infantry and cavalry excelling in commando tactics
  • The introduction of a centralized intelligence department; Bahirjee Naik was the foremost spy who provided Shivaji with enemy information in all of Shivaji's campaigns
  • A potent and effective navy
  • Introduction of field craft, such as guerrilla warfare, commando actions, and swift flanking attacks
  • Innovation of weapons and firepower, innovative use of traditional weapons like the tiger claw (vaghnakh) and vita
  • Militarisation of large swathes of society, across all classes, with the entire peasant population of settlements and villages near forts actively involved in their defence.[8]

Shivaji realized the importance of having a secure coastline and protecting the western Konkan coastline from the attacks of Siddi's fleet.[8][28][29] His strategy was to build a strong navy to protect and bolster his kingdom. He was also concerned about the growing dominance of British Indian naval forces in regional waters and actively sought to resist it. For this reason he is also referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy".[30]

Forts

Suvela Machi, view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla, Rajgad

Shivaji captured strategically important forts at Murumbdev (Rajgad), Torana, Kondana (Sinhagad) and Purandar and laid the foundation of swaraj - self rule. Toward the end of his career, he had a control of 360 forts to secure his growing kingdom. Shivaji himself constructed about 15-20 totally new forts (including key sea forts like Sindhudurg), but he also rebuilt or repaired many strategically placed forts to create a chain of 300 or more, stretched over a thousand kilometres across the rugged crest of the Western Ghats. Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor be bribed or tempted to deliver it to the enemy. The officers (sabnis, havladar, sarnobhat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks and balance.

Navy

Sindhudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy

Shivaji built a strong naval presence across long coast of Konkan and Goa to protect sea trade, to protect the lands from sack of prosperity of subjects from coastal raids, plunder and destruction by Arabs, Portuguese, British, Abyssinians and pirates. Shivaji built ships in towns such as Kalyan, Bhivandi, and Goa for building fighting navy as well as trade. He also built a number of sea forts and bases for repair, storage and shelter. Shivaji fought many lengthy battles with Siddis of Janjira on coastline. The fleet grew to reportedly 160 to 700 merchant, support and fighting vessels. He started trading with foreigners on his own after possession of 8 or 9 ports in the Deccan.[31][32][33]

Promotion of Sanskrit

The house of Shivaji was well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted the language; his father Shahaji had supported scholars such as Jayram Pindye, who prepared Shivaji's seal. Shivaji continued this Sanskrit promotion, giving his forts names such as Sindhudurg, Prachandgarh, and Suvarndurg. He named the Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature with terms such as Nyayadhish, and Senapat, and commissioned the political treatise Rajya Vyavahar Kosh. His Rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet.[34]

A significant aspect of Shivaji's rule was his attempt to revive ancient Hindu political tradition and court conventions. He introduced Marathi in the place of Persian as the court language, revived Sanskrit administrative nomenclature and compiled a dictionary of official terms, 'The Rajyavyavahar Kosh', to facilitate change over.[35]

Religious Policy : Secular Maratha Empire

Shivaji was a devout Hindu and he respected all religions within the region. Shivaji had great respect for other contemporary saints, most notably Tukaram and also holy men of other faiths, such as Sufis. He is said to have met Samarth Ramdas in 1672 and accepted him as his mentor. Later on he even requested Ramdas to shift his residence to Sajjangadh.[36]

Shivaji allowed his subjects freedom of religion and opposed forced conversion.[8][37] The first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs.[8]

He commanded the respect and fealty of the Muslims under his command by his fair treatment of his friends as well as enemies.[8] Kafi Khan, the Mughal historian and Francois Bernier, a French traveler, spoke highly of his religious policy. He also brought converts like Netaji Palkar and Bajaji back into Hinduism. Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote:

Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of Him. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for Him alone.[38]

He had many Muslims in his military and ministries.[39] His most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Darya Sarang was chief of armoury; Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery.[38][40][41] Shivaji had particular respect for the Sufi tradition of Islam. Shivaji used to pray at the mausoleum of the great Sufi Muslim saint Baba Sharifuddin. He also visited the abode of another great Sufi saint, Shaikh Yacub of the Konkan, and took his blessings. He called Hazrat Baba of Ratnagiri bahut thorwale bhau, meaning "great elder brother".[38][40]

Shivaji also promulgated other enlightened values, prohibiting slavery in his kingdom,[8] and applying a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state.[38]

Character

Shivaji was a person of high moral values.

During his long military career and his many campaigns his strong religious and warrior code of ethics, exemplary character and deep seated and uncompromising spiritual values directed him to offer protection to houses of worship, non-combatants, women and children. He always showed respect, defended and protected places of worship of all denominations and religions.[38][40]

Shivaji was once offered as a war booty an extremely beautiful young lady, by an uninformed Maratha captain. She was the daughter-in-law of a defeated Muslim Amir (local ruler) of Kalyan, Maharashtra. Shivaji was reported to have told the lady that her beauty was mesmerizing and that if his mother was as beautiful as her, he would have been beautiful as well. He told her to go back to her family in peace, unmolested and under his protection. His behaviour, was noted by those around him, to be always of the highest moral caliber. He clearly and unambiguously embodied the virtues and ideals of a true nobleman.[38][40]

He boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his clever strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all enemies, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation). He defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the great Mughal empire and the sultanates, he overcame and succeeded in face of unprecedented level of succeedingly tough trials.[40]

He did not spend any resources on projects designed for self-aggrandizement or vanity, instead he was propeled by his sense of Dharma (sacred duty) to his people and country which lead him to directly challenge the dangerous, powerful and oppressive rule of the Adilshahis, Nizams and the Mughals. His legacy is heroism, selflessness, freedom, independence, brotherhood and unwavering courage, and as such he is a great role model for the ages.[40]

Shivaji struck a deep chord with his followers and the citizenary. And the high level of admiration and respect he earned from his followers and subjects sets him apart from most other Indian kings or chieftains in the recorded Indian history. Even today he is venerated in India and especially in the state of Maharashtra with awe and admiration and is viewed as a hero of epic proportions.[40]

Swami Vivekananda portrayed Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja as : [42]

Shivaji is one of the greatest national saviours who emancipated our society and our Dharma when they were faced with the threat of total destruction. He was a peerless hero, a pious and God-fearing king and verily a manifestation of all the virtues of a born leader of men described in our ancient scriptures. He also embodied the deathless spirit of our land and stood as the light of hope for our future.

Death and legacy

Statue of Shivaji at Raigad Fort

Shivaji died in April 1680, and his eldest son Sambhaji took power after being challenged by his stepmother Soyarabai. Meanwhile, emperor Aurangzeb's son had a falling out with his father and joined forces with Sambhaji, thereafter Aurangzeb personally led his imperial army to attack and to completely destroy the Maratha threat once and for all. He threw the full might of the Mughal empire toward this goal and for a while it seemed that he would achieve his objective, especially after the capture, torture and the murder of Sambhaji for his refusal to bow down before him and convert to Islam.[43] Turmoil and uncertainty gripped the Maratha Confederacy, and they were forced to move their capital from Raigad near Pune to Gingee in the south in current-day state of Tamil Nadu.

At his death, Shivaji's army consisted of thousands of cavalry, infantry, horses and camels and hundreds of elephants, fighting vessels in his naval fleet and artillery pieces. His military structures included about a hundred forts built by him (including naval), and his forces were led by a number of commanders and senior generals of all castes, including Muslims.[10]

Modern influence

Because of his struggle against an imperial power, Shivaji became an icon of the Indian independence movement that followed two centuries later. He is remembered as a just and wise warrior-king. School texts in India describe Shivaji's rule as heroic, exemplary and inspiring and he is considered the founder of the modern Hindu nation; his policies were instrumental in building a distinct Hindu identity and infusing it with strong martial and moral traditions.

A regional sectarian political party, the Shiv Sena, claims to draw inspiration from Shivaji Maharaj. The World Heritage site of Victoria Terminus and Sahar International Airport in Mumbai were renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport respectively in Shivaji's honour, as have many public buildings and spaces in recent years. The School of Naval Engineering of the Indian Navy is named as INS Shivaji.

Contemporary foreign accounts

Many foreign travellers who visited India during Shivaji Maharaj's time wrote about him.

  • Abbe Carre was a French traveller who visited India around 1670; his account was published as Voyage des Indes Orientales mêlé de plusieurs histories curieuses at Paris in 1699. Some quotes:[44]
"Hardly had he won a battle or taken to town in one end of the kingdom than he was at the other extremity causing havoc everywhere and surprising important places. To this quickness of movement he added, like Julius Caesar, a clemency and bounty that won him the hearts of those his arms had worsted." "In his courage and rapidity he does not ill resemble the king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus."
"I forgot to mention that during pillage of Sourate, Seva-ji, the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose, the Capuchin missionary. 'The Frankish Padres are good men', he said 'and shall not be attacked.' He spared also the house of a deceased Delale or Gentile broker, of the Dutch, because assured that he had been very charitable while alive."
  • Warriors and statesmen in India, Sir E.Sullivan:[46]
“ Shivaji possessed every quality requisite for success in the disturbed age in which he lived: cautious and wily in council, he was fierce and daring in action; he possessed an endurance that made him remarkable even amongst his hardy subjects, and an energy and decision that would in any age raised him to distinction.
  • Cosme da Guarda says in "Life of the Celebrated Sevaji:[47]
Such was the good treatment Shivaji accorded to people and such was the honesty with which he observed the capitulations that none looked upon him without a feeling of love and confidence. By his people he was exceedingly loved. Both in matters of reward and punishment he was so impartial that while he lived he made no exception for any person; no merit was left unrewarded, no offence went unpunished; and this he did with so much care and attention that he specially charged his governors to inform him in writing of the conduct of his soldiers, mentioning in particular those who had distinguished themselves, and he would at once order their promotion, either in rank or in pay, according to their merit. He was naturally loved by all men of valor and good conduct."

Depiction in popular culture

Shivaji is a source of inspiration for a number of artists, directors, actors, writers, shahirs (ballad composers), poets and orators.

Films

  • Raja Shivaji (Marathi), directed by Bhalaji Pendharkar and the main role was played by Marathi actor Chandrakant Mandare.
  • Maratha tituka melawawa (Marathi)
  • Gad ala pan sinh gela (Marathi)
  • Mi ShivajiRaje Bhonsle Boltoy (Marathi), a film with thoughts of Shivaji with respect to current social, political and cultural situation

Literature

  • Shivaji, a biography authored by Setu Madhavrao Pagdi
  • Shriman yogi, a novel written on Shivaji Maharaj's life by Ranjit Desai.
  • Shivaji The Great: English translation of Shriman Yogi, by Dr. V. D. Katamble
  • Raja Shivchatrapti, a novel written on Shivaji's life by Babasaheb Purandare.
  • Shivchatraptiche Charitra (also known as Sabhasadachi Bakhar), the first biography of Shivaji written by Krishnaji Anant Sabhasad as per the order of Shivaji's younger son Rajaram.
  • "Shakkarte Shivray" Volume 1&2 by Vijay Deshmuk shobit garg
  • Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India by Dr. James Laine.
  • "SHIVRAI" Volume 1&2 by Namdeorao Jadhav.

Poetry and music

  • 'Shivraj Bhushan' (Hindi) by Kavi Bhushan
  • Vedat Marathe vir daudale sat, poem composed by Kusumagraj on Shivaji's general Prataprao Gujar, performed Lata Mangeshkar and Hridayanath Mangeshkar.
  • ballads by Tulsidas and Agandas
  • Jay Dev, Jay Dev Jay Jay Shivraya and He Hindu Nrusinha Prabho Shivaji Raja composed by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, performed by Lata Mangeshkar and Hridayanath Mangeshkar.

Theatre

  • Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete (When Raigad Awakes), by Marathi playwright [Vasant Kanetkar] based on the complex relationship between Shivaji Maharaj and Sambhaji.
  • Jaanata Raja]] (जाणता राजा), a musical tale of Shivaji's life, by historian Babasaheb Purandare.

Television

  • Raja ShivChhatrapati: TV serial on Star Pravah, a Marathi channel of Star India Network. The serial was launched in November 2008 and is expected to run for more than 100 one-hour episodes, in which the role of Raja Shivaji is played by Dr. Amol Kolhe
  • Veer Shivaji: a Hindi TV series on Colors TV channel, The serial was launched from september 2 2011. in this serial, the role of Shivaji is played by Paras Arora.
Preceded by
new state
Chhatrapati of the
Maratha Empire

1674–1680
Succeeded by
Sambhaji

References

  1. ^ Official date accepted by the Government of Maharashtra, "Finally, single Shiv Jayanti". The Times of India (Pune). 4 February 2003. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/Finally-single-Shiv-Jayanti/articleshow/36498512.cms. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c Previously disputed, Bhawan Singh Rana (2005). Chhatrapati Shivaji. A.H.W. Sameer series. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.. p. 11. ISBN 9788128808265. 
  3. ^ Bhawan Singh Rana (01 January 2005). Chhatrapati Shivaji. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.. p. 18. ISBN 8128808265. http://books.google.com/?id=HsBPTc3hcekC. 
  4. ^ Raṇajita Desāī; V. D. Katamble (2003). Shivaji the Great. Balwant Printers Pvt. Ltd.. p. 193. ISBN 8190200003. http://books.google.com/?id=N5mIVt_Zd-0C. 
  5. ^ a b c http://www.jstor.org/pss/2053980
  6. ^ a b c http://www.jstor.org/pss/4407933
  7. ^ Jackson, William Joseph (2005). Vijayanagara voices: exploring South Indian history and Hindu literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. pp. 38. ISBN 0754639509, 9780754639503. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=PxvDNBc4qwUC&pg=PA38&dq=%22Hindavi+Swarajya%22#v=onepage&q=%22Hindavi%20Swarajya%22&f=false. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Purandare, Babasaheb (August 2003). Raja Shivachhatrapati (Marathi: राजा शिवछत्रपती) (15 ed.). Pune: Purandare Prakashan. 
  9. ^ Pagdi, Setumadhava Rao (1983). Shivaji. India: National Book Trust, India. ISBN B0006CNKM2. http://books.google.com/books?id=iCFuAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Vijaydurg%2C+Suvarnadurg%2C+Sindhudurg%22#search_anchor. 
  10. ^ a b Shivaji, the great Maratha, Volume 2, By H. S. Sardesai, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002, ISBN 8177552864, ISBN 9788177552867
  11. ^ a b c d e Jadunath Sarkar (1919). Shivaji and His Times (Second ed.). London: Longmans, Green and Co.. ISBN 1178011569. 
  12. ^ "Finally, single Shiv Jayanti". The Times of India (Pune). 4 February 2003. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/Finally-single-Shiv-Jayanti/articleshow/36498512.cms. Retrieved 27 January 2010. 
  13. ^ N. Jayapalan (2001). History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distri. p. 211. ISBN 9788171569281. 
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  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Raja ShivChhatrapati. Producer-Nitin Desai. Star Pravah.
  16. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Raja_ShivChhatrapati_ji; see Help:Cite errors/Cite error references no text
  17. ^ "Agryahun Sutka (Escape from Agra) by Dr. Ajit Joshi". Shivapratap Prakashan, Pune. 1997. http://www.agraescape.itgo.com. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  18. ^ Desāī, Raṇajita; V. D. Katamble (2003). Shivaji the Great. Balwant Printers Pvt. Ltd.. p. 665. ISBN 9788190200004. http://books.google.com/?id=N5mIVt_Zd-0C&pg=PA665&dq=%22Prataprao+Gujar%22. Retrieved 22 September 2008. 
  19. ^ Ranade, Mahadeo Govind (2006). Rise of the Marathapower. Read Books. p. 35. ISBN 9781406736427. http://books.google.com/?id=tmhYdpc_HkUC&pg=PA35&vq=%22Prataprao+Gujar%22&dq=%22Prataprao+Gujar%22. Retrieved 22 September 2008. 
  20. ^ Bhawan Singh Rana (2005). Chhatrapati Shivaji. A.H.W. Sameer series. Diamond Pocket Books. p. 9. ISBN 9788128808265. 
  21. ^ Shiri Ram Bakshi (1 January 1998). Sharad Pawar, the Maratha legacy. APH Publishing. pp. 25–. ISBN 9788176480079. http://books.google.com/books?id=iP433CnEW_gC&pg=PA25. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  22. ^ H. S. Sardesai (2002). Shivaji, the great Maratha, Volume 2. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 428. ISBN 9788177552843. 
  23. ^ Gijs Kruijtzer,Xenophobia in Seventeenth-Century India (Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2009), 153–190.
  24. ^ Kamat, K. L.. "Short Bio: Maratha King Shivaji". Kamat's Potpourri. http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/maharashtra/shivaji.htm. Retrieved 19 November 2006. 
  25. ^ "Indian Naval Hospital Ship INHS Dhanvantari". Indiannavy.nic.in. 25 August 2010. http://indiannavy.nic.in/history.htm. Retrieved 27 September 2010. 
  26. ^ Shivaji, the great Maratha, Volume 2, H. S. Sardesai, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002, ISBN 8177552864, ISBN 9788177552867
  27. ^ Kasar, D.B. (2005). Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great. Manudevi Prakashan. 
  28. ^ edited by Om Prakash., Om (2001) (in Prakash). Encyclopaedic History of Indian Freedom Movement. Anmol Publications. p. 274. ISBN 8126109386. http://books.google.com/?id=o5vHbY3VPyEC. 
  29. ^ Sarkar, Sir Jadunath, Jadunath (1920) (in Sarkar). Shivaji and His Times. Longmans, Green and co. p. 294. http://books.google.com/?id=7xNFAAAAIAAJ. 
  30. ^ Setumadhavarao S. Pagadi., Setumadhavarao S (1993) (in Pagadi). SHIVAJI. NATIONAL BOOK TRUST. p. 21. ISBN 8123706472. http://books.google.com/?id=UVFuAAAAMAAJ. 
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  34. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.609,634
  35. ^ The great Moguls(1997), Arli Abraham
  36. ^ Kincaid, Charles; Parasnis, Dattaray (1918). A History of the Maratha People. 1. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 183–194. http://www.archive.org/details/historyofmaratha01kincuoft 
  37. ^ Mughal Rule in India By Stephen Meredyth Edwardes, Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett, ISBN 81-7156-551-4, 9788171565511
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  39. ^ [1] Shivaji: the great Maratha ruler
  40. ^ a b c d e f g [2] knol : Shivaji Maharaj
  41. ^ [3] Shivaji's military
  42. ^ [4]
  43. ^ [5]Maratha ruler Sambhaji
  44. ^ Shivaji, The great Maratha, Volume 2, H. S. Sardesai, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002, ISBN 8177552864, ISBN 9788177552867
  45. ^ The great Maratha, Volume 2, H. S. Sardesai, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002, ISBN 8177552864, ISBN 9788177552867
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  47. ^ Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Maratha supremacy. G. Allen & Unwin, 1951

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  • Shivaji — Shivâjî Bhonsla Cet article fait partie de la série Histoire de l Inde Périodes Inde ancienne Sultanat de Delhi …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Shivaji IV — (5 April 1863 25 December 1883) was a Raja of Kolhapur from 1871 to 1883. A distant relation of the main family line, he was born as Shrimant Narayanrao Dinkarrao Bhonsle, and was adopted at the age of eight by the widow of Rajaram I. Owing to… …   Wikipedia

  • Shivaji V — (22 November 1941 28 September 1946) was the last Maharaja of Kolhapur from the Bhonsle dynasty, reigning from 1941 to 1946. He was from the Satara branch of the Bhonsle dynasty, and had been appointed to the vacant Kolhapur throne from birth, as …   Wikipedia

  • Shivaji — Tempelrelief von Shivaji, wie er sein Schwert von der Göttin Bhavani empfängt Shivaji Maharaj (* 1630; † 5. April 1680) war der bedeutendste Anführer der Marathen im 17. Jahrhundert. In der jüngeren Geschichtsschreibung wird er als erfolgreicher… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Shivaji — or Sivaji born Feb. 19, 1630, or April 1627, Shivner, Pune, India died April 3, 1680, Rajgarh Indian king (r. 1674–80), founder of the Maratha kingdom of India. A devout Hindu, he grew up at a time when India was ruled by Muslims, and he found… …   Universalium

  • Shivaji Bhonsla — Shivâjî Bhonsla Cet article fait partie de la série Histoire de l Inde Périodes Inde ancienne Sultanat de Delhi …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Shivaji Park — is the largest park in Mumbai. It is situated in the Dadar area of Mumbai. Like the Azad Maidan and August Kranti Maidan (formerly Gowalia Tank Grounds), it is also of historical and cultural value because of the amount of political and social… …   Wikipedia

  • Shivaji Place — District Centre is a commercial centre located in Rajouri Garden, Delhi, India. The district centre is currently under development and only five shopping malls are currently operational.LocationThe Shivaji Place District Centre is located in the… …   Wikipedia

  • Shivaji's Forts — Shivaji is well known for his forts; he was in possession of around three hundred at the time of his death. Many, like Panhala,Rajgad existed before him but others like Sindhudurg and Pratapgad were built by him from scratch. These forts were… …   Wikipedia

  • Shivaji Sawant — (August 31, 1940 – September 18, 2002) was an acclaimed Indian writer in Marathi. He was born in a small farmer family of Aajra village in Kolhapur district. He worked with Rajaram Prashala, Kolhapur as a teacher for 20 years and afterwords as… …   Wikipedia

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