- Culture of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
A culture of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, reflecting the cultural impact of basic beliefs and traditions of the church, distinguishes church members, practices, and activities. The culture is geographically concentrated in the Mormon Corridor (or "Jell-O Belt") in the United States, but is, to a lesser extent, present in many places of the world where Latter-day Saints live. Latter-Day Saint culture is distinct from Church doctrine.
Practices common to Latter-day Saints include following the Word of Wisdom, paying tithing, living the law of chastity, participation in lay leadership of the church, refraining from work on Sundays when possible, family home evenings, and home and visiting teaching. Tattoos and body piercings (except for one pair of earrings for women) are strongly discouraged.
Church members are encouraged to marry and have children, and as a result, Latter-day Saint families tend to be larger than average. All sexual activity, both heterosexual and homosexual, outside of marriage is considered a serious sin. Same-sex marriages are not performed or supported by the LDS Church. Latter-day Saint fathers who hold the priesthood typically name and bless their children shortly after birth to formally give the child a name and generate a church record for them.
The church emphasizes the moral standards that Mormons believe were taught by Jesus Christ, including personal honesty, integrity, obedience to law, chastity outside of marriage and fidelity within marriage. The church puts notable emphasis on the family, and the distinctive concept of a united family which lives and progresses forever is at the core of Latter-day Saint doctrine. "In today's society, abortion has become a common practice, defended by deceptive arguments. Latter-day prophets have denounced abortion, referring to the Lord's declaration, 'Thou shalt not . . . kill, nor do anything like unto it' (Doctrine & Covenants Section 59, Verse 6). Their counsel on the matter is clear: Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints must not submit to, perform, encourage, pay for, or arrange for an abortion. Church members who encourage an abortion in any way may be subject to Church discipline."
"Church leaders have said that some exceptional circumstances may justify an abortion, such as when pregnancy is the result of incest or rape, when the life or health of the mother is judged by competent medical authority to be in serious jeopardy, or when the fetus is known by competent medical authority to have severe defects that will not allow the baby to survive beyond birth. But even these circumstances do not automatically justify an abortion. Those who face such circumstances should consider abortion only after consulting with their local Church leaders and receiving a confirmation through earnest prayer." (Gospel Library; Gospel Topics; Abortion; LDS.Org). However, the LDS church respects the individual's right to free agency, and the decision is ultimately left to rest between the individual and God through sincere prayer and fasting. It also opposes pornography and gambling, including government- or charity-sponsored lotteries. Latter-day Saints are counseled not to partake of any form of media that is obscene or pornographic in any way, including media that depicts graphic representations of sex or violence.
Latter-day Saints believe that one of the most important aspects of life on Earth is the opportunity for individuals to learn and grow. They further believe that whatever learning they obtain in this life is retained in the next life. Accordingly, the church strongly emphasizes education and subsidizes Brigham Young University (BYU), BYU–Idaho, BYU–Hawaii, the BYU Jerusalem Center, and LDS Business College.
All participating members ages twelve years and older attend Sunday School classes, which emphasize personal scripture studies and other forms of spiritual education and self-improvement.
Seminary is an established religious education program for high school students, which is usually scheduled before or after school hours. The LDS seminary program should not be confused with "seminaries" established as graduate level ministerial programs by other denominations. In some areas with large LDS populations, provisions are made by the high school to allow students to attend Seminary (off-campus) during the school day. The provision is not considered a school-recognized class. No credit is awarded by the school, nor is any grade or achievement listed on the school's official transcript. Attendance at Seminary is voluntary, although it does help when applying to church-run universities. The Church Educational System administers the seminary program and also an Institute of Religion program for college-age church members.
In addition, the church sponsors a low-interest educational loan program known as the Perpetual Education Fund. This fund is designed to benefit young men and women from developing areas of the world who need further education to become productive citizens in their respective countries. Many of them have served a mission, returned to their home, and lack needed funds to improve their standard of living. As they finish their education and enter the work force they pay back the funds, which are then loaned to other individuals.
In Buena Vista, Virginia, a group of LDS businessmen bought out a failing college and renamed it Southern Virginia University. It is not owned by the church, nor does it receive any funding from the church. SVU depends heavily upon donations from church members and friends. The school enforces an honor code that is similar to that of Brigham Young University.
The LDS Church specifically distances itself from getting involved in politics, although it encourages members to be politically active. Each summer in election years, the church sends a letter to each bishop (congregation leader) to be read over the pulpit stating that the church does not endorse any political parties or candidates, does not allow its buildings to be used for political events, and that no titles or positions that a person may have in the church may be used to imply church endorsement of any party or candidate.
However, the Church has endorsed or opposed specific political positions that it considers to be moral issues:
- Opposition to MX (Peacekeeper) missile bases in Utah and Nevada.
- Opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment during the 1970s.
- Support of the California initiative to define marriage in California as between one man and one woman.
- Support of the 2004 Utah constitutional amendment to define marriage in Utah as between one man and one woman.
- Support of the Defense of Marriage Act to define marriage in the United States as between one man and one woman.
- Support of Proposition 8 to define marriage in California as between one man and one woman.
In recent decades, the Republican Party has consistently won a majority of the Mormon vote in most national and state-level elections. As a result, Utah, a state with an overwhelmingly Mormon population, is also one of the most heavily Republican states in the country. However, the current Democratic Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (Nev.) is a member of the LDS Church, as was former Apostle James E. Faust who was the chairman of the Utah State Democratic Party. There are many members of the Church in the United States who consider themselves politically liberal, or are members of the Democratic Party.
Genealogical or family history research is an important aspect of Latter-day Saint tradition, stemming from a doctrinal mandate for church members to research their family tree and perform vicarious ordinances for their ancestors. Mormons believe that these ordinances "seal" or link families together, with the goal being an unbroken chain back to Adam. Church members are able to do genealogical work in various Family History Centers located throughout the world usually in Latter-day Saint chapels. The advent of personal computers prompted the Church to create a specialized file format known as GEDCOM for storing and exchanging these records. Since then, GEDCOM has become a de facto standard that almost all genealogy programs support.
The Church maintains a website called FamilySearch to access genealogical records, which typically contain births, deaths, marriages and family group information. Church records also contain information on personal ordinances of members as well as vicarious temple ordinances such as baptism, endowment, and sealing to spouse, parent, and child. Genealogical and church related information is maintained in permanent storage in the Granite Mountain vault in the Wasatch Range of the Utah mountains. The church is currently working to digitize all of these records and make them more readily available.
The LDS Church has one of the most active missionary programs of any world church. As of 31 December 2005 there were in excess of 52,000 full-time LDS missionaries serving without pay around the world. They serve for up to two years, frequently learning another language.
Missionary work is a fundamental principle of the church and has become one of its most readily identifiable characteristics. Church headquarters assigns missionaries to their area of work, which can be in any part of the world where governments allow them. It also directs the missionary whether to focus on proselytizing, humanitarian work, or family history work.
Formal public and personal prayers are addressed to "Heavenly Father" and offered in the name of Jesus Christ, followed by amen. When a prayer is given in public, it is customary for all attending to say "amen" at the prayer's conclusion. English-speaking members are encouraged to use "thee," "thou," "thy" and "thine" when addressing God, as a form of both familiarity and respect. Members who speak other languages use similar familiar, respectful language in prayer. Most prayers are extemporaneous and may be said while kneeling, standing, or sitting or in any other position. Bowing one's head and folding one's arms during prayer are both customary and encouraged.
Certain prayers associated with ordinances are defined and must be delivered verbatim, while others must follow a certain pattern. For example, the prayer to bless the sacrament is a set prayer which is delivered the same way each week. The priesthood holder kneels to say the prayer; if he accidentally deviates from the form, he is instructed to repeat the prayer until it is correct. Likewise, the prayer for baptism must be given verbatim prior to immersion; the priesthood holder stands in the water beside the person to be baptized, raises his right arm to the square, addresses the person being baptized by their full name, and pronounces the prayer. If the prayer or the person's name is not said correctly, or the person is not totally immersed, the entire ordinance must be repeated. Other ordinations and blessings have a pattern, for example, in a confirmation prayer, the priesthood holder is to address the individual being confirmed by his or her full name, state the priesthood authority by which the ordinance is given, confirm that person as a member of the Church, and bestow the Holy Ghost with such words as "receive the Holy Ghost." This is usually followed by an extemporaneous personal blessing as directed by the Spirit.
The LDS Church strongly encourages every member to be prepared for all types of disasters, including economic hard times. Members are encouraged to plant gardens, store a year's supply of food, and to maintain a "72-hour Kit" (or "3-Day Pack") containing necessary supplies to immediately sustain oneself in the event of a natural disaster. The Church is well-equipped with necessities on-hand and available for quick distribution, but members are expected to see to their own immediate needs, as well as assisting their neighbors and communities. The Church's response to emergencies or disasters is directed through the bishop's storehouse, and are not limited to church members.
The Church also supports programs to help members become amateur radio operators, to provide communications between Church facilities during disasters. HF amateur radio equipment enables logistics needs to be met worldwide, while VHF operations link local leaders. In areas with high expectation of needing such services (such as quake-prone Southern California), license classes and exams are periodically held in local chapels, and open to all, regardless of age or religious preference.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a long and rich tradition of public speaking. Many of the early Church members — and especially leaders — were gifted orators and many were skilled in debate. Public speaking was common for both leaders and other lay members. This speaking tradition continues today. For example, during worship services on the first Sunday of each month, members of the congregation are invited to share their testimonies of the gospel, faith-building experiences, and other uplifting messages with the other members of the congregation.
On each of the other Sundays during the month, members of the congregation are selected in advance to give a "talk" (the LDS equivalent of a "sermon" or "homily") on a particular Gospel principle or topic. Often the congregation will hear from one or two youth speakers and one or two adult speakers during these meetings. Children under age 12 are given the opportunity to give short talks in their Primary meetings, while teenagers are encouraged to contribute to church lessons.
Church leaders and missionaries are also encouraged to speak boldly and freely about the Gospel, and are often given opportunities for extemporaneous public speaking on various Gospel subjects.
Since the early days of the Church, talks given by leaders (especially those given in the Church's biannual General Conference meetings) have been recorded and widely distributed in written format. A digitized collection of these talks dating back to 1971 is available on the lds.org website, and talks dating back to the 1800s are available in printed format through various University and community libraries. In recent years the LDS Church and Brigham Young University have also made audio and video versions of selected talks freely available on their websites.
The LDS Church does not use the cross or crucifix as a symbol of faith. Mormons view such symbols as emphasizing Jesus' death as opposed to his life and resurrection. No pictures or icons are depicted in the central chapel within church buildings, as policy, to avoid an image becoming the focus of worship rather than the reality of God. However, images such as paintings of Christ and photographs of LDS leaders and temples are common in other parts of church buildings.
One of the most commonly used visual symbols of the church is the trumpeting angel Moroni, proclaiming the restoration of the true gospel to the Earth (often identified as the angel mentioned in Revelation 14:6-7). A statue depicting Moroni often tops the tallest spire of LDS temples. Other common symbols associated with the church are the letters CTR, meaning "Choose the Right", often depicted in a shield logo; and images of the Salt Lake Temple.
When questioned on the subject of symbols, former Church President Gordon B. Hinckley has said that the Latter-day Saints themselves are the best symbols of their religion. Former Church President Howard W. Hunter encouraged Latter-day Saints to "look to the temple ... as the great symbol of your membership."
Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints address each other as "Brother" or "Sister" and then usually append the surname (for example: Brother Smith or Sister Jones). Additionally, those that hold specific leadership positions may be addressed by their title and then their last name (for example: President Brown). The most frequently-used titles are as follows:
- Bishop - The local bishop of a ward is addressed by the title of Bishop. He is assisted by two counselors who are not addressed by title. The title "Bishop" may also used when referring to anyone who formerly served as bishop. The Presiding Bishop of the church and his counselors are also given the title Bishop.
- Elder - While most adult male church members hold the office of elder in the Melchizedek priesthood, only full-time male missionaries, members of any of the Quorums of the Seventy (general and area authorities) and members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles are properly addressed with this title.
- President - All members of a stake presidency, district presidency, temple presidency, and mission presidency are properly referred to with the title President. Among the general authorities, only members of the church's First Presidency and the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and the Acting President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles use this title. In individual congregations, an Elders Quorum President may be addressed as President. A Teachers or Deacons Quorum President may be addressed with this title also, although they usually are not. Other presidents within the ward, such as the Sunday School President, Relief Society President, etc., are usually not be addressed by title. In a branch, the branch president is referred to as President, but his counselors are not.
A number of songs and hymns are unique to the church. Among the most famous of these are "Come, Come, Ye Saints", "I Am a Child of God"', "The Spirit of God Like a Fire Is Burning", "Praise to the Man", "O My Father", "High on the Mountain Top", "We Thank Thee, O God, for a Prophet", "Adam-ondi-Ahman", and "If You Could Hie to Kolob".
According to LDS Church tradition, the LDS Church President and First Presidency alone have the right to establish doctrine and policies for the entire church. In general, the perceptions of faithful members are expected to be in line with the current views of the general authorities of the church.
However, topics which are related to doctrine, or are based on cultural ideas and norms, may often be informally taught or debated among Latter-day Saints. These include (but are not limited to):
- Outer darkness
- What it actually means to be a god or an exalted human.
- Pre-existence issues including divisions by valiance, pre-mortal sin, and the war in heaven.
- The nature of pre-mortal intelligence, and how it (and/or/if spirit and spirit matter) was created
- The Adam–God theory
- Blood Atonement
- purposes of the past LDS practice of plural marriage, and whether it will ever be reinstated or exist in the celestial kingdom
- location and nature of Kolob
- At what point a spirit enters the body of a fetus or baby
- Miscellaneous Mormon folklore such as encounters with the Three Nephites.
Although members may be correct in their conjecture, the church as an organization is very careful about what is declared official doctrine.
- Cultural Mormon
- Molly Mormon
- Mormon cosmology
- Mormon folklore
- Temple garment
- List of Mormon family organizations
- ^ Gordon B. Hinckley, "Gambling" (– Scholar search), Ensign (May 2005): 58, http://library.lds.org/nxt/gateway.dll/Magazines/Ensign/2005.htm/ensign%20may%202005.htm/gambling.htm?fn=document-frame.htm$f=templates$3.0. [dead link]
- ^ "Utah Family Donates Prime Real Estate to Southern Virginia College" (Press release). Southern Virginia University. 2000-02-23. http://svu1.southernvirginia.edu/News/full_release/2000_feb23.html. Retrieved 2006-07-11.
- ^ Embry, Jessie L. (2008), "Spiritualized Recreation: Mormon All-Church Athletic Tournaments and Dance Festivals", Provo, Utah: Charles Redd Center for Western Studies, Brigham Young University, http://reddcenter.byu.edu/Spiritualized.dhtml, retrieved 2010-04-01 .
- ^ "First Presidency Statement on Basing of MX Missile", Ensign, June 1981, 76.
- ^ See lds.org, byu.edu, and ldsvoices.com for a collection of audio and video resources.
- ^ Gordon B. Hinckley, The Symbol of Our Faith, Ensign, Apr. 2005
- ^ Howard W. Hunter, “Exceeding Great and Precious Promises,” Ensign, Nov. 1994, 8.
- Givins, Terryl L. (2007), People of Paradox: A History of Mormon Culture, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-516711-2, http://books.google.com/?id=MA5ypzq2tf0C&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1 .
- Sorenson, John L. (1997), Mormon Culture: Four Decades of Essays on Mormon Society and Personality, Salt Lake City: New Sage Books, ISBN 1890902004 .
- Yorgason, Ethan R. (1997), Transformation of the Mormon Culture Region, Salt Lake City: New Sage Books, ISBN 0-252-02853-8, http://books.google.com/?id=-ewPkecIv8cC&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1 .
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