- California Proposition 8 (2008)
Proposition 8 is an initiative measure on the 2008
CaliforniaGeneral Election ballot titled Eliminates Right of Same-Sex Couples to Marry.  [cite web|url=http://www.heraldextra.com/content/view/280669/3/|title=LDS Donate Millions to Fight Gay Marriage|accessdate=2008-09-17] [cite web|url=http://www.washblade.com/2008/9-19/news/national/13307.cfm|title=Prop 8 supporters see surge in donations |accessdate=2008-09-19] , a group of Evangelical Christians led by Pastor Jim Garlow (head of Skyline Church in San Diego) and Pastor Miles McPherson (former San Diego Charger and head of the Rock Church in San Diego [cite web|url=http://www.cbn.com/cbnnews/426077.aspx|title=Christian Marriage Movement's Ground Zero|accessdate=2008-09-19] ), American Family Association, Focus on the Family[cite web|url=http://www.washingtonblade.com/2008/9-19/news/national/13307.cfm?page=2|title=Prop 8 supporters see surge in donations|accessdate=2008-09-19] and the National Organization for Marriage [cite web|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/16/usa.gayrights|title=California's ballot battle over gay marriage shows US cultural divide|accessdate=2008-09-17] .
The California Catholic Conference has released a statement in support of the proposition. The Catholic Bishops of California have stated that "by drawing on the revelation of Scripture, the wisdom of Tradition, the experience and insights of holy men and women as well as on what can be known by reason alone," they have decided "that marriage is the ideal relationship between a man and a woman for the purpose of procreation and the continuation of the human race." [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Catholic Bishops Support Proposition 8 | date= | publisher=California Catholic Conference | url=http://www.cacatholic.org/news/catholic-bishops-support-proposition-8.html | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2008-09-27 | language = ]
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or Mormon Church, has publicly supported the Proposition and encouraged their membership to support it, by asking for money donations and volunteer time [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=California and Same Sex Marriage | date=2008-06-30 | publisher=The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints | url =http://newsroom.lds.org/ldsnewsroom/eng/commentary/california-and-same-sex-marriage | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2008-09-27 | language = ] . The Church's political stance includes "The Church does not: Endorse, promote or oppose political parties, candidates or platforms", but reserves "the right as an institution to address, in a nonpartisan way, issues that it believes have significant community or moral consequences or that directly affect the interests of the Church." [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Political Neutrality | date= | publisher=The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints | url=http://newsroom.lds.org/ldsnewsroom/eng/public-issues/political-neutrality | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2008-09-27 | language = ]
Equality for All is the lead organization opposed to Proposition 8.cite web|url=http://www.equalityforall.com/home|title=Join No On Prop 8, Equality For All|work=Equality for All|accessdate=2008-07-31] They also run the NoOnProp8.com campaign.cite web|url=http://www.noonprop8.com/home|title=Vote No On Prop 8|work= Vote No On Prop 8|accessdate=2008-09-21] Republican California Governor
Arnold Schwarzeneggerstated that although he has opposed and has vetoed legislative bills that would legalize same sex marriage in California, he is opposed to the initiative and other attempts to amend the state's constitution. [cite news|title=Schwarzenegger: No to Marriage Amendment|author=Allison Hoffman|publisher=Associated Press |date=2008-04-12|url= http://www.christianpost.com/article/20080412/31920_Schwarzenegger:_No_to_Marriage_Amendment_.htm] Schwarzenegger released the following statement on May 15, 2008regarding the ruling:
Democratic presidential nominee and U.S. Senator
Barack Obamasaid he supports extending "fully equal rights and benefits to same-sex couples under both state and federal law....And that is why I oppose the divisive and discriminatory efforts to amend the California Constitution, and similar efforts to amend the U.S. Constitution or those of other states", [cite news | last=Rojas |first=Aurelio |title=Obama rejects proposed California gay marriage ban |url=http://www.sacbee.com/111/story/1051404.html |work= Sacramento Bee| date=2008-07-01| retrieved=2008/08/13] [cite news | last=Kapfer |first=William |title=Obama pledges equality for all |url=http://www.washblade.com/2008/9-12/election08/topstory/13273.cfm |work=Washington Blade | date=2008-08-12 |retrieved=2008/09/19] as has the U.S. House Speaker and California Representative (8th District) Nancy Pelosi. [cite press release | title=Pelosi Statement on California State Supreme Court Ruling on Gay Marriage | publisher=House Speaker Nancy Pelosi |date=2008-05-15 |url=http://www.house.gov/pelosi/press/releases/May08/marriage.html] . Both Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, the two senators representing California, have voiced their opposition to Proposition 8, [cite news|url=http://ebar.com/news/article.php?sec=news&article=3320|title=Feinstein opposes Prop 8|publisher=Bay Area Reporter|date=2008-09-11] as have the mayors of San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego: Gavin Newsom, Antonio Villaraigosa, and Jerry Sandersrespectively. [cite news|url=http://ebar.com/news/article.php?sec=news&article=3312|title=Feinstein silent on Prop 8|last=Hemmelgarn|first=Seth|date=2008-09-11|work= Bay Area Reporter|accessdate=2008-09-17] [cite web|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yPh0PQ89n6Y|title=Gavin Newsom Speaks on Prop 8|work=YouTube|accessdate=2008-09-17] [cite web|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0rfea8iEGNw|title=San Diego Mayor Stands Up For Marriage Equality|work=YouTube|accessdate=2008-10-02]
All six of the state's largest newspapers have editorialized against Proposition 8: the "
Los Angeles Times", [cite web|title=Reneging on a right|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la-ed-marriage8-2008aug08%2C0%2C1229155.story|date=2008-08-08|accessdate=2008-09-29] the " San Francisco Chronicle", [cite web|title=Californians should reject Proposition 8|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/10/01/ED7T1390OF.DTL&hw=Proposition+section%3Ded+in&sn=022&sc=554|date=2008-10-01|accessdate=2008-10-02] the " San Diego Union-Tribune", [cite web|title=Gay marriage right should not be repealed|url=http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20080918/news_lz1ed18top.html|date=2008-09-18|accessdate=2008-09-29] " The Orange County Register", [cite web|title=California Prop. 8 Editorial: Intrusion into marriage should be even-handed|url=http://www.ocregister.com/articles/marriage-sex-protection-2174926-california-state|date=2008-10-01|accessdate=2008-10-02] " The Sacramento Bee" [cite web |url=http://www.sacbee.com/110/story/1299709-p3.html|title=Endorsements '08: Say 'No' to all propositions except 11|date=2008-10-09|accessdate=2008-10-09|work= Sacramento Bee] and the " San Jose Mercury News". [cite web|url=http://www.mercurynews.com/opinion/ci_10229683|title=Editorial: Initiative against gay marriage must be defeated|date=2008-08-17|accessdate=2008-09-29] Other papers to have editorialized in opposition include " The New York Times". [cite web|title=Preserving California’s Constitution|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/29/opinion/29mon3.html|date=2008-09-28|accessdate=2008-09-29]
All six Episcopal diocesan bishops in California jointly issued a statement opposing Proposition 8 on September 10, 2008. [cite news|title=California's top Episcopal bishops oppose gay marriage ban|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/local/politics/cal/la-me-gaymarriage11-2008sep11,0,7646017.story|work=
Los Angeles Times|date=2008-09-11] .
Southern California's largest collection of rabbis voted overwhelmingly to oppose Proposition 8. Leaders of the Board of Rabbis of Southern California -- with representatives from the Reconstructionist, Reform, Conservative and Orthodox movements -- said they wanted to protect the civil rights of gay and lesbian couples. The resolution did not address the sanctity of gay marriage. Instead, it urged a no vote on Proposition 8 so that same-sex couples can continue to marry under civil law. [cite news|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-briefs27-2008sep27,0,1387683.story|title=Southern California rabbi board opposes gay marriage ban|work=
Los Angeles Times|date=2008-09-27]
Jewish groups in the
San Francisco Bay Areacame together to present an event against Proposition 8. The September 17, 2008 event was presented by the Jewish Community Relations Council and the LGBT Alliance of the Jewish Community Federations of San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin, and Sonoma Counties; the Jewish Community Federation of the Greater East Bay; and the Progressive Jewish Alliance [http://www.pjalliance.org/article.aspx?CID=5&ID=465] . Other Jewish groups who sponsored the event and who oppose Proposition 8 include Kol Tzedek [http://www.jewishmosaic.org/page/news] , Congregation Beth Am [http://www.nclrights.org/site/PageServer?pagename=nclr_getinvolved_Noon8_events] , Congregation Emanu-El [http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/35995/edition_id/673/format/html/displaystory.html] , Keshet, Congregation Sha'ar Zahav, Kulanu, Nehirim, Congregation Shomrei Torah, Congregation Sherith Israel, Jewish Mosaic, National Council of Jewish Women[http://www.forward.com/articles/14106/] , Jews for Marriage Equality [http://www.jewsformarriageequality.org/html/news.html] , No on Prop 8 - Equality for All campaign [http://www.noonprop8.com/about?id=0010] , and the ACLUof Northern California. [http://www.aclunc.org/issues/lgbt/vote_no_on_proposition_8_protect_marriage_equality_for_all.shtml]
David Knight, the openly gay son of the late state Senator William "Pete" Knight, who authored Proposition 22, and stepson of Gail Knight, a proponent of Proposition 8, said that he is "absolutely" opposed to Proposition 8. [cite news|title=Pete Knight's gay son against Prop 8|url=http://ebar.com/news/article.php?sec=news&article=3233|publisher=Bay Area Reporter|date=2008-08-14|accessdate=2008-10-09]
A simple majority of votes cast is required to enact a constitutional amendment. [cite news | author = Amar, Vikram David | title = The People of California Have the Power to Undo It By a Ballot Initiative Amending the State Constitution, But How Far Should That Power Extend? | url = http://writ.news.findlaw.com/amar/20080522.html | work = FindLaw's Writ | date = 2008-05-22 ]
Reliability of polling data
There is some debate about the extent to which opinion polls accurately reflect the electorate's views on same-sex marriage, due in part to
social desirability bias(i.e. voters telling pollsters what they think the pollsters want to hear). The magnitude of such an effect is hotly contested.cite news|url=http://www.advocate.com/exclusive_detail_ektid62114.asp |title=Can You Trust the Polling on Proposition 8? |work= The Advocate|date= 2008-09-23|accessdate=2008-09-24]
In the 2000 primary election, Proposition 22 passed with a margin eight points greater than predicted by one polling organization. The Field Poll immediately prior to the election showed 53% of likely voters in favor. [cite news | last =Leff | first =Lisa | title =Support for Calif. gay marriage ban slipping | work =
San Jose Mercury News| pages = | language = | publisher = | date =September 18, 2008 | url =http://www.mercurynews.com/breakingnews/ci_10497209?nclick_check=1 | accessdate = ] Other polls conducted in the same month showed 57% of voters supported the measure. [cite news |author=Warren, Jenifer|title=Gay couple speak out against measure|work=Los Angeles Times|page=A3|date=2 Mar 2000] [Citation |first=Mark|last=Baldassare|date=February 2000|title=PPIC Statewide Survey: Californians and Their Government|publication-place=San Francisco|pages=vii,7] The actual vote in favor was 61.4% of votes cast (of all ballots, 58.6% voted yes, 36.9% voted no, and 4.5% did not vote). [cite website|title=Statement of Vote Cast on Ballot Measures|publisher=California Secretary of State|date=200-08-20|url=http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/sov/2000_primary/measures.pdf] An analysis by Patrick J. Egan of New York Universitysuggests that such gaps have been falling steadily over recent years. Seven of the states that voted on marriage bans in 2006 have polling data available. In those, the average gap between polled support for the measure and the final outcome was under one percentage point.
The Briggs Initiative
California state elections, November 2008
Same-sex marriage in California
* [http://www.electiontrack.com/prop8.php Proposition 8 Support and Opposition Financial Contributions]
* [http://www.latimes.com/news/local/politics/cal/la-moneymap,0,5374284.htmlstory Tracking the money]
* [http://www.ag.ca.gov/cms_pdfs/initiatives/i737_07-0068_Initiative.pdf Scan of Initiative] from
California Attorney Generalwebsite
* [http://www.protectmarriage.com/ ProtectMarriage.com] , organizational sponsor of Proposition 8
* [http://www.noonprop8.com No On Prop. 8] , official website against Proposition 8
* [http://www.iprotectmarriage.com/ iProtectMarriage.com] , a youth-focused branch of the organizational sponsor of Proposition 8
* [http://www.eqca.org Equality California]
* [http://www.voterguide.sos.ca.gov/argu-rebut/argu-rebutt8.htm Arguments and Rebuttals] , Official Voter Information Guide
* [http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S147999.PDF S147999] The full text of S147999, the decision from the
California Supreme Court, May 15, 2008
* [http://www.sendspace.com/file/inv1b3/ REPLY] Reply Brief in BENNETT v. BOWEN (HOLLINGSWORTH) S165420
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.