 108 (number)

108 Cardinal one hundred [and] eight Ordinal 108th
(one hundred [and] eighth)Numeral system 108 Factorization Divisors 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, 54, 108 Roman numeral CVIII Binary 1101100_{2} Octal 154_{8} Duodecimal 90_{12} Hexadecimal 6C_{16} 108 (one hundred [and] eight) is the natural number following 107 and preceding 109.
Contents
In mathematics
One hundred [and] eight (or nine dozen) is an abundant number and a semiperfect number. It is a tetranacci number.
It is the hyperfactorial of 3 since it is of the form .
108 is a number that is divisible by the value of its φ function, which is 36. 108 is also divisible by the total number of its divisors (12), hence it is a refactorable number.
In Euclidean space, the interior angles of a regular pentagon measure 108 degrees each.
There are 108 free polyominoes of order 7.
In base 10, it is a Harshad number and a self number.
The equation results in the Golden ratio
Religion and the arts
The number 108 is considered sacred in many Eastern religions and traditions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and connected yoga and dharma based practices. The individual numbers 1, 0, and 8 represent one thing, nothing, and everything (infinity). 108 represents the ultimate reality of the universe as being (seemingly paradoxically) simultaneously One, emptiness, and infinite.
Hinduism
For example, Hindu deities have 108 names, while in Gaudiya Vaishnavism, there are 108 gopis of Vrindavan. Recital of these names, often accompanied by counting of 108beaded Mala, is considered sacred and often done during religious ceremonies. The recital is called namajapa. Accordingly, a mala usually has beads for 108 repetitions of a mantra.
The distance of Sun from Earth divided by diameter of Sun and distance of Moon from Earth divided by diameter of Moon is approximately equal to 108. It is claimed that the great sires of Vedanta knew this relationship and thus 108 is a very important number in Vedantic chantings.
Buddhism
Likewise, Tibetan Buddhist malas or rosaries (Tib. ཕྲེང་བ Wyl. phreng ba, "Trengwa") are usual 108 beads ^{[1]}; sometimes 111 including the Guru Bead(s), reflecting the words of the Buddha called in Tibetan the Kangyur (Wylie: Bka''gyur) in 108 volumes. Zen priests wear juzu (a ring of prayer beads) around their wrists, which consists of 108 beads.^{[2]}
The Lankavatara Sutra has a section where the Bodhisattva Mahamati asks Buddha 108 questions^{[3]} and another section where Buddha lists 108 statements of negation in the form of "A statement concerning X is not statement concerning X".^{[4]} In a footnote, D.T. Suzuki explains that the Sanskrit word translated as "statement" is "pada" which can also mean "footstep" or "a position." This confusion over the word "pada" explains why some have mistakenly held that the reference to 108 statements in the Lankavatara refer to the 108 steps that many temples have.^{[5]}
In some schools of Buddhism it is believed that there are 108 defilements^{[6]}. In Japan, at the end of the year, a bell is chimed 108 times in Buddhist temples to finish the old year and welcome the new one. Each ring represents one of 108 earthly temptations a person must overcome to achieve nirvana.
Pop Culture
The number 108 is one of many numeric motifs in the American television program Lost, which includes quite a few references to Buddhism. For example, the sum of "the numbers" (4, 8, 15, 16, 23, and 42) is 108, and "the numbers" must be entered into a computer every 108 minutes. One hundred eight is also the number of days "the Oceanic 6" have spent on the island. And Jacob tells Hurley to rotate the mirror in the lighthouse to a heading of 108°.
Ancient artifacts
The prehistoric monument Stonehenge is about 108 foot in diameter. [3]
Other References
In the neoGnostic teachings of Samael Aun Weor, an individual has 108 chances (lifetimes) to eliminate his egos and transcend the material world before "devolving" and having the egos forcefully removed in the infradimensions.^{[7]}
Martial arts
 According to Marma Adi and Ayurveda, there are 108 pressure points in the body, where consciousness and flesh intersect to give life to the living being.^{[8]}
 The Chinese school of martial arts agrees with the South Indian school of martial arts on the principle of 108 pressure points.^{[9]}^{[10]}
 108 number also figures prominently in the symbolism associated with karate, particularly the Gōjūryū discipline. The ultimate Gōjūryū kata, Suparinpei, literally translates to 108. Suparinpei is the Chinese pronunciation of the number 108, while gojūshi of Gojūshiho is the Japanese pronunciation of the number 54. The other Gōjūryū kata, Sanseru (meaning "36") and Seipai ("18") are factors of the number 108.^{[2]}
 The 108 of the Yang long form and Wing Chun, taught by Yip Man having 108 movements are noted in this regard.^{[5]}
 Several different Taijiquan long forms consist of 108 moves.
 Paek Pal Ki Hyung, the 7th form taught in the art of Kuk Sool Won, translates literally to "108 technique" form. It is also frequently referred to as the "eliminate 108 torments" form. Each motion corresponds with one of the 108 Buddhist torments or defilements.
In literature
 In Homer's Odyssey, the number of suitors coveting Penelope, wife of Odysseus.
 There are 108 outlaws in the Chinese classic Water Margin/Outlaws of the Marsh.
 There are 108 love sonnets in Astrophil and Stella, the first English sonnet sequence by Sir Philip Sidney.
In Sports
108 is the number that the Belgian cyclist Wouter Weylandt wore when he crashed fatally in the Giro d'Italia on May 9, 2011. As a tribute, many supporters held replicas of his race number by the side of the road the next day. The organization of the Giro d'Italia decided not to issue race number 108 in future editions, to commemorate him.
In other fields
 An official Major League Baseball baseball has 108 stitches.^{[11]}
 The atomic number of hassium.
 The number of Mbit/s of a nonstandard extension of IEEE 802.11g wireless network using channel bonding.
 There are 108 Stars of Destiny to collect in the video game Suikoden distributed by Konami for Playstation
 108 is the name of a community of and for open source developers, created by Red Hat.^{[12]}
 There are 108 cards in a deck of UNO cards.
 There are 108 Code Crowns in Digimon Xros Wars.
 The British television series Doctor Who has exactly 108 missing Episodes.
 Volume expansion of freezing water is roughly 108%.
EMRI  Emergency Services
In India, 108 (108) is the tollfree emergency telephone number. Calls are handled by GVK EMRI (GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute), the only professional Emergency Service Provider in India today, handling medical, police and fire emergencies.
108 degrees Fahrenheit is also the internal temperature at which the human body's vital organs begin to fail from overheating.
See also
Notes
 ^ Chapter 5 of 'Generating the Deity' ISBN 1559390557
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Hyaku Hachi No Bonno: The Influence of The 108 Defilements and Other Buddhist Concepts on Karate Thought and Practice By Charles C. Goodin. The article has appeared in Issue #7, Winter 199697 of Furyu: The Budo Journal.
 ^ The Lankavatara Sutra translated by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Chapter Two, Section II,[1]
 ^ The Lankavatara Sutra translated by Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki, Chapter Two, Section III,[2]
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} 108 STEPS: The SinoIndian Connection in the Martial Arts by Joyotpaul Chaudhuri....
 ^ http://mrob.com/pub/epist/buddhism.html
 ^ Samael Aun Weor (2005) [1983]. The Pistis Sophia Unveiled. Glorian Publishing. pp. 211–214. ISBN 0974591688.
 ^ A Western Journalist on India: The Ferengi's Columns By François Gautier. pg 158. ISBN 8124107955
 ^ Subramaniam Phd., P., (general editors) Dr. Shu Hikosaka, Asst. Prof. Norinaga Shimizu, & Dr. G. John Samuel, (translator) Dr. M. Radhika (1994). Varma Cuttiram வர்ம சுத்திரம்: A Tamil Text on Martial Art from PalmLeaf Manuscript. Madras: Institute of Asian Studies. pp. 90 & 91.
 ^ Reid Phd., Howard, Michael Croucher (1991). The Way of the Warrior: The Paradox of the Martial Arts. New York: Outlook Press. pp. 58–85. ISBN 0879514337.
 ^ Official Major League Baseball by Rawlings
 ^ Red Hat Announces First Red Hat Developer Day In India @ ENTERPRISE OPEN SOURCE MAGAZINE
9. '108' in the anime series 'Tokko' is the number of pieces in the Box of Dirge Chinese puzzle box created by alchemy as a doorway between the world of demons and this one. The puzzle box was used in all of the Hellraiser films but there was no reference to its number of shards.
References
 Wells, D. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers London: Penguin Group. (1987): 134
External links
Categories: Integers
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