- Human body
The human body is the entire physical and mental structure of a
The human body consists of a
head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs.
By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100
trillion(100,000,000,000,000) cells, the basic unit of life. Groups of cells combine and work in tandem to form tissue, which combines to form organs, which work together to form organ systems.
ize, type, proportion
The average height of an adult male human is about 1.8 m (6 feet) tall and the adult female about 1.6 to 1.7 m (5 to 5.5 feet) tall. This size is firstly determined by diet and secondly by
genes. Body typeand body compositionare influenced by postnatal factors such as diet and exercise.
The proportions of human body is different from that of
animal body. [Edmund Burke, Abraham Mills, "A Philosophical Enquiry Into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: With an Introductory Discourse Concerning Taste". Harper, 1844, p.119] In art, these ratios are used in veristic depictions of the figure.
The organ systems of the body are: the
Musculoskeletal system, the Cardiovascular system, the Digestive system, the Endocrine system, the Integumentary system, the Urinary system, the Lymphatic system, the Immune system, the Respiratory system, the Nervous system, and the Reproductive system.
Musculoskeletal system""Or, see Muscular systemand Skeletal system"
The human musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton, made by
bonesattached to other bones with joints, and skeletal muscle attached to the skeleton by tendons.
The cardiovascular system comprises of the
heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries. The primary function of the heart is to circulate the blood, and through the blood, oxygen and vital minerals, to the tissues and organs that comprise the body. The main organ of the cardiovascular system, the heart, is generally located in the middle of the thorax. The left side (the left ventricleand left atrium) is responsible for pumping blood to all parts of the body, while the right side ( right ventricleand right atriumpumps only to the lungs.
[cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Cardiovascular System | date= | publisher=U.S. National Cancer Institute | url =http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit7_1_cardvasc_intro.html | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2008-09-16 | language = ]
[cite book |author= |title=Human Biology and Health |publisher=Pearson Prentice Hall |location=Upper Saddle River, NJ |year=1993 |pages= |isbn=0-13-981176-1 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=] The heart itself is divided into three layers called the
endocardium, myocardiumand epicardium, which vary in thickness and function. [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=The Cardiovascular System | date=2008-03-08 | publisher=SUNY Downstate Medical Center | url =http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/histomanual/cardiovascular.html | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2008-09-16 | language = ]
Reproductive System" Human reproductiontakes place as internal fertilizationby sexual intercourse. During this process, the erect penisof the maleis inserted into the female's vaginauntil the male ejaculates semen, which contains sperm, into the female's vagina. The sperm then travels through the vagina and cervix into the uterusor fallopian tubes for fertilization of the ovum.
The human male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside of the body and around the pelvic region of a
malethat contribute towards the reproductive process. The primary direct function of the male reproductive system is to provide the male gameteor spermatozoafor fertilization of the ovum.
The major reproductive organs of the male can be grouped into three categories. The first category is sperm production and storage. Production takes place in the
testeswhich are housed in the temperature regulating scrotum, immature sperm then travel to the epididymisfor development and storage. The second category are the ejaculatory fluid producing glands which include the seminal vesicles, prostate, and the vas deferens. The final category are those used for copulation, and deposition of the spermatozoa( sperm) within the female, these include the penis, urethra, vas deferens, and Cowper's gland.
The human female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the body and around the pelvic region of a
femalethat contribute towards the reproductive process. The human female reproductive system contains three main parts: the vagina, which acts as the receptacle for the male's sperm, the uterus, which holds the developing fetus, and the ovaries, which produce the female's ova. The breasts are also an important reproductive organ during the parenting stage of reproduction.
The vagina meets the outside at the
vulva, which also includes the labia, clitorisand urethra; during intercourse this area is lubricated by mucus secreted by the Bartholin's glands. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, typically approximately every 28 days, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus. The lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, and unfertilized ova are shed each cycle through a process known as menstruation.
An adult skeleton consists of approximately 200 distinct bones: :Spine and vertebral column (26):Cranium (8):Face (14):Hyoid bone, sternum and ribs (26):Upper extremities (64):Lower extremities (62)
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