PostgreSQL logo
Developer(s) PostgreSQL Global Development Group
Stable release 9.1.1[1] /
9.0.5[2] /
8.4.9 /
8.3.16 /
8.2.22 /
September 26, 2011; 55 days ago (2011-09-26)
Written in C
Operating system Cross-platform
License PostgreSQL licence[3][4][5]

PostgreSQL, often simply Postgres, is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) available for many platforms including Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, MS Windows and Mac OS X.[6] It is released under the PostgreSQL License, which is an MIT-style license, and is thus free and open source software. As with many other open-source programs, PostgreSQL is not controlled by any single company — a global community of developers and companies develop the system. It is ACID-compliant, is fully transactional (including all DDL statements), implements the majority of the SQL:2008 standard[7] has extensible data types, operators and indexes, and there are a large number of extensions that have been written for it.

The vast majority of Linux distributions have PostgreSQL available in supplied packages. Mac OS X, starting with Lion, has PostgreSQL server as its standard default database in the server edition[8][9], and PostgreSQL client tools in the desktop edition.


Product name

The mixed-capitalization of the PostgreSQL name can confuse some people on first viewing. The several pronunciations of "SQL" can lead to this confusion. PostgreSQL's developers pronounce it /ˈpoʊstɡrɛs ˌkjuː ˈɛl/; (Audio sample, 5.6k MP3). It is abbreviated as "Postgres", its original name. Because of ubiquitous support for the SQL Standard amongst most relational databases, the community considered changing the name back to Postgres. However, the PostgreSQL Core Team announced in 2007 that the product would continue to use the name PostgreSQL.[10] The name refers to the project's origins as a "post-Ingres" database, being a development from University Ingres DBMS (Ingres being an abbreviation for INteractive Graphics REtrieval System.)


PostgreSQL evolved from the Ingres project at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1982, the project leader, Michael Stonebraker, left Berkeley to make a proprietary version of Ingres. He returned to Berkeley in 1985 and started a post-Ingres project to address the problems with contemporary database systems that had become increasingly clear during the early 1980s.[11] The new project, POSTGRES, aimed to add the fewest features needed to completely support types.[12] These features included the ability to define types and to fully describe relationships – something used widely before but maintained entirely by the user. In Postgres, the database "understood" relationships, and could retrieve information in related tables in a natural way using rules. Postgres used many of the ideas of Ingres, but not its code.

Starting in 1986, the team published a number of papers describing the basis of the system, and by 1988 had a prototype version. The team released version 1 to a small number of users in June 1989, then version 2 with a re-written rules system in June 1990. Version 3, released in 1991, again re-wrote the rules system, and added support for multiple storage managers and an improved query engine. By 1993 the great number of users began to overwhelm the project with requests for support and features. After releasing version 4—primarily a cleanup—the project ended.

But open-source developers could obtain copies and develop the system further, because Berkeley had released Postgres under a MIT-style license. In 1994, Berkeley graduate students Andrew Yu and Jolly Chen replaced the Ingres-based QUEL query language interpreter with one for the SQL query language, creating Postgres95. The code was released on the web.

In July 1996, Marc Fournier at Hub.Org Networking Services provided the first non-university development server for the open-source development effort. Along with Bruce Momjian and Vadim B. Mikheev, work began to stabilize the code inherited from Berkeley. The first open-source version was released on August 1, 1996.

In 1996, the project was renamed to PostgreSQL to reflect its support for SQL. The first PostgreSQL release formed version 6.0 in January 1997. Since then, the software has been maintained by a group of database developers and volunteers around the world, coordinating via the Internet.

The PostgreSQL project continues to make major releases (approximately annually) and minor "bugfix" releases, all available under the same license. Code comes from contributions from proprietary vendors, support companies, and open-source programmers at large.

Major releases

Release First release Latest minor version Latest release Additions
0.01 1995-05-01 0.03 1995-07-21 Initial release as Postgres95
1.0 1995-09-05 1.09 1996-11-04 Changed copyright to a more liberal license
6.0 1997-01-29 Name change from Postgres95 to PostgreSQL, unique indexes, pg_dumpall utility, ident authentication.
6.1 1997-06-08 6.1.1 1997-07-22 Multi-column indexes, sequences, money data type, GEQO (GEnetic Query Optimizer).
6.2 1997-10-02 6.2.1 1997-10-17 JDBC interface, triggers, server programming interface, constraints.
6.3 1998-03-01 6.3.2 1998-04-07 SQL92 subselect capability, PL/pgTCL
6.4 1998-10-30 6.4.2 1998-12-20 VIEWs and RULEs, PL/pgSQL
6.5 1999-06-09 6.5.3 1999-10-13 MVCC, temporary tables, more SQL statement support (CASE, INTERSECT, and EXCEPT)
7.0 2000-05-08 7.0.3 2000-11-11 Foreign keys, Inner joins
7.1 2001-04-13 7.1.3 2001-08-15 Write-ahead Log, Outer joins
7.2 2002-02-04 7.2.8 2005-05-09 PL/Python, OIDs no longer required, internationalization of messages
7.3 2002-11-27 7.3.21 2008-01-07 Schema, Internationalization
7.4 2003-11-17 7.4.30 2010-10-04 Optimization all-round
8.0 2005-01-19 8.0.26 2010-10-04 Native server on Microsoft Windows, savepoints, tablespaces, exception handling in functions, point-in-time recovery
8.1 2005-11-08 8.1.23 2010-12-16 Performance optimization, two-phase commit, table partitioning, index bitmap scan, shared row locking, roles
8.2 2006-12-05 8.2.22 2011-09-26 Performance optimization, online index builds, advisory locks, warm standby
8.3 2008-02-04 8.3.16 2011-09-26 Full text search, SQL/XML, ENUM types, UUID types
8.4 2009-07-01 8.4.9 2011-09-26 Windowing functions, default and variadic parameters for functions, column-level permissions, parallel database restore, per-database collation, common table expressions and recursive queries
9.0 2010-09-20 9.0.5 2011-09-26 Built-in binary streaming replication, Hot standby, 64-bit Windows, per-column triggers and conditional trigger execution, exclusion constraints, anonymous code blocks, named parameters, password rules
9.1 2011-09-12 9.1.1 2011-09-26 Synchronous replication, per-column collations, unlogged tables, K-nearest-neighbor indexing, serializable snapshot isolation, writeable common table expressions, SE-Linux integration, extensions, SQL/MED attached tables, triggers on views
Community supported
Community support ended[13]


Procedural languages

Procedural languages (often called stored procedures) allow blocks of code to be executed by the database server, and can be written in programming languages other than SQL and C. Procedural languages can be used to create user-defined functions (subroutine, trigger, aggregates and window functions), and can also be used in ad hoc "DO" blocks. The following four procedural languages are provided by a standard PostgreSQL installation:

Other non-standard procedural languages that have been developed outside the core distribution include (but are not limited to):


PostgreSQL includes built-in support for B+-tree, hash, generalized search trees (GiST) and generalized inverted indexes (GIN). In addition, user-defined index methods can be created, although this is quite an involved process. Indexes in PostgreSQL also support the following features:

  • Expression indexes can be created with an index of the result of an expression or function, instead of simply the value of a column.
  • Partial indexes, which only index part of a table, can be created by adding a WHERE clause to the end of the CREATE INDEX statement. This allows a smaller index to be created.
  • The planner is capable of using multiple indexes together to satisfy complex queries, using temporary in-memory bitmap index operations.


Triggers are events triggered by the action of SQL DML statements. For example, an INSERT statement might activate a trigger that checked if the values of the statement were valid. Most triggers are only activated by either INSERT or UPDATE statements.

Triggers are fully supported and can be attached to tables and as of 9.1, this also includes views. Views in versions prior to 9.1 can have rules, though. Multiple triggers are fired in alphabetical order. In addition to calling functions written in the native PL/PgSQL, triggers can also invoke functions written in other languages like PL/Perl.


PostgreSQL manages concurrency through a system known as multiversion concurrency control (MVCC), which gives each user a "snapshot" of the database, allowing changes to be made without being visible to other users until a transaction is committed. This largely eliminates the need for read locks, and ensures the database maintains the ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability) principles in an efficient manner.


Rules allow the "query tree" of an incoming query to be rewritten. One common usage is to implement views, including updatable views. Rules, or more properly, "Query Re-Write Rules", are attached to a table/class and "Re-Write" the incoming DML (select, insert, update, and/or delete) into one or more queries that either replace the original DML statement or execute in addition to it. Query Re-Write occurs after DML statement parsing, but, before query planning.

Data types

A wide variety of native data types are supported, including:

  • Boolean
  • Arbitrary precision numerics
  • Character (text, varchar, char)
  • Binary
  • Date/time (timestamp/time with/without timezone, date, interval)
  • Money
  • Enum
  • Bit strings
  • Text search type
  • Composite
  • Variable length arrays (including text and composite types) up to 1 GB in total storage size.
  • Geometric primitives
  • IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
  • CIDR blocks and MAC addresses
  • XML supporting XPath queries (as of 8.3)
  • UUID (as of 8.3)

In addition, users can create their own data types which can usually be made fully indexable via PostgreSQL's GiST infrastructure. Examples of these include the geographic information system (GIS) data types from the PostGIS project for PostgreSQL.

There is also a data type called a "domain", which is the same as any other data type but with optional constraints defined by the creator of that domain. This means any data entered into a column using the domain will have to conform to whichever constraints were defined as part of the domain.

User-defined objects

New types of almost all objects inside the database can be created, including:

  • Casts
  • Conversions
  • Data types
  • Domains
  • Functions, including aggregate functions and window functions
  • Indexes including custom indexes for custom types
  • Operators (existing ones can be overloaded)
  • Procedural languages


Tables can be set to inherit their characteristics from a "parent" table. Data in child tables will appear to exist in the parent tables, unless data is selected from the parent table using the ONLY keyword, i.e. select * from ONLY PARENT_TABLE. Adding a column in the parent table will cause that column to appear in the child table.

Inheritance can be used to implement table partitioning, using either triggers or rules to direct inserts to the parent table into the proper child tables.

As of 2010 this feature is not fully supported yet—in particular, table constraints are not currently inheritable. As of the 8.4 release, all check constraints and not-null constraints on a parent table are automatically inherited by its children. Other types of constraints (unique, primary key, and foreign key constraints) are not inherited.

Inheritance provides a way to map the features of generalization hierarchies depicted in Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERD) directly into the PostgreSQL database.

Contrib Modules

PostgreSQL comes with additional extensions, libraries and tools that are referred to as contrib modules.

Extensions aren't installed in databases by default, but they can be installed on a per-database basis to provide additional functionality and features. In PostgreSQL 9.1 and later, these can be installed via the CREATE EXTENSION command. Older versions execute an SQL script in the database they are to be installed in.

Libraries add system-wide functionality rather than per database. These can be loaded into individual sessions, or configured to be preloaded into the server to be made automatically available to all sessions.

Tools are applications used outside of the database and provide various utility functions.

PostgreSQL Contrib Modules
Extension Description Type Available from version
adminpack Provides a number of support functions which pgAdmin and other administration and management tools can use to provide additional functionality, such as remote management of server log files. Extension 8.2
auth_delay Causes the server to pause briefly before reporting authentication failure, to make brute-force attacks on database passwords more difficult. Library 9.1
autoexplain Automatic logging of the plans of slow-running queries. Library 8.4
btree_gin Provides GIN operator classes that implement B-Tree equivalent behavior for various data types. Extension 8.4
btree_gist Provides GiST operator classes that implement B-Tree equivalent behavior for various data types. Extension 8.0
chkpass Implements a data type chkpass that is designed for storing encrypted passwords. Extension 8.3
citext Provides a case-insensitive character string type, citext. Extension 8.4
cube Implements a data type cube for representing multi-dimensional cubes. Extension 8.3
dblink Adds support for connections to other PostgreSQL databases from within a database session. Extension 7.4
dict_int Adds an example add-on dictionary template for full-text search to control the indexing of integers (signed and unsigned), allowing such numbers to be indexed while preventing excessive growth in the number of unique words, which greatly affects the performance of searching. Extension 8.3
dict_xsyn Adds an example add-on dictionary template for full-text search which replaces words with groups of their synonyms, and so makes it possible to search for a word using any of its synonyms. Extension 8.3
dummy_seclabel A library to support regression testing of the SECURITY LABEL statement. It is not intended to be used in production. Library 9.1
earthdistance Provides two different approaches to calculating great circle distances on the surface of the Earth. Extension 8.3
file_fdw Provides the foreign-data wrapper file_fdw, which can be used to access data files in the server's file system and query them as tables. Extension 9.1
fuzzystrmatch Provides several functions to determine similarities and distance between strings consisting of Soundex, Levenshtein, Metaphone and Double Metaphone. Extension 7.4
hstore Implements the hstore data type for storing sets of key/value pairs within a single PostgreSQL value. Extension 8.2
intarray Provides a number of useful functions and operators for manipulating null-free arrays of integers. There is also support for indexed searches using some of the operators. Extension 7.4
isn Provides data types for the following international product numbering standards: EAN13, UPC, ISBN (books), ISMN (music), and ISSN (serials). Extension 8.2
lo Provides support for managing Large Objects (also called LOs or BLOBs). It includes a data type lo and a trigger lo_manage. Extension 8.3
ltree Implements a data type ltree for representing labels of data stored in a hierarchical tree-like structure. Extensive facilities for searching through label trees are provided. Extension 7.4
oid2name A utility program that helps administrators to examine the file structure used by PostgreSQL. Tool 8.3
pageinspect Provides functions that allow you to inspect the contents of database pages at a low level, which is useful for debugging purposes. Extension 8.3
passwordcheck Checks users' passwords whenever they are defined for database roles. This utilises CrackLib to enforce password strength rules. Library 9.0
pg_archivecleanup A application designed to be used as an archive_cleanup_command to clean up WAL file archives when running as a standby server. It can also be used as a standalone program to clean WAL file archives. Tool 9.0
pg_buffercache Provides a means for examining what's happening in the shared buffer cache in real time. Extension 8.1
pg_freespacemap Provides a means for examining the free space map. Extension 8.2
pg_standby An application to support the creation of a "warm standby" database server. Tool 8.3
pg_stat_statements Provides a means for tracking execution statistics of all SQL statements executed by a server. Extension 8.4
pg_test_fsync An application to check the fastest sync method of Write Ahead Log files on the system, and provide diagnostic information. Tool 9.1
pg_trgm Provides functions and operators for determining the similarity of ASCII alphanumeric text based on trigram matching, as well as index operator classes that support fast searching for similar strings. Extension 8.0
pg_upgrade An application which allows data stored in PostgreSQL data files to be upgraded to a later PostgreSQL major version without the data dump/reload typically required for major version upgrades. Tool 8.4
pgbench A benchmarking application to perform various types of performance test against PostgreSQL. Tool 7.4
pgcrypto Provides various cryptographic functions Extension 8.3
pgrowlocks Provides a function to show row locking information for a specified table. Extension 8.3
pgstattuple Provides various functions to obtain tuple-level statistics. Extension 7.4
seg Implements a data type seg for representing line segments, or floating point intervals. seg can represent uncertainty in the interval endpoints, making it especially useful for representing laboratory measurements. Extension 7.4
sepgsql A loadable module which supports label-based mandatory access control (MAC) based on SELinux security policy. Library 9.1
spi Provides several workable examples of using SPI and triggers. Extension 8.3
sslinfo Provides information about the SSL certificate that the current client provided when connecting to PostgreSQL. Extension 8.2
tablefunc Includes various functions that return tables (that is, multiple rows) including ones to produce crosstab (pivot) queries. Extension 7.4
unaccent A text search dictionary that removes accents (diacritic signs) from lexemes. It's a filtering dictionary, which means its output is always passed to the next dictionary (if any), unlike the normal behavior of dictionaries. This allows accent-insensitive processing for full text search. Extension 9.0
uuid-ossp Provides functions to generate universally unique identifiers (UUIDs) using one of several standard algorithms. There are also functions to produce certain special UUID constants. Extension 8.3
vacuumlo A simple utility program that will remove any "orphaned" large objects from a PostgreSQL database. Tool 8.3

There are many other extensions available outside of core distribution. PGXN (PostgreSQL Extension Network) is one source of extensions, but many others are available from sources such as GitHub and SourceForge.

Other features

  • Referential integrity constraints including foreign key constraints, column constraints, and row checks
  • Views. Although views are by default not update-able, they can be made so by creating "insert", "update", and/or "delete" Query Re-Write Rules on the view.
  • Inner, outer (full, left and right), and cross joins
  • Sub-selects
    • Correlated sub-queries[14]
  • Transactions
  • Supports most of the major features of SQL:2008 standard[15]
  • Encrypted connections via SSL
  • Binary and textual large-object storage
  • Online backup
  • In-place upgrades with pg_upgrade (available for upgrading to new major versions from 8.3 upwards)
  • Domains
  • Tablespaces
  • Savepoints
  • Point-in-time recovery, implemented using Write-ahead logging
  • Two-phase commit
  • TOAST (The Oversized-Attribute Storage Technique) is used to transparently store large table attributes (such as big MIME attachments or XML messages) in a separate area, with automatic compression.
  • Regular expressions[16]
  • Common table expressions
  • Embedded SQL is implemented using preprocessor. SQL code is first written embedded into C code. Then code is run through ECPG preprocessor, which replaces SQL with calls to code library. Then code can be compiled using a C compiler. Embedding works also with C++ but it does not recognize all C++ constructs.
  • Full text search
  • Per-column collation (from 9.1)


PostgreSQL, beginning from version 9.0, includes built-in binary replication, based on shipping the changes (write-ahead logs) to slave systems asynchronously.

Beginning from version 9.1, PostgreSQL also includes built-in synchronous replication[17] that ensures that, for each write transaction, the master waits until at least one slave node has written the data to its transaction log.

Version 9.0 also introduced the ability to run read-only queries against these replicated slaves, where earlier versions would only allow that after promoting them to be a new master. This allows splitting read traffic among multiple nodes efficiently. Earlier replication software that allowed similar read scaling normally relied on adding replication triggers to the master, introducing additional load onto it.

There are also several asynchronous trigger-based replication packages for PostgreSQL. These remain useful even after introduction of the expanded core capabilities, for situations where binary replication of an entire database cluster isn't the appropriate approach:

  • Slony-I
  • Skype’s Londiste (part of SkyTools)
  • Command Prompt’s Mammoth Replicator. Formerly proprietary, now open source[18]
  •’s Bucardo (multi-master replication)[19]

Proxy (middleware) tools enable replication, failover or load management and balancing for PostgreSQL:

  • PGPool-II
  • Continuent Sequoia, also available for other database software


  • A performance wizard is included with any Postgres download from EnterpriseDB, with source code also available.[20]
  • MySQL migration wizard is included with any Postgres download from EnterpriseDB, also with source code available.[20]
  • Postgres Enterprise Manager is a non-free tool consisting of a service, multiple agents, and a GUI which provides remote monitoring, management, reporting, capacity planning and tuning.[21]
  • Geographic objects via PostGIS, under the GNU GPL.
  • Shortest-Path-Algorithms with pgRouting[22] using PostGIS. GNU GPL.
  • Geometry objects conversion to GML, ESRI ST-Links PgMap[23].

Upcoming features

The following features are due to appear in the 9.2 release of PostgreSQL:

  • Cascading streaming replication[24]
  • Index-only scans (covering indexes)[25]
  • Range types[26]

Database administration

Open source front-ends and tools


The primary front-end for PostgreSQL is the psql command-line program, which can be used to enter SQL queries directly, or execute them from a file. In addition, psql provides a number of meta-commands and various shell-like features to facilitate writing scripts and automating a wide variety of tasks; for example tab completion of object names and SQL syntax.


The pgAdmin pakage is a free and open source graphical user interface administration tool for PostgreSQL, which is supported on many computer platforms.[27] The program is available in more than a dozen languages. The first prototype, named pgManager, was written for PostgreSQL 6.3.2 from 1998, and rewritten and released as pgAdmin under the GPL License in later months. The second incarnation (named pgAdmin II) was a complete rewrite, first released on January 16, 2002. The third version, pgAdmin III, was originally released under the Artistic License and then released under the same license as PostgreSQL. Unlike prior versions that were written in Visual Basic, pgAdmin III is written in C++, using the wxWidgets framework allowing it to run on most common operating systems.


phpPgAdmin is a web-based administration tool for PostgreSQL written in PHP and based on the popular phpMyAdmin interface originally written for MySQL administration.[28] Base Base can be used as a front-end for PostgreSQL.[29]


The pgFouine PostgreSQL log analyzer generates detailed reports from a PostgreSQL log file and provides VACUUM analysis.[30]

Proprietary front-ends and tools

A number of companies offer proprietary tools for PostgreSQL. They often consist of a universal core that is adapted for various specific database products. These tools mostly share the administration features with the open source tools but offer improvements in data modeling, importing, exporting or reporting.

Benchmarks and performance

Many informal performance studies of PostgreSQL have been done.[31] Performance improvements aimed at improving scalability started heavily with version 8.1, and running simple benchmarks version 8.4 has been shown to be more than 10 times faster on read only workloads and at least 7.5 times faster on both read and write workloads compared with version 8.0.[32]

The first industry-standard and peer-validated benchmark was completed in June 2007 using the Sun Java System Application Server (proprietary version of GlassFish) 9.0 Platform Edition, UltraSPARC T1 based Sun Fire server and Postgres 8.2.[33] This result of 778.14 SPECjAppServer2004 JOPS@Standard compares favourably with the 874 JOPS@Standard with Oracle 10 on an Itanium based HP-UX system.[31]

In August 2007, Sun submitted an improved benchmark score of 813.73 SPECjAppServer2004 JOPS@Standard. With the system under test at a reduced price, the price/performance improved from $US 84.98/JOPS to $US 70.57/JOPS.[34]

The default configuration of PostgreSQL only uses a small amount of dedicated memory for performance-critical purposes such as caching database blocks and sorting. This limitation is primarily because older operating systems required kernel changes to allow allocating large blocks of shared memory.[35] provides advice on basic recommended performance practice in a wiki.[36]

Prominent users

  • Yahoo! for web user behavioral analysis, storing two petabytes and claimed to be the largest data warehouse using a heavily modified version of PostgreSQL with an entirely different column-based storage engine and different query processing layer. While for performance, storage, and query purposes the database bears little resemblance to PostgreSQL, the front-end maintains compatibility so that Yahoo can use many off-the-shelf tools already written to interact with PostgreSQL.[37][38]
  • In 2009, social networking website MySpace used Aster Data Systems's nCluster database for data warehousing, which was built on unmodified PostgreSQL.[39][40]
  • uses PostgreSQL for their main genealogy database.[41]
  • OpenStreetMap, a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world.[42]
  • Afilias, domain registries for .org, .info and others.[43]
  • Sony Online multiplayer online games.[44]
  • BASF, shopping platform for their agribusiness portal.[45]
  • Reddit social news website.[46]
  • Skype VoIP application, central business databases.[47]
  • Sun xVM, Sun's virtualization and datacenter automation suite.[48]
  • MusicBrainz, open online music encyclopedia.[49]
  • International Space Station for collecting telemetry data in orbit and replicating to the ground.[50]
  • MyYearbook social networking site.[51]
  • Heroku, a cloud PaaS provider offering PostgreSQL-as-a-service.[52]


As of 2008 PostgreSQL has received the following awards:[53]

  • 1999 LinuxWorld Editor's Choice Award for Best Database
  • 2000 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
  • 2002 Linux New Media Editors Choice Award for Best Database
  • 2003 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
  • 2004 Linux New Media Award For Best Database
  • 2004 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
  • 2004 ArsTechnica Best Server Application Award
  • 2005 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
  • 2006 Linux Journal Editors' Choice Awards for Best Database
  • 2008 Product of the Year, Database Tool

Proprietary derivatives and support

Although the license allowed proprietary products based on Postgres, the code did not develop in the proprietary space at first. The main offshoot originated when Paula Hawthorn (an original Ingres team member who moved from Ingres) and Michael Stonebraker formed Illustra Information Technologies to make a proprietary product based on Postgres.

In 2000, former Red Hat investors created the company Great Bridge to make a proprietary product based on PostgreSQL and compete against proprietary database vendors. Great Bridge sponsored several PostgreSQL developers and donated many resources back to the community,[54] but by late 2001 closed due to tough competition from companies like Red Hat and to poor market conditions.[55]

In 2001, Command Prompt, Inc. released Mammoth PostgreSQL, a proprietary product based on PostgreSQL. In 2008, Command Prompt, Inc. released the source under the original license. Command Prompt, Inc. continues to support the PostgreSQL community actively through developer sponsorships and projects including PL/Perl, PL/php, and hosting of community projects such as the PostgreSQL Build Farm.

In January 2005, PostgreSQL received backing by database vendor Pervasive Software, known for its Btrieve product which was ubiquitous on the Novell NetWare platform. Pervasive announced commercial support and community participation and achieved some success. In July 2006, Pervasive left the PostgreSQL support market.[56]

In mid-2005 two other companies announced plans to make proprietary products based on PostgreSQL with focus on separate niche markets. EnterpriseDB added functionality to allow applications written to work with Oracle to be more readily run with PostgreSQL. Greenplum contributed enhancements directed at data warehouse and business intelligence applications, including the BizGres project.

In October 2005, John Loiacono, executive vice president of software at Sun Microsystems, commented: "We're not going to OEM Microsoft but we are looking at PostgreSQL right now,"[57] although no specifics were released at that time. By November 2005, Sun had announced support for PostgreSQL.[58] By June 2006, Sun Solaris 10 (6/06 release) shipped with PostgreSQL.

In August 2007, EnterpriseDB announced[59] the Postgres Resource Center and EnterpriseDB Postgres, designed as a fully configured distribution of PostgreSQL including many contrib modules and add-on components. EnterpriseDB Postgres was renamed to Postgres Plus in March 2008. Postgres Plus is available in two versions: Postgres Plus Standard Server which has all the features of PostgreSQL plus additional QA testing, integrated components, tuning and one-click install, and Postgres Plus Advanced Server which has all the features of Postgres Plus Standard Server plus Oracle compatibility, scalability features, and DBA and developer tools. Both versions are available for free and are fully supported, though the free version of Postgres Plus Advanced Server is restricted by a "limited use" license, which is defined as "confined to a single CPU, utilizing 1 GB RAM, storing no more than 6 GB of data in a NON-PRODUCTION environment."

See also


  1. ^ "PostgreSQL 9.1 released". 2011-09-12. Retrieved 2011-09-12. 
  2. ^ "Appendix E. Release Notes". Documentation. PostgreSQL. 2010-04-18. Retrieved 2010-04-18. 
  3. ^ "PostgreSQL licence approved by OSI". Crynwr. 2010-02-18. Retrieved 2010-02-18. 
  4. ^ "OSI PostgreSQL licence". Open Source Initiative. 2010-02-20. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  5. ^ "License". PostgreSQL Global Development Group. Retrieved 2010-09-20. 
  6. ^ "What is PostgreSQL?". PostgreSQL 9.0.0 Documentation. PostgreSQL Global Development Group. Retrieved 2010-09-20. 
  7. ^ [[cite web | date=2011-09-12|title=SQL Conformance||url= | accessdate = 2011-11-12}}
  8. ^ "Lion Server: MySQL not included". 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  9. ^ "OS X Lion Server - Technical Specifications". 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  10. ^ "Project name — statement from the core team". 2007-11-16. Retrieved 2007-11-16. 
  11. ^ Stonebraker, M; Rowe, LA (May 1986). "The design of POSTGRES" (PDF). Proc. 1986 ACM SIGMOD Conference on Management of Data. Washington, DC. Retrieved 2011-08-01. 
  12. ^ Stonebraker, M; Rowe, LA. "The POSTGRES data model" (PDF). Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases. Brighton, England: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. pp. 83–96. ISBN 0-934613-46-X. 
  13. ^ "PostgreSQL Release Support Policy". Retrieved 2010-11-18. 
  14. ^ Momjian, Bruce (2001). "Subqueries". PostgreSQL: Introduction and Concepts. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-70331-9. Retrieved 2010-09-25. 
  15. ^ "Appendix D. SQL Conformance". PostgreSQL 8.4.4 Documentation. PostgreSQL Global Development Group. 2009 [1996]. Retrieved 2010-09-25. 
  16. ^ Bernier, Robert (2 February 2006). "Using Regular Expressions in PostgreSQL". O'Reilly Media. Retrieved 2010-09-25. 
  17. ^ PostgreSQL 9.1 with synchronous replication (news), H Online, .
  18. ^ Mammoth replicator, Command prompt, .
  19. ^ Marit Fischer (2007-11-10). " finally gives something back to the open source community" (Press release). 
  20. ^ a b "Postgres Plus Downloads". Company website. EnterpriseDB. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Postgres Enterprise Manager". Company website. EnterpriseDB. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  22. ^ pgRouting, PostLBS, .
  23. ^ ST Links, .
  24. ^ "Cascading replication feature for streaming log-based replication". 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-10-08. 
  25. ^ "Support index-only scans using the visibility map to avoid heap fetches". 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2011-10-08. 
  26. ^ "Support range data types". 2011-11-03. Retrieved 2011-11-03. 
  27. ^ "pgAdmin: PostgreSQL administration and management tools". website. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  28. ^ phpPgAdmin Project (2008-04-25). "About phpPgAdmin". Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  29. ^ (2010-01-10). "Back Ends for OpenOffice". Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  30. ^ Guillaume Smet (February 24, 2010). "pgFouine - a PostgreSQL log analyzer". Project website. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  31. ^ a b Josh Berkus (2007-07-06). "PostgreSQL publishes first real benchmark". Retrieved 2007-07-10. 
  32. ^ György Vilmos (2009-09-29). "PostgreSQL history". Retrieved 2010-08-28. 
  33. ^ "SPECjAppServer2004 Result". SPEC. 2007-07-06. Retrieved 2007-07-10. 
  34. ^ "SPECjAppServer2004 Result". SPEC. 2007-07-04. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  35. ^ "Managing Kernel Resources". PostgreSQL Manual. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  36. ^ Greg Smith, Robert Treat, and Christopher Browne. "Tuning your PostgreSQL server". Wiki. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  37. ^ Eric Lai (2008-05-22). "Size matters: Yahoo claims 2-petabyte database is world's biggest, busiest". Computerworld. 
  38. ^ Thomas Claburn (2008-05-21). "Yahoo Claims Record With Petabyte Database". InformationWeek. 
  39. ^ Emmanuel Cecchet (May 21, 2009). "Building PetaByte Warehouses with Unmodified PostgreSQL". PGCon 2009. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  40. ^ " scales analytics for all their friends" (PDF). case study. Aster Data. June 15, 2010. Archived from the original on November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  41. ^ "Last Weekend’s Outage". Blog. Geni. 2011-08-01. 
  42. ^ "Database". Wiki. OpenStreetMap. 
  43. ^ PostgreSQL affiliates .ORG domain, AU: Computer World, .
  44. ^ Sony Online opts for open-source database over Oracle, Computer World,,10801,109722,00.html .
  45. ^ (PDF) A Web Commerce Group Case Study on PostgreSQL (1.2 ed.), PostgreSQL, .
  46. ^ "FAQ". Reddit. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-14. 
  47. ^ "PostgreSQL at Skype". Skype Developer Zone. 2006. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  48. ^ "How Much Are You Paying For Your Database?". Sun Microsystems blog. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  49. ^ "Database - MusicBrainz". MusicBrainz Wiki. Retrieved 5 February 2011. 
  50. ^ Duncavage, Daniel P (2010-07-13). "NASA needs Postgres-Nagios help". 
  51. ^ Roy, Gavin M (2010). "PostgreSQL at". PostgreSQL Conference. 
  52. ^ "Heroku Postgres". 12 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011. 
  53. ^ "PostgreSQL, Award Winning Software". 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  54. ^ Maya Tamiya (2001-01-10). "Interview: Bruce Momjian". Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  55. ^ "Great Bridge ceases operations" (Press release). Great Bridge. 2001-09-06. Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  56. ^ John Farr (2006-07-25). "Open letter to the PostgreSQL Community". Pervasive Software. Archived from the original on 2007-02-25. Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  57. ^ Rodney Gedda (2005-10-05). "Sun's software chief eyes databases, groupware". Computerworld.;116679278;fp;16;fpid;0. Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  58. ^ "Sun Announces Support for Postgres Database on Solaris 10" (Press release). Sun Microsystems. 2005-11-17. Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  59. ^ "EnterpriseDB Announces First-Ever Professional-Grade PostgreSQL Distribution for Linux" (Press release). EnterpriseDB. 2007-08-07. Retrieved 2007-08-07. 

Further reading

PostgreSQL 9

PostgreSQL 8

PostgreSQL 7

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • PostgreSQL — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda PostgreSQL …   Wikipedia Español

  • PostgreSQL — Entwickler PostgreSQL Team Aktuelle Version 9.1.1 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • PostgreSQL — Логотип PostgreSQL Тип Объектно реля …   Википедия

  • Postgresql — Entwickler: PostgreSQL Team Aktuelle Version …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • PostgreSQL — Développeur Michael Stonebraker Première version 1995 Dernière version …   Wikipédia en Français

  • PostGreSQL — Développeur Michael Stonebraker Première version 1985 Derniè …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Postgresql — Développeur Michael Stonebraker Première version 1985 Derniè …   Wikipédia en Français

  • PostgreSQL — es un servidor de base de datos relacional libre, liberado bajo la licencia BSD. Es una alternativa a otros sistemas de bases de datos de código abierto (como MySQL, Firebird y MaxDB), así como sistemas propietarios como Oracle o DB2. A …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • PostgreSQL — eigentliche Schreibweise von postgresql …   Acronyms

  • PostgreSQL — eigentliche Schreibweise von postgresql …   Acronyms von A bis Z

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”