Ohio class submarine

Ohio class submarine
USS Michigan (SSBN-727).jpg
USS Michigan
Class overview
Name: Ohio
Builders: General Dynamics Electric Boat[1]
Operators:  United States Navy[1]
Preceded by: Benjamin Franklin class
Built: 1976 – 1997
In commission: 1981 – present
Completed: 18
Active: 18
General characteristics
Type: SSBN/SSGN (hull design SCB-304)[2]
Displacement: 16,764 tonnes (16,499 long tons) surfaced[1][3]
18,750 tonnes (18,450 long tons) submerged[1]
Length: 560 ft (170 m)[1]
Beam: 42 ft (13 m)[1]
Draft: 35.5 ft (10.8 m) maximum[4]

1× S8G PWR nuclear reactor[1]
2× geared turbines=60,000 shp (45 MW)[1] Fairbanks Morse auxiliary diesel[4]

1× 325 hp (242 kW) auxiliary motor
1 shaft with seven-bladed screw[4]
Speed: 12 knots (14 mph; 22 km/h) surfaced[1]
+20 knots (23 mph; 37 km/h) submerged (official)[1]
25 knots (29 mph; 46 km/h) submerged (reported)[1]
Range: Limited only by food supplies
Test depth: +800 ft (240 m)
Crew: 15 officers[1][3]
140 enlisted[1][3]
Sensors and
processing systems:
BQQ-6 passive bow-mounted array[1] (which includes BQS-13 fire control array)[5]
•BQR-19 navigation[1]

•TB-16[1] or BQR-23 towed array[5]
•BQR-25 conformal array[5]

4× 21 in (53 cm) Mark 48 torpedo tubes (midships)

  • SSBN-726 to SSBN-733 from construction to refueling
    24 Trident I C4 SLBM with up to eight MIRVed 100 kt W76 nuclear warheads, range 4,000 nmi (4,600 mi; 7,400 km)
  • SSBN-734 and subsequent hulls upon construction, SSBN-730 to SSBN-733 since refueling
    24 Trident II D5 SLBM with up to 12 W76 or W88 (300–475 ktTNT) nuclear warheads (with MIRV), range 6,500 nmi (7,500 mi; 12,000 km)
  • SSGN conversion
    22 tubes, each with 7 Tomahawk cruise missiles, totaling 154.

The Ohio class is a class of nuclear-powered submarines used by the United States Navy. The United States has 18 Ohio-class submarines:

The Ohio class is named after the lead submarine of this class, the USS Ohio (SSGN-726) formerly designated SSBN-726. The 14 Trident II SSBNs together carry approximately fifty percent of the total US strategic warhead inventory. The exact number varies in an unpredictable and classified manner, at or below a maximum set by various strategic arms limitation treaties. Although the missiles have no pre-set targets when the submarine goes on patrol, the platform, when required, is capable of rapid targeting using secure and constant at-sea communications links.

Ohio class submarines are the largest constructed for the U.S. Navy. Two classes of Russian submarines have larger total displacements: the Soviet-designed Typhoon-class submarines have more than twice the total displacement, and the Russian Federation's Borei-class submarines have roughly 25% greater total displacement, but are shorter by 3 feet (0.91 m). Ohio class boats can carry more missiles and warheads than either.

Ohios were specifically designed for extended deterrence patrols. Each submarine is complemented by two crews, Blue and Gold (standard practice for US FBMs), with each crew typically serving 70-90 day patrols. To decrease the time in port for crew turnover and replenishment, three large logistics hatches are fitted to provide large diameter resupply and repair openings. These hatches allow rapid transfer of supply pallets, equipment replacement modules, and machinery components, significantly reducing the time required for replenishment and maintenance.

The class design allows the vessel to operate for over fifteen years between major overhauls. The boats are purported to be as quiet at their cruising speed of 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) or more as previous subs were at 6 knots (11 km/h; 6.9 mph), although exact information remains classified.[citation needed]

Ohios were constructed from sections of hull, each four-deck section 42 ft (13 m) in diameter.[4][5] The sections were produced at Quonset Point, Rhode Island, and assembled by Electric Boat at Groton.[4] Fire control for the Mark 48 torpedoes is by Mark 118 Mod 2 system,[5] while the Missile Fire Control (MFC) system is a Mark 98.[5]

Except for USS Henry M. Jackson (SSBN-730), the Ohio class submarines are named after states in the United States.



The first eight Ohio class submarines were originally equipped with up to 24 Trident I (C4) submarine-launched ballistic missiles.[4] Beginning with the ninth Trident submarine, USS Tennessee (SSBN-734), the remaining boats were equipped with the Trident II (D5).[5] The Trident II missile carries eight multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), in sum delivering more deterrence than the Trident I and with much greater accuracy. Starting with USS Alaska (SSBN-732) in 2000, the Navy began converting the remaining C4-equipped submarines to D5 missiles; this was completed in mid-2008.

The first eight boats were homeported in Bangor, Washington to replace the Polaris (A3) carrying submarines that were then being decommissioned. The remaining ten boats were originally homeported in Kings Bay, Georgia, replacing the Atlantic-based Poseidon and Trident Backfit submarines. During the conversion of the first four hulls to SSGNs (see below), five boats, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Nebraska, Maine and Louisiana, were shifted from Kings Bay to Bangor. Further shifts are occurring as the United States' strategic needs change.

SSBN/SSGN conversions

Black submarine with orange paint from cheatline down in drydock at nightfall.
Ohio SSGN conversion

After the end of the Cold War, plans called for Ohio to be retired in 2002, followed by three of her sister ships. However, Ohio, Michigan, Florida and Georgia instead were slated for modification, to remain in service carrying conventionally-armed guided missiles, and were designated SSGNs.

Beginning in 2002 through 2010, 22 of the 24 88 inches (2.2 m) diameter Trident missile tubes were modified to contain large vertical launch systems (VLS), one configuration of which may be a cluster of seven Tomahawk cruise missiles. In this configuration, the number of cruise missiles carried could be a maximum of 154, the equivalent of what is typically deployed in a surface battle group. Other payload possibilities include new generations of supersonic and hypersonic cruise missiles, and Submarine Launched Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles (SLIRBM),[6] unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), the ADM-160 MALD, sensors for anti-submarine warfare or intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance missions, counter-mine warfare payloads such as the AN/BLQ-11 Long Term Mine Reconnaissance System (LMRS), and the broaching universal buoyant launcher (BUBL) and stealthy affordable capsule system (SACS) specialized payload canisters.

The missile tubes also have room for stowage canisters that can extend the forward deployment time for special forces. The other two Trident tubes are converted to swimmer lockout chambers. For special operations, the Advanced SEAL Delivery System and the Dry Deck Shelter can be mounted on the lockout chamber and the boat will be able to host up to 66 special operations sailors or Marines, such as Navy SEALs. Improved communications equipment installed during the upgrade allows the SSGNs to serve as a forward-deployed, clandestine Small Combatant Joint Command Center.[7]

On 26 September 2002, the Navy awarded the Electric Boat company a $442.9 million contract to begin the first phase of the SSGN submarine conversion program. Those funds covered only the initial phase of conversion for the first two boats on the schedule. Advanced procurement was funded at $355 million in fiscal year 2002, $825 million in the FY 2003 budget and, through the five-year defense budget plan, at $936 million in FY 2004, $505 million in FY 2005, and $170 million in FY 2006. Thus, the total cost to refit the four boats is just under $700 million per vessel.

In November 2002, the USS Ohio entered drydock, beginning her 36-month refueling and missile conversion overhaul. Electric Boat announced on 9 January 2006 that the conversion had been completed. The converted Ohio rejoined the fleet in February 2006, followed by the USS Florida in April 2006. The converted USS Michigan was delivered in November 2006. The converted Ohio went to sea for the first time in October 2007. The Georgia returned to the fleet in March 2008 at Kings Bay.[8] These four SSGNs are expected to remain in service until about 2023-2026.


The helm of the Ohio-class guided-missile submarine USS Florida.

The Department of Defense anticipates a continued need for a sea-based strategic nuclear force.[9] The first of the current Ohio SSBNs are expected to be retired by 2029,[9] meaning that a platform must already be seaworthy by that time. A replacement may cost over $4 billion per unit compared to Ohio's $2 billion.[3] The Navy is exploring two options. The first is a variant of the Virginia-class nuclear attack submarines. The second is a dedicated SSBN, either with a new hull or based on an overhaul of the current Ohio.[citation needed]

Cross-section diagram of the submarines of the class

With the cooperation of both Electric Boat and Newport News Shipbuilding, in 2007 the Navy had already begun a cost control study.[9] Then in December 2008 the Navy awarded Electric Boat a contract for the missile compartment design of the Ohio class replacement, worth up to $592 million. Newport News is expected to receive close to 4% of that project. Though the Navy has yet to confirm an Ohio class replacement program, Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates, as of April 2009, confirms that the Navy should begin such a program in 2010.[3] The new vessel is scheduled to enter the design phase by 2014. It is anticipated that if a new hull design is used the program must be initiated by 2016 in order to meet the 2029 deadline.[9]

Rep. Gene Taylor of Mississippi had threatened to block the project unless the Navy shares with the Congress an internal Analysis of Alternatives.[10]

Boats of the class

Guided missile submarines

Ballistic missile submarines

Popular culture

Artist concept of an Ohio class SSGN launching TLAMs.

As ballistic missile submarines, the Ohio class has occasionally been portrayed in fiction books and films.

  • USS Alabama is the setting for the film Crimson Tide.[11]
  • The sinking of the fictional USS Montana is the inciting incident in James Cameron's 1989 film The Abyss.[12]
  • In Tom Clancy's novels, these missile submarines play important roles. For example, the fictional Akula-class submarine Admiral Lunin attacks the USS Maine (SSBN-741) near the end of The Sum of All Fears. Also, in Debt of Honor, five Ohios of the U.S. Pacific fleet (specifically those named after battleships sunk in the Pearl Harbor attack) are used as attack submarines due to their availability from nuclear disarmament. One is also deployed as an Army special operations support platform.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "SSBN-726 Ohio-Class FBM Submarines". Federation of American Scientists. http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/man/uswpns/navy/submarines/ssgn726_ohio.html. Retrieved 2011 September 27. 
  2. ^ Adcock, Al. (1993), U.S. Ballistic Missile Submarines, Carrolltown, Texas: Squadron Signal, pp. 4, 40, ISBN 9780897472937 
  3. ^ a b c d e Frost, Peter, Newport News contract awarded, Daily Press, http://www.dailypress.com/news/dp-local_subs_0424apr24,0,5810806.story, retrieved 2011 September 27 [not in citation given]
  4. ^ a b c d e f Adcock, Al. (1993), U.S. Ballistic Missile Submarines, Carrolltown, Texas: Squadron Signal, p. 40, ISBN 9780897472937 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Adcock, Al. (1993), U.S. Ballistic Missile Submarines, Carrolltown, Texas: Squadron Signal, p. 41, ISBN 9780897472937 
  6. ^ Submarine Launched Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, GlobalSecurity.org, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/systems/slirbm.htm, retrieved 2011 September 27 
  7. ^ "Electric Boat News". General Dynamics Electric Boat. February 2006. http://www.gdeb.com/news/ebnews/ebnews0206.pdf. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Navy Marks USS Georgia's Return To Service". CBS 4 News Jacksonville. http://atlanta.navyleague.us/. Retrieved 2008-12-03. [not in citation given]
  9. ^ a b c d "Global Security information on Ohio class replacement". http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/systems/ssbn-x.htm. Retrieved 2011 September 27. 
  10. ^ "Lawmaker wants key submarine document". http://www.navytimes.com/news/2010/04/defense_submarine_042210/. Retrieved 2011 September 27. 
  11. ^ "Crimson Tide at the Internet Movie Database". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0112740/. Retrieved 2011 September 27. 
  12. ^ "The Abyss (1989) - Plot Summary at the Internet Movie Database". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0096754/plotsummary. Retrieved 2011 September 27. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Typhoon class submarine — 830 TK 17 Arkhangelsk Typhoon 5 * 19.02.1988 entered 18th division (Zapadnaya Litsa) NOR. * 08.01 09.11.2002 refit at Sevmash. * In July 2002, crew petitioned Main Navy Headquarters to adopt the name Arkhangel sk (renamed on 18.11.2002). *… …   Wikipedia

  • Virginia class submarine — USS Virginia Class overview Name: Virginia Builders …   Wikipedia

  • Borei class submarine — Russian Borei class submarine Yuriy Dolgorukiy on sea trials Class …   Wikipedia

  • Oscar class submarine — Class overview Builders: SEVMASH, Severodvinsk Operators …   Wikipedia

  • Vanguard class submarine — The Vanguard class are the Royal Navy s current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (Ship Submersible Ballistic Nuclear or SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II Submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). The class was introduced in 1994 …   Wikipedia

  • Delta class submarine — Delta IV class nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine. The Delta class (Project 667B) is a class of submarines which formed the backbone of the Soviet and Russian strategic submarine fleet since its introduction in 1973. They carry nuclear… …   Wikipedia

  • Akula class submarine — Project 971 Щука Б ( Shchuka B , Shchuka meaning pike, NATO reporting name Akula ), is a nuclear powered attack submarine (SSN) first deployed by the Soviet Navy in 1986. The class is sometimes erroneously called the Bars class, after one of its… …   Wikipedia

  • Submarine aircraft carrier — Submarine aircraft carriers are submarines equipped with fixed wing aircraft for observation or attack missions. These submarines saw their most extensive use during World War II, although their operational significance remained rather small. The …   Wikipedia

  • Benjamin Franklin class submarine — The Benjamin Franklin class of submarine was an evolutionary development from the James Madison class of fleet ballistic missile submarine. Having quieter machinery and other improvements, they are considered a separate class. A subset of this… …   Wikipedia

  • George Washington class submarine — The George Washington class was a class of nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines employed by the United States Navy. The Navy ordered a class of nuclear powered submarines armed with long range strategic missiles on 31 December 1957, and… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”