d-block

d-block

The d-block is the portion of the periodic table that contains the element groups 3-12.[1][2] These groups correspond to the filling of the atomic d-orbital subshell, with electron configurations ranging from s2d1 (Group 3) to s2d10 (Group 12). There are some irregularities in the sequence; for example Cr is s1d5 (not s2d4) and the Group 11 metals are s1d10 (not s2d9), so that the d-subshell is actually complete at Group 11.

The d-block elements are often also known as transition metals or transition elements. However the exact limits of the transition metal region are usually not considered to be identical to the d-block. Although some authors do identify the entire d-block as transition metals,[1] most define transition metals as elements with partly filled d subshells either in the neutral atom or in ions in common oxidation states.[2][3] This definition has now been adopted by IUPAC[4] and corresponds to including only Groups 3-11 as transition metals. Group 12 metals lack the characteristic chemical and physical properties associated with incomplete d subshells and are considered post-transition metals. Jensen has reviewed the historical usage of the terms transition element (or metal) and d-block.[5]

In the s-block and p-block of the periodic table, similar properties across the periods are generally not observed: the most important similarities tend to be vertical, down groups. However the d-block is notable in that horizontal similarities across the periods do become important.

Although Lutetium and Lawrencium are in the d-block, they are not considered transition metals but a lanthanide and an actinide, respectively, according to IUPAC.[6] Group 12 elements are also in the d-block but are considered post-transition metals as their d-subshell is completely filled.[6]

Chemical elements in d-block
Group → 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
↓ Period
4 21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
5 39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
6 71
Lu
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
7 103
Lr
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn

See also

References

  1. ^ a b R.H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood and F.G. Herring “General Chemistry” (8th ed, Prentice-Hall 2002), p.341-2
  2. ^ a b C.E. Housecroft and A.G. Sharpe “Inorganic Chemistry” (2nd ed, Pearson Prentice-Hall 2005), p..20-21
  3. ^ F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry” (5th ed, John Wiley 1988) p.625
  4. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "transition element".
  5. ^ Jensen, William B. (2003). "The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table". Journal of Chemical Education 80 (8): 952–961. Bibcode 2003JChEd..80..952J. doi:10.1021/ed080p952. http://www.uv.es/~borrasj/ingenieria_web/temas/tema_1/lecturas_comp/p952.pdf. 
  6. ^ a b IUPAC Provisional Recommendations for the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2004) (online draft of an updated version of the "Red Book" IR 3-6)

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