- Period 2 element
A period 2 element is one of the
chemical elements in the second row (or period) of the periodic table of the chemical elements. The periodic table is laid out in rows to illustrate recurring (periodic) trends in the chemical behaviour of the elements as their atomic number increases: a new row is begun when chemical behaviour begins to repeat, meaning that elements with similar behaviour fall into the same vertical columns. The second period contains more elements than the previous period, with eight elements: lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorineand neon. This situation can be explained by modern theories of atomic structure.
A period 2 element is one of the chemical elements in the second row (or "period") of the periodic table of the chemical elements. This second period contains more elements than period 1, with eight: lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and neon. In a quantum mechanical description of
atomic structure, this period corresponds to the filling of the 2s and 2p orbitals. Period 2 elements obey the octet rulein that they need eight elements to complete their valence shell. The maximum number of electrons that these elements can accommodate is ten, two in the 1s orbital, two in the 2s orbital and six in the 2p orbital.
Lithium (Li) is the
chemical elementwith atomic number3, occurring in two isotopes: 6Li and 7Li. At standard temperature and pressure, lithium is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive alkali metal. With a densityof 0.564 g·cm−3, lithium is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. [http://www.webelements.com/lithium/ Lithium] at WebElements.] The most common naturally occurring form of lithium is lithium-7, symbol 7Li, which comprises of 92.5% of lithium abundancecite web |url=http://ie.lbl.gov/education/parent/Li_iso.htm |title=Isotopes of Lithium|accessdate=2008-04-21 |author= |date= |work= |publisher=Berkley Lab, The Isotopes Project] and has three protons and four neutrons. Lithium-6, symbol 6Li, is also stable, containing three protons and three neutrons. The two make up all natural occurrence of lithium on Earth, although further isotopes have been synthesised. In ionic compounds, lithium loses an electronto become positively charged, forming the cationLi+.
According to theory, Lithium is one of the few elements synthesised in the
Big Bang, making it a primordial element.Lithium is the 33rd most abundant element on earthcite book | last = Krebs | first = Robert E. | year = 2006 | title = The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide | publisher = Greenwood Press | location = Westport, Conn. | isbn = 0-313-33438-2 | pages = 47-50] , occurring in concentrations of between 20 and 70 ppm by weight, but due to its high reactivity it is only ever found naturally in compounds. The most abundant source of lithium-containing compounds are granitic pegmatites, with spodumeneand petalitebeing the most commercially-viable mineral sources for the element.Kamienski et al. "Lithium and lithium compounds". "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology". John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published online 2004. doi|10.1002/0471238961.1209200811011309.a01.pub2] Commercially, the metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chlorideand potassium chloride.
Lithium salts are used in the pharmacology industry as mood stabilising drugs. [cite journal
title = Lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement
author = Cade J. F. J.
journal = Medical Journal of Australia
year = 1949
volume = 2 |pmid=18142718
pages = 349–52
url = http://www.who.int/docstore/bulletin/pdf/2000/issue4/classics.pdf] [cite journal
title =Lithium treatment for bipolar disorder
author = P. B. Mitchell, D. Hadzi-Pavlovic
journal = Bulletin of the World Health Organization
year = 2000
volume = 78
pages = 515–7 |pmid=10885179
url = http://www.who.int/docstore/bulletin/pdf/2000/issue4/classics.pdf] They are used in the treatent of
bipolar disorder, where they have a role in treating depressionand maniaand may reduce the chances of suicide. [cite journal |author=Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Davis P, Pompili M, Goodwin FK, Hennen J |year=2006 |month=Oct |title=Decreased risk of suicides and attempts during long-term lithium treatment: a meta-analytic review. |journal=Bipolar disorders |volume=8 |issue=5 Pt 2 |pages=625–39 |pmid=17042835 |doi=10.1111/j.1399-5618.2006.00344.x] The most common compounds used are lithium carbonate, Li2CO3, lithium citrate, Li3C6H5O7, lithium sulphate, Li2SO4, and lithium orotate, LiC5H3N2O4·H2O. Lithium is also used in batteries as an anodeand its alloys with aluminium, cadmium, copperand manganeseare used to make high performance parts for aircraft, most notably the external tank of the Space Shuttle.
Beryllium (Be) is the chemical element with atomic number 4, occurring in the form of 9Be. At standard temperature and pressure, beryllium is a strong, steel-grey, light-weight,
brittle, bivalent alkali earth metal, with a density of 1.85 g·cm−3. [http://www.webelements.com/beryllium/ Beryllium] at WebElements.] It also has one of the highest melting points of all the light metals. Beryllium's most common isotopeis 9Be, which contains 4 protons and 5 neutrons. It makes up almost 100% of all naturally occurring beryllium and is its only stable isotope; however other isotopes have been synthesised. In ionic compounds, beryllium loses its two valence electrons to form the cation, Be2+.
Small amounts of beryllium were synthesised during the
Big Bang, although most of it decayed or reacted further to create larger nucleii, like carbon, nitrogen or oxygen. Beryllium is a component of 100 out of 4000 known minerals, such as bertrandite, Be4Si2O7(OH)2, beryl, Al2Be3Si6O18, chrysoberyl, Al2BeO4, and phenakite, Be2SiO4. Precious forms of beryl are aquamarine, bixbiteand emerald. The most common sources of beryllium used commercially are beryl and bertrandite and production of it involves the reduction of beryllium fluoridewith magnesiummetal or the electrolysisof molten beryllium chloride, containing some sodium chlorideas beryllium chloride is a poor conductor of electricity.
Due to its stiffness, light weight, and dimensional stability over a wide temperature range, beryllium metal is used in as a structural material in aircraft, missiles and
communication satellites. It is used as an alloying agent in beryllium copper, which is used to make electrical components due to its high electrical and heat conductivity. [ [http://www.copper.org/resources/properties/microstructure/be_cu.html Standards and properties] of beryllium copper.] Sheets of beryllium are used in X-raydetectors to filter out visible lightand let only X-rays through. It is used as a neutron moderatorin nuclear reactors because light nuclei are more effective at slowing down neutrons than heavy nuclei. Beryllium's low weight and high rigidity also make it useful in the construction of tweeters in loudspeakers. [ [http://www.hometheaterhifi.com/volume_14_3/feature-article-beryllium-9-2007.html Information] about beryllium tweeters.]
Beryllium and beryllium compounds are classified by the
International Agency for Research on Canceras Group 1 carcinogens; they are carcinogenic to both animals and humans. [ cite web
url = http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol58/mono58-1.html
publisher = International Agency for Research on Cancer
title = IARC Monograph, Volume 58
year = 1993
accessdate = 2008-09-18 ] Chronic
berylliosisis a pulmonaryand systemic granulomatousdisease caused by exposure to beryllium. Between 1% - 15% of people are sensitive to beryllium and may develop an inflammatory reaction in their respiratory systemand skin, called chronic beryllium disease. The body's immune systemrecognises the beryllium as foreign particles and mounts an attack against them, usually in the lungs where they are breathed in. This can cause fever, fatigue, weakness, night sweats and difficulty in breathing. [ [http://www.chronicberylliumdisease.com/medical/med_bediseases.htm#cbd Information] about chronic beryllium disease.]
Boron (B) is the chemical element with atomic number 5, occurring as 10B and 11B. At standard temperature and pressure, boron is a
trivalent metalloidthat has several different allotropes. Amorphousboron is a brown powder formed as a product of many chemical reactions. Crystallineboron is a very hard, black material with a high melting point and exists in many polymorphs: Two rhombohedralforms, α-boron and β-boron containing 12 and 106.7 atoms in the rhombohedral unit cell respectively, and 50-atom tetragonalboron are the most common. Boron has a density of 2.34−3. [http://www.webelements.com/boron/ Boron] at WebElements.] Boron's most common isotopeis 11B at 80.22%, which contains 5 protons and 6 neutrons. The other common isotope is 10 at 19.78%, which contains 5 protons and 5 neutrons. [http://www.rareearth.org/boron_properties.htm Properties] of boron.] These are the only stable isotopes of boron; however other isotopes have been synthesised. Boron forms covalent bonds with other nonmetals and has oxidation states of 1, 2, 3 and 4. [cite web|url=http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/78.pdf|title=Fourier Transform Spectroscopy: B4Σ−−X4Σ−|author=W.T.M.L. Fernando, L.C. O'Brien, P.F. Bernath|publisher=University of Arizona, Tucson|accessdate=2007-12-10] [cite web|url=http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/125.pdf|title=Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF|author=K.Q. Zhang, B.Guo, V. Braun, M. Dulick, P.F. Bernath|accessdate=2007-12-10|University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario] [cite web|url=http://lb.chemie.uni-hamburg.de/search/index.php?content=166/dGp23678|title=Compound Descriptions: B2F4|accessdate=2007-12-10|publisher=Landol Börnstein Substance/Property Index]
Beryllium does not occur naturally as a free element, but in compounds such as
borates. The most common sources of boron are tourmaline, borax, Na2B4O5(OH)4·8H2O, and kernite, Na2B4O5(OH)4·2H2O. it is diffucult to obtain pure boron. It can be made through the magnesium reductionof boron oxide, B2O3. This oxide is made by melting boric acid, B(OH)3, which in turn is obtained from borax. Small amounts of pure boron can be made by the thermal decompositionof boron bromide, BBr3, in hydrogen gas over hot tantalumwire, which acts as a catalyst. The most commercially important sources of boron are: sodium tetraboratepentahydrate, Na2B4O7 · 5H2O, which is used in large amounts in making insulating fiberglassand sodium perboratebleach; boron carbide, a ceramicmaterial, is used to make armour materials, especially in bulletproof vests for soldiers and police officers; orthoboric acid, H3BO3 or boric acid, used in the production of textile fiberglassand flat panel displays; sodium tetraborate decahydrate, Na2B4O7 · 10H2O or borax, used in the production of adhesives; and the isotope boron-10 is used as a control for nuclear reactors, as a shield for nuclear radiation, and in instruments used for detecting neutrons.
Boron is an essential plant
micronutrient, required for cell wall strength and development, cell division, seed and fruit development, sugar transport and hormone development. [cite web
title = Functions of Boron in Plant Nutrition
url = http://www.borax.com/agriculture/files/an203.pdf
publisher = U.S. Borax Inc.
doi = ] [cite journal
title = Functions of Boron in Plant Nutrition
first = Dale G.
last = Blevins
coauthors = Lukaszewski, Krystyna M.
journal = Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology
volume = 49
pages = 481–500
year = 1998
doi = 10.1146/annurev.arplant.49.1.481 ] However, high soil concentrations of over 1.0 ppm can cause necrosis in leaves and poor growth. Levels as low as 0.8 ppm can cause these symptoms to appear in plants particularly boron-sensitive. Most plants, even those tolerant of boron in the soil, will show symptoms of boron toxicity when boron levels are higher than 1.8 ppm. In animals, boron is an
ultratrace element; in human diets, daily intake ranges from 2.1–4.3 mg boron/kg body weight (bw)/day. [cite journal | title = Total boron | author = Zook EG and Lehman J. | journal = J. Assoc. Off Agric. Chem | volume = 48 | title = 850-5 | year = 1965] It is also used as a supplement for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and arthritis. [ cite web | url = http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/bor_0040.shtml
title = Boron | accessdate = 2008-09-18 | publisher = PDRhealth]
Carbon is the chemical element with atomic number five, occurring as 12C, 13C and 14C. [http://www.webelements.com/carbon/ Carbon] at WebElements.] At standard temperature and pressure, carbon is a solid, occurring in many different allotropes, the most common of which are
graphite, diamond, the fullerenesand amorphous carbon. Graphite is a soft, hexagonal crystalline, opaque black semimetalwith very good conductive and thermodynamically stable properties. Diamond however is a highly transparent colourlesscubic crystal with poor conductive properties, is the hardest known naturally occuring mineral and has the highest refractive indexof all gemstones. In contrast to the crystal latticestructure of diamond and graphite, the fullerenesare molecules, named after Richard Buckminster Fullerwhose architecture the molecules resemble. There are several different fullerenes, the most widely known being the "buckeyball" C60. Little is known about the fullerenes and they are a current subject of reseach. There is also amorphous carbon, which is carbon without any crystalline structure. [cite book|chapter=Amorphous carbon|chapterurl=http://iupac.org/goldbook/A00294.pdf|title=IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology|publisher=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry|year=1997|edition=2nd edition|format=pdf|accessdate=2008-09-24] In mineralogy, the term is used to refer to sootand coal, although these are not truly amorphous as they contain small amounts of graphite or diamond. [cite journal|url=http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/reports/1996/CR-198469.pdf|title=Soot Precursor Material: Spatial Location via Simultaneous LIF-LII Imaging and Characterization via TEM|journal=NASA Contractor Report|last=Vander Wal|first=R.|issue=198469|year=1996|month=May|accessdate=2008-09-24] [cite book|chapter=diamond-like carbon films|chapterurl=http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/D01673.pdf|title=IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology|publisher=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry|year=1997|edition=2nd edition|format=pdf|accessdate=2008-09-24] Carbon's most common isotope at 98.9% is 12C, with six protons and six neutrons. [http://www.scienceschool.usyd.edu.au/media/17-dasgupta-slides.pdf Presentation about isotopes] by Mahananda Dasgupta of the Department of Nuclear Physics at Australian National University. ] 13C is also stable, with six protons and seven neutrons, at 1.1%. Trace amounts of 14C also occur naturally but this isotope is radioactive and decays with a half life of 5730 years; it is used for radiocarbon dating. [cite journal |last=Plastino |first=W. |authorlink= |coauthors=Kaihola, L.; Bartolomei, P.; Bella, F. |year=2001 |month= |title=Cosmic Background Reduction In The Radiocarbon Measurement By Scintillation Spectrometry At The Underground Laboratory Of Gran Sasso |journal=Radiocarbon |volume=43 |issue=2A |pages=157–161 |id= |url=https://digitalcommons.library.arizona.edu/objectviewer?o=http%3A%2F%2Fradiocarbon.library.arizona.edu%2Fvolume43%2Fnumber2A%2Fazu_radiocarbon_v43_n2a_157_161_v.pdf |accessdate= |quote= ] Other isotopes of carbonhave also been synthesised. Carbon forms covalent bonds with other non-metals with an oxidation state of -4, -2, +2 or +4.
Table of elements
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