- Chilean peso
Chilean peso peso chileno (Spanish) ISO 4217 code CLP User(s) Chile Inflation 1.5% Source 2009 (INE) Subunit 1/100 centavos Symbol (or $, due to its availability in the western keyboard). Coins 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 pesos Banknotes 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000, 20,000 pesos Central bank Banco Central de Chile Website www.bcentral.cl Mint Casa de Moneda Website www.cmoneda.cl
The peso is the currency of Chile. The current peso has circulated since 1975, with a previous version circulating between 1817 and 1960. The symbol used locally for it is $. The ISO 4217 code for the present peso is CLP. It is subdivided into 100 centavos, although no centavo denominated coins remain in circulation. The average exchange rate of the Chilean Peso to the U.S Dollar was 1 U.S. Dollar to 510.38 Chilean Pesos in 2010.
First peso, 1817–1960
The first Chilean peso was introduced in 1817, at a value of 8 Spanish colonial reales. Until 1851, the peso was subdivided into 8 reales, with the escudo worth 2 pesos. In 1835, copper coins denominated in centavos were introduced but it was not until 1851 that the real and escudo denominations ceased to be issued and further issues in centavos and décimos (worth 10 centavos) commenced. Also in 1851, the peso was set equal 5 French francs on the silver standard, 22.5 grams pure silver. However, gold coins were issued to a different standard to that of France, with 1 peso = 1.37 grams gold (5 francs equalled 1.45 grams gold). In 1885, a gold standard was adopted, pegging the peso to the British pound at a rate of 13⅓ pesos = 1 pound (1 peso = 1 shilling 6 pence). This was reduced in 1926 to 40 pesos = 1 pound (1 peso = 6 pence). From 1925, coins and banknotes were issued denominated in cóndores, worth 10 pesos. The gold standard was suspended in 1932 and the peso's value fell further. The escudo replaced the peso on January 1, 1960 at a rate 1 escudo = 1000 pesos.
Between 1817 and 1851, silver coins were issued in denominations of ¼, ½, 1 and 2 reales and 1 peso (also denominated 8 reales), with gold coins for 1, 2, 4 and 8 escudos. In 1835, copper ½ and 1 centavo coins were issued. A full decimal coinage was introduced between 1851 and 1853, consisting of copper ½ and 1 centavo, silver ½ and 1 décimo, 20 and 50 centavos, and 1 peso, and gold 5 and 10 pesos. In 1860, gold 1 peso coins were introduced, followed by cupro-nickel ½, 1 and 2 centavos between 1870 and 1871. Copper coins for these denominations were reintroduced between 1878 and 1883, with copper 2½ centavos added in 1886. A new gold coinage was introduced in 1895, reflecting the lower gold standard, with coins for 2, 5, 10 and 20 pesos. In 1896, the ½ and 1 décimo were replaced by 5 and 10 centavo coins.
In 1907, a short-lived, silver 40 centavo coin was introduced following cessation of production of the 50 centavo coin. In 1919, the last of the copper coins (1 and 2 centavos) were issued. The following year, cupro-nickel replaced silver in the 5, 10 and 20 centavo coins. A final gold coinage was introduced in 1926, in denominations of 20, 50 and 100 pesos. In 1927, silver 2 and 5 peso coins were issued. Cupro-nickel 1 peso coins were introduced in 1933, replacing the last of the silver coins. In 1942, copper 20 and 50 centavos and 1 peso coins were introduced. The last coins of the first peso were issued between 1954 and 1959. These were aluminium 1, 5 and 10 pesos.
The first Chilean paper money was issued between 1840 and 1844 by the treasury of the Province of Valdivia, in denominations of 4 and 8 reales. In the 1870s, a number of private banks began issuing paper money, including the Banco Agricola, the Banco de la Alianza, the Banco de Concepción, the Banco Consolidaro de Chile, the Banco de A. Edwards y Ca., the Banco de Escobar, Ossa y Ca., the Banco Mobiliario, the Banco Nacional de Chile, the Banco del Pobre, the Banco Sud Americano, the Banco del Sur, the Banco de la Union and the Banco de Valparaiso. Others followed in the 1880s and 1890s. Denominations included 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 pesos. One bank, the Banco de A. Edwards y Ca., also issued notes denominated in pounds sterling (libra esterlina).
In 1881, the government issued paper money convertible into silver or gold, in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 1000 pesos. 50 centavo notes were added in 1891 and 500 pesos in 1912. In 1898, provisional issues were made by the government, consisting of private bank notes overprinted with the words "Emision Fiscal". This marked the end of the production of private paper money.
In 1925, the Banco Central de Chile began issuing notes. The first, in denominations of 5, 10, 50, 100 and 1000 pesos, were overprints on government notes. In 1927, notes marked as "Billete Provisional" were issued in denominations of 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 pesos. Regular were introduced between 1931 and 1933, in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 pesos. The 1 and 20 peso notes stopped production in 1943 and 1947, respectively. The remaining denominations continued production until 1959, with a 50,000 peso note added in 1958.
Second peso, 1975–present
In 1975, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 50 centavos and 1 peso. The 1, 5 and 10 centavo coins were very similar to the 10, 50 and 100 escudo coins they replaced. Since 1983, inflation has left the centavo coins obsolete. 5 and 10 peso coins were introduced in 1976, followed by 50 and 100 pesos in 1981 and 500 pesos in 2000. Coins currently in circulation are in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 pesos; however, most retailers tend to round the prices to the nearest 10 pesos.
Right after the Military Government in Chile (1973–1990), the obverse designs of the 5 and 10 peso coins were changed. Those coins bore the image of a winged female figure wearing a classical robe. She was portrayed as if she had just broken a chain tying her two hands together, since from both of her wrists a piece of chain can be seen hanging. To her side, in small Roman numerals, the date of the coup d'état is marked, and underneath the word Libertad (Spanish for freedom) is written in capitals. After the return of democracy, a design with the portrait of Bernardo O'Higgins was used. In 2001 a newly redesigned 100 peso coin bearing the image of a Mapuche woman began to circulate.
In February 2010 it was discovered that on the 2008 series of the 50 peso coins the country name "CHILE" had been misspelled as "CHIIE". The national mint said that it did not plan to recall the coins. The coins, worth about 9 cents (US) at the time, subsequently became collectors' items.
In 1976, banknotes were introduced in denominations of 5, 10, 50 and 100 pesos with the reverses of the 5, 10 and 50 peso notes resembling those of the Eº 5000, 10,000 and 50,000 notes they replaced. Inflation has since led to the issue of much higher denominations. 500 peso notes were introduced in May 1977, followed by 1000 pesos in June 1978, 5000 pesos in July 1982, 10,000 pesos in June 1989, 2000 pesos in December 1997 and 20,000 pesos in December 1998. The 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 peso banknotes have been replaced by coins, leaving the 1000, 2000, 5000, 10,000 and 20,000 peso notes in circulation. Redesigned versions of the 2000, 5000, 10000, and 20000 were issued throughout 2009 and 2010. The popular and new 1000 pesos banknote has been issued on May 11, 2011.
The 2000 pesos note has been issued as a polymer banknote since September 2004, the 5000 pesos note switched to polymer on September 2009, and the 1000 will at some point. As of January 2011[update], the 1000, 10000, and 20000 pesos notes are the values still issued on cotton paper, but the 1000 will switch to polymer at some point further ahead. All notes have the same 70mm height, while their length varies on 7mm steps according to their value: the shortest is the 1000 pesos note and the longest is the 20,000 pesos. This was the first time that a whole new family of banknotes were put into circulation not because of the effects of inflation. The new notes are substantially more difficult to falsify because of new security measures.
The design of the whole new family of banknotes was assigned to the Swedish company Crane AB, while its production was assigned to the Australian company Note Printing Australia Ltd and Crane AB.
In popular culture
Colloquial Chilean Spanish has informal names for some banknotes and coins. These include luca for a thousand pesos, quina for five hundred pesos (quinientos is Spanish for "five hundred"), and gamba for one hundred pesos. These names are old: for example gamba and luca applied to 100 and 1000 escudos before 1975.
Also, some banknotes are called informally by the name of the notable citizen printed on it. For example, the five thousand-peso banknote is sometimes called a gabriela (for Gabriela Mistral), the ten thousand-peso banknote arturo or arturito (for Arturo Prat, arturito meaning "little Arturo"); the one thousand-peso note is frequently referred as luca, meaning a thousand, therefore, the two thousand-peso note can be referred as two luca note, five thousand-peso note as five luca note, ten thousand as ten luca note, 1 million pesos as a guatón or palo, and so on.
Value of the peso
Average value of US$1 Date Chilean pesos October 2011 511.74 September 2011 483.69 August 2011 466.79 July 2011 462.94 June 2011 469.41 May 2011 467.73 April 2011 471.32 March 2011 479.65 February 2011 475.69 January 2011 489.44 2011 average 477.84
The peso used to be in constant devaluation year on year against the US dollar and other hard currency. However the peso seemed to stabilize against the US dollar in the 1994 to 1997 period, to continue devaluation afterwards with a peak on pesos per US dollar nearing and sometimes surpassing 700 CLP per 1 US dollar in 2002 and 2003. Since that peak the peso has been revalued significantly.
Current CLP exchange rates From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD From OzForex: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD From XE.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD From OANDA.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
- ^ http://si3.bcentral.cl/Siete/secure/cuadros/home.aspx
- ^ "Chilean mint spells country's name wrong on coins". The Daily Telegraph (telegraph.co.uk). 2010-02-12. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/7219088/Chilean-mint-spells-countrys-name-wrong-on-coins.html. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- ^ 
- ^ Nuevos Billetes
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- ^ Tipos de cambio - Dólar observado, Central Bank of Chile. Accessed on 6 November 2011.
- Krause, Chester L. and Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed. ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501.
- Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9.
- Pick, Albert (1990). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: Specialized Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (6th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-149-8.
First peso Preceded by:
Spanish colonial real
Ratio: 8 reales = 1 peso
Currency of Chile
1817 – December 31, 1959
Ratio: 1 escudo = 1000 pesos
Second peso Preceded by:
Ratio: 1 peso = 1000 escudos
Currency of Chile
Currencies named peso or similar Circulating Obsolete
- Argentine peso argentino
- Argentine peso ley
- Argentine peso moneda corriente
- Argentine peso moneda nacional
- Bolivian peso
- Catalan peseta (pesseta)
- Costa Rican peso
- Ecuadorian peso
- Equatorial Guinean peseta
- Guatemalan peso
- Guinea-Bissau peso
- Honduran peso
- Japanese government-issued Philippine fiat peso
- Nicaraguan peso
- Paraguayan peso
- Peruvian peseta
- Portuguese Timorese pataca
- Puerto Rican peso
- Sahrawi peseta
- Salvadoran peso
- Spanish peso
- Spanish peseta (pesseta, pezeta)
- Venezuelan peso
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