Historical Region of North India
Marwar (मारवाड़)
Jaswant Thada
Location western Rajastan
Flag of 19th c. Jodhpur.svg
State established: 6th c.
Language Marwari
Dynasties (Gurjara Pratihara) (till 13th c.)
Rathore (1226-1949)
Historical capitals Mandore, Jodhpur
Separated states Kishangarh

Marwar (मारवाड़) (also called Jodhpur region) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in western India. It lies partly in the Thar Desert. In Rajasthani dialect "wad" means a particular area. The word Marwar is derived from Sanskrit word 'Maruwat'. English translation of the word is 'The region of desert'.,[1][2] The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 213 defines Marwar as corruption of Maru-wār, classically Marusthala or Marusthan, also called Marudesa, whence is derived the unintelligible Mardes of the early Muhamadan writers. The word means the 'region of death' and hence is applied to desert.[3]

Region includes the present-day districts of Barmer, Jalore, lakshman nagar, Jodhpur, Nagaur, and Pali. It is bounded on the north by Jangladesh region, on the northeast by Dhundhar, on the east by Ajmer, on the southeast by Mewar, on the south by Godwar, on the southwest by Sindh, and on the west by Jaisalmer region.



In 1901 the region (Jodhpur state) had an area of 90,554 km2 (34,963 sq mi).

Marwar[ MaruPradesh]is a sandy plain lying northwest of the Aravalli Range, which runs southwest-northeast through Rajasthan state. The Aravallis wring much of the moisture from the southwest monsoon, which provides most of India's rainfall. Annual rainfall is low, ranging from 10-40cms. Temperatures range from 48 to 50 degrees Celsius in the summer, to below freezing point in winter. The Northwestern thorn scrub forests lie next to the Aravalli Range, while the rest of the region lies in the Thar Desert.

Marwar region of Rajasthan

The Luni River is the principal feature of the Marwar plains. It originates in the sacred Pushkar Lake of Ajmer District, and the main river flows through Marwar in a south-westerly direction until it finally disappears into the seasonal wetland of the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. It is fed by numerous tributaries that flow from the Aravallis. Irrigation from the river, and from wells near the river, support crops of wheat and barley.

The sandy tracts of Thar Desert in western Marwar [Maru Pradesh] are characterized by a harsh physical geography and a fragile ecology. High wind velocity, shifting sand dunes and very deep and saline water sources pose a challenge to sustained human habitation in the Thar. The area is also prone to devastating droughts. The Thar Desert is one of the most inhospitable landscapes on earth. Apart from the huge distances between hamlets and settlements here, the landscape is constantly shifting with the sand, as wind and sandstorms re-arrange the landscape at will. This added to the lack of water in such an arid region, means that the villagers of the area often find themselves migrating on foot across hundreds of miles towards neighboring states in search of water.


1561-The Capture of Fort Mertha in Rajasthan-Akbarnama

Hieun Tsang described a kingdom in Rajasthan which he calls Ku-cha-lo (or Gurjara) largely because the whole of the marwar area of rajasthan was more or less identified with the Gurjars, as early as the 6t or 7th century.[4] The Gurjara Pratihara[5] established a kingdom in Marwar in the 6th century, with a capital at Mandore [1] , 9 km from present-day Jodhpur. The ruined city of Osian or Ossian, 65 km from Jodhpur, was an important religious centre of the Pratihara period.

The Jodhpur state was founded in the 13th century by the Rathore[6] clan of Rajputs, who claim descent from the Gahadvala kings of Kannauj.After the sacking of Kannauj by Muhammad of Ghor in 1194, and its capture by the Delhi Sultanate in the early 13th century, the Rathores fled west. The Rathore family chronicles relate that Siyaji, grandson of Jai Chandra, the last Gahadvala king of Kannauj, came to Marwar on a pilgrimage to Dwarka in Gujarat, and on halting at the town of Pali he and his followers settled there to protect the Brahmin community from the raids of marauding bands. Rao (king) Chanda, tenth in succession from Siyaji, finally wrested control of Marwar from the Gurjara Pratiharas. The city of Jodhpur, capital of the Rathor state and now a district administrative centre, was founded in 1459 by Rao Chanda's successor Rao Jodha.

In 1561 the kingdom was invaded by the Mughal emperor Akbar, and Rao Malladeva (ruled 1532-1562) was forced to submit, and to send his son Udai Singh as a mark of homage to take service under the Mughal emperor. After the death of his son Chandrasen in 1581, Marwar was brought under direct Mughal administration and remained so till 1583, when Udai Singh ascended to the throne.

In 1679 CE, when Maharaja Jaswant Singh whom Emperor Alamgir I had posted at Jamrud at the mouth of the Khyber Pass, died at that place, leaving no son behind to succeed him ; his widowed Ranis (Queens) at Lahore gave birth to two sons, one of whom died and the other survived to secure the throne of Marwar and to stir up the sentiments of his co-religionists against the Muslim Monarch. The family of the late Raja had left Jamrud without the permission of the Emperor and killed an officer at Attock when asked to produce a passport.This was a sufficient ground for incorporating Marwar in the Mughal Empire, or reducing it to a state of dependency under a capable ruler.So The Mughal emperor Alamgir I, invaded Marwar in 1679. This,however, backfired as all the Rajput clans united. A triple alliance was formed by the three states of Jodhpur, Udaipur (Mewar) and Jaipur, to throw off the Mughal yoke. One of the conditions of this alliance was that the rulers of Jodhpur and Jaipur should regain the privilege of marriage with the ruling Sesodia dynasty of Mewar, which they had forfeited by contracting alliances with the Mughal emperors, on the understanding that the offspring of Sesodia princesses should succeed to the state in preference to all other children. The quarrels arising from this stipulation lasted through many generations, and led to the invitation of Maratha help from the rival aspirants to power, and finally to the subjection of all the Rajput states to the Marathas. Jodhpur was conquered by Sindhia, who levied a tribute of 60,000 rupees, and took from it the fort and town of Ajmer.

Internecine disputes and succession wars disturbed the peace of the early years of the century, until in January 1818 Jodhpur was brought under British control. Jodhpur became a princely state in the Rajputana Agency of British India.

The state was bounded on the north by Bikaner state, on the northwest by Jaipur state, on the west by the British province of Ajmer, on the southwest by Mewar (Udaipur) state, on the south by Sirohi state and the Banas Kantha Agency of Bombay Presidency, on the southeast by Sind Province, and on the west by Jaisalmer state. The Rathore Maharaja was the head of state, with an aristocracy of Jagirdars, Jamidars and Thakurs. There were 22 parganas and 4500 villages in the state.

In 1839 the British intervened to quell an insurrection. In 1843, when Maharaja Man Singh (ruled 1803-1843) died without a son and without having adopted an heir, the nobles and state officials were left to select a successor from the nearest of kin. Their choice fell upon Raja Takht Singh of Ahmednagar. Maharaja Takht Singh, who supported the British during the Revolt of 1857, died in 1873. His successor, Maharaja Jaswant Singh II, who died in 1896, was a very enlightened ruler. His brother, Sir Pratap Singh, conducted the administration until his nephew, Sardar Singh, came of age in 1898. Maharaja Sardar Singh ruled until 1911. The imperial service cavalry formed part of the reserve brigade during the Tirah campaign.

Marwar suffered more severely than any other part of Rajputana from the famine of 1899-1900. In February 1900 more than 110,000 persons were in receipt of famine relief. The kingdom had a population of 1,935,565 in 1901, a 23% decline from the 1891, largely due to the results of the famine.

In 1949 Maharaja Hanwant Singh acceded to the Government of India, and in 1950 Rajputana became the state of Rajasthan.

Castes of Marwar

A girl from the Gadia Lohars nomadic tribe of Mewar & Marwar, cooking on the outskirts of a village in Ratlam district

Marwar region is inhabited by a number of communities, majority of whom are engaged in agricultural work. The landowning farming communities include Rajputs, Jats, Gurjars, Malis and Minas. In the Marwar state there was Jagirdari system of governance before independence. The right to ownership of land was available to the ruling Jat Rajputs during British period[citation needed]. Brahmans were associated with priestly and religious professions. Mahajans were associated with trading and money lending. Other castes inhabiting Marwar include Kalbi, Nai, Darzi, Suthar, Meghwal, Chamar, Lohar, Naik, Bhil, Ghanchi, Sindhi-Sipahi.

Farmers of Marwar

The rural areas of Marwar region are dominated by farming communities. The farmers of the Marwar region are considered to be the most simple in the state of Rajasthan. The most dominating farmer community in the rural areas of Marwar is Jat. The Jats are politically and economically very sound. The major land holdings in the present times are with Jats. Then comes the Rajput community who were the Jagirdars before independence. The Brahmins and Harijans also play important role in the area. The farmers of the region have done great struggle to come to the present status.

Though the position of Kisan (farmer) in what was Khalsa (under the direct control of the state) was better in comparison to a Kisan of the Jagir areas, he was only a little above a beast of burden.

Justice Kan Singh Parihar , the retired Judge of High Court of Rajasthan, has written about exploitation of farmers by Jagirdars prior to Independence as under:

“Every thing that the Kisan had, never treated as his own. In Jagir areas all cultivators were really landless. There was no tenancy law and one could be thrown away from the land one cultivated at the pleasure of Jagirdar, his "malik". In most of the Jagirs a Jagirdar would in the first instance be taking fifty percent of the produce. This would be taken by actual division of the produce on the thrashing floor or by appraisal of the standing crop (kunta). Then over and above the share of the produce the Kisan had to pay numerous "lags" or cesses.

Together with the share of the produce known as "Hasil" these cesses meant that the Kisans had to part with more than eighty percent of their produce. The findings of the Sukhdeonarain Committee in the years 1940-42 bear this out. If a Kisan had to marry his daughter he had to pay "Chavri Lag" if he held a dinner then a "Kansa Lag"; if members of the family separated then "Dhunwa Lag" and so on. If the Jagirdar had a guest then fodder for his mount had to be supplied. Then there was "begar" that is forced labour, for tilling the personal lands of the Jagirdar. The homestead in which the Kisan lived in the Abadi had to be vacated in case he ceased cultivating the land. He could not alienate the plot to anyone.”[7]

Then the bigger Jagirdars had judicial powers including magisterial powers. Further they had their own police force besides the revenue staff. This enabled them to keep their stronghold on the farmers. Over and above this policy of divide and rule was fully practiced. By offering the temptation of giving better land for cultivation one farmer would be set against another. There were no schools worth the name in rural areas and the masses were steeped in ignorance.

Shri Kan Singh Parihar played a great role in drafting and enactment of Marwar Tenancy Act. 1949 and Marwar Land Revenue Act. 1949. Shri Parihar's idea of fixing all tenants in cultivatory possession as Khatedars thus making all of them almost the proprietors of all their fields, wells etc. without paying any premium or compensation and further being relieved from paying any lag bag (Cesses) etc.. This Marwar Tenancy Act. 1949 and Marwar Land Revenue Act. 1949 became a role model for the Rajasthan Assembly in 1955 and similar laws were passed based on these Acts thus the farmers of Rajasthan greatly benefited due to these laws.

Dabda or Dabra (डाबड़ा) village in Didwana tehsil of Nagaur district in Rajasthan became historically important for Dabda Kand (Dabra scandal) in 1947 during the agitation for abolition of Jagirs in Rajasthan.

The Jats in Bikaner, Jaipur and Jodhpur States were always a formidable factor. The Jat community was the most numerous and largest single community in the Princely States of Bikaner, Jaipur and Jodhpur. The Maharajas, minor estates holders (feudatory) and their Kinsmen (the jagirdars) oppressed and suppressed the Jat Kisans in various manners forcing them to carry out agitations. Unfortunately the Imperial power (British) were always there to provide them much needed support. In the Shekhawati area of Sikar, Khetri, Nawalgarh, Dundlod, Bissau etc. the Jat Kisans carried out prolonged agitations against the feudal oppression form 1922 to 1930, 1930 to 1938 and from 1938 to 1947. The feudal lords grudgingly yielded and some concessions were wrested from them. The worst was exploitation in the name of “Begar” under which the Jat Kisan had to render free services by way of these feudal lords. They had to provide not only free labour but also their bullocks and carts too to their feudal lords. In Jodhpur State 84% of the kind was parceled out in Jagirs (feudal land lords) most of whom were Kinsmen of the Maharaja. Several of them held revenue and magisterial powers over their peasants against which there was no appeal.[8]

A glance at the ‘Census Report of Marwar (Jodhpur State) for 1941’,[9] would make one aware of the size of the Jat community in the State. The total population of the State was 25,55,904 out of which 3,54,342 or approximately 14% were Jats. In the Jat belt extending from Mallani paragana (present Barmer District bordering Sindh province), Jodhpur paragana (Jodhpur district) Merta, Nagaur, Didwana and Parabatsar paraganas (present Nagaur district) the Jats formed nearly 30% of the total population, not an insignificant proportion by any standard. Their capacity to create trouble in the State can, therefore, be easily visualized. If the Jats of Punjab formed the crux of the Pakistan problem, the Jat community in Marwar (Jodhpur State) was no less the crux of problem in Marwar in the even the Maharaja acceded to Pakistan. As in Punjab in Marwar in the event of the Maharaja acceded to Pakistan. As in Punjab here also the question posed was, ‘Would this robust community meekly’ accept the accession of Jodhpur State to Pakistan? They would certainly resist it by force. This fact is also borne out by the advice rendered by Lord Mountbatten to the Maharaja that were he to do so serious communal trouble in the state would be the inevitable consequence. V.P. Menon has quoted in the his book “ the integration of Indian States" that The community which could create trouble was none other than the Jat community which would have resisted this decision by force.[10]

The Marwar Kisan Sabha was organised to ventilate grievances of the predominant Jat Kisans. The Marwar Kisan Sabha held its annual session in 1943 where Chowdhary Sir Chhotu Ram then Revenue Minister in Punjab, was invited as the Chief Guest. The Main Resolution among others that was settlement operations in the Jagir areas which was vehemently opposed by the leading Jagirdars. The ongoing Kisan agitation finally culminated in what is known as “Dabra Kand’ a veritable Jallianwalla Bagh.[10]

The Dabra Kand

The peasant movement which was being organised by the Marwar Kisan Sabha and the Marwar Lok Parishad jointly was a parallel movement to that of the national movement going on in British India whose aims were common i.e. to free the country form foreign rule. To mobilize the peasants, meetings under the joint auspices of Marwar Lok Parishad and Marwar Kisan Sabha were held at various place in the Jat belt and such meeting was fixed at village Dabra in Nagaur district for 13 March 1947. The Jagirdars got together in a bid to crush the political awakening among the Kisan and the black deed at Dabra was planned. In this the Jagirdars had the blessings and active support of the Maharaja. The Kisan Sammelan was to have been addressed jointly by leaders of Marwar Lok Parishad and Kisan Sabha. The jagirdars had collected nearly a thousand Rajputs of the surrounding area and had begun massive preparations three days in advance of the Kisan gathering to teach a lasting and final lesson to the agitating peasantry and the Jats in particular. The Jat troops of Jodhpur Sardar infantry, who were on leave at that time having returned from Hong Kong, participated in large number in this gathering. As soon as the peasants started congregating on the morning of 13 March 1947 they were attacked by the Jagirdars and their henchmen wielding guns and swords. These armed ruffians started to terrorize the village, ransacking and putting fire to the thatched huts. In this premeditated and murderous attack five Kisans, four of them Jats, were killed. Among the killed, three Jats were soldiers from Jodhpur Sardar infantry namely Rugha Ram, Ramu Ram and Panna Ram, Subedar Kisan Ram and Sepoy Bodu Ram both of Sardar infantry were among the grievously injured. Subedar Kishna Ram was blinded during this attack while protecting the defenseless villagers. Bodu Ram had both his arms broken. Sarvashri Mathurdas Mathur, Dwarkadas Purohit , Chhagan Raj Chopasniwala, Kishan Lal Shah of the Lok Parishad and Narsinh Kachhwaha of the Kisan Sabha received grave and serious injuries. They were dragged into the Jagirdar’s Kot (Fort) and were left there for dead. Even women were not spared and many of them received grievous injuries. Smt. Tulsi had her legs cut off by sword blows and Smt. Kesar also received grave injuries. The State civil and police authorities swung into action and registered cases of rioting, rebellious conduct and murderous assault against the unarmed and peaceful but gravely injured victims and prosecuted them.[11]

It was also commonly held that this black deed known as ‘Dabra Kand’ had been carried out with the blessings of the Maharaja. This has been narrated poignantly by Shri Ram Kisen Kalla in his book Dabra Ki Kahani, Usi Ki Jabani (Hindi). A martyrs’ column has been erected in the village upon which names of those killed have been inscribed. Sobhag Mathur in his book Struggle for Responsible Government in Marwar writes: “The Dabda Kand was one of the blackest deeds of Marwar feudalism”. This black deed had evoked widespread protest both in the press and in public. The weekly paper “Praja Sewak” of Jodhpur condemned it in unequivocal language. The Bombay weekly ‘vandematram’ while holding the Maharaja responsible for this tragedy declared, “it will shake the foundation of his throne.” ‘Janambhumi’ another Bombay weekly said, ‘The blood spilled in Dabra will grow into the plant of freedom in which the Rajas and Nawabs will have no place’. ‘the Lokvani’ of Jaipur described the tragedy at Dabra as “ Sensational and an armed attack on non violent persons as disgrace to mankind.” The Regional Committee of the All India States peoples Conference for Rajputana adopted a resolution against jagirdari repression, condemned the “Dabra Kand” and blamed the Maharaja and his Government”. The Dabra Kand was a veritable Jallanwalla Bagh and indeed proved to be a watershed in the peasant agitation in Jodhpur State.[11]

Top Thikana of Marwar

There were following Sirayats (top Thikanas) of Marwar.

  • Kuchaman,[12]
  • Auwa,[13]
  • Jiliya,[14]
  • Rian,[15]
  • Nimaj,
  • Pokhran,[16]
  • Asop,
  • Balunda,[17]
  • Ras,
  • Raipur,[18]
  • Bhadrajun,
  • Medas,
  • Alianawas,
  • Ghanerao,[19]
  • Bijathal.
  • Khejarla: The only major non-Rathore Thikana of Marwar was Khejarla, granted to Maharajah Gopaldas Bhati, who was granted ‘Jagirs’ (fiefdoms) of Khejarla and nearby villages for his great achievement in war against the Mughals, in honour of his service to the Maharaja of Jodhpur.[6]

Abolition of Jagirs

The oppression of the public by traditional Samants (chiefs) and Jagirdars (feudatories) of Marwar state made their life difficult, which led to a class war. In urban areas, Jaynarayan Vyas started agitation against oppression, under the banner of "Marwar Lok Parishad" founded on 16 May 1938. This movement was supported by National Congress. The persons who played important role in "Marwar Lok Parishad" were: Shiv Dayal Dave and Jorawar Singh Oswal of Nagaur, Kishanlal Shah of Nawa, Manak Chand Kothari and Sari Mal of Kuchaman, Tulsiram of Didwana, Srikishan Pandit of Kolia and Sukhdev Dipankar of Ladnu.rakhi jojawar krishnapal chouhan

Rural masses of Marwar were united by Kisan Kesari-Baldev Ram Mirdha under the banner of "Marwar Kisan Sabha" founded in 1940. After the formation of Rajasthan, Baldev Ram Mirdha who had by then retired from Government service formed the "Rajathan Kisan Sabha" and unified the Kisans of Rajasthan under its banner. He was its first president. Since the broad objectives of the Kisan Sabha and the congress were identical the congress leaders approached Baldev Ram Mirdha to unite the Rajasthan Kisan Sabha with the Congress. Baldev Ram Mirdha was a visionary and he realized that the two could not and should not remain separate. Therefore, he just made one demand from the national leaders that the Jagirs be abolished forthwith in Rajasthan. This was agreed to

Marwari horses

The Marwar is famous for Marwari breed of horses. The Marwari horse is in great demand in America and Europe. The Marwari horse of today descended from the splendid warhorses that served the ruling families and warriors of feudal India, throughout and from the beginning of that country's history. Their status was unparalleled. Col. J.C. Brooke in his book "Political History of India" has showered praise stating that for the recruitment of a cavalry there was no

Marwar paintings

At their capital in Jodhpur, the Rathore clan of Rajputs who ruled Marwar, developed a strikingly individual style of painting which was interpreted in a host of different ways by local artists in the many small fiefdoms (thikanas) that were the ancestral lands of the Rathore nobility. Artists such as Dalchand who were trained at the court of the Mughal Emperors brought sophisticated concepts of portraiture and composition to Jodhpur in the 17th and 18th centuries, and these ideas were combined with distinctive local styles and bold colours to form a uniquely lively school of painting.

See also


  1. ^ James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, ed. Wlliam Crooke, Routledge and Kagan Paul Ltd., London, 1950, p. 234
  2. ^ Dr D K Taknet: Marwari Samaj aur Brij Mohan Birla, Indian Institute of Marwari Entrepreneurship, Jaipur, 1993, p. 20
  3. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 213.
  4. ^ Satya Prakash; Vijai Shankar Śrivastava (1981). Cultural contours of India: Dr. Satya Prakash felicitation volume. Abhinav Publications. 
  5. ^ Panchānana Rāya (1939). A historical review of Hindu India: 300 B. C. to 1200 A. D.. I. M. H. Press. p. 125. 
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ Justice Kan Singh Parihar, SOUVENIR-1998 of Parivar Parichay, page 47 , Published by – The souvenir sub committee of Parivar Parichay, 4/28, Lodi Colony, New Delhi – 110003,
  8. ^ D.R. Chaudhary: “The Role of Jats and their contribution to the Polity of North-West India”, The Jats, Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 294
  9. ^ The Census Report of Marwar (Jodhpur State) – 1941, published by Government of Jodhpur
  10. ^ a b D.R. Chaudhary: “The Role of Jats and their contribution to the Polity of North-West India”, The Jats, Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 295
  11. ^ a b D.R. Chaudhary: “The Role of Jats and their contribution to the Polity of North-West India”, The Jats, Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 296
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  • Rosemary Crill Marwar Paintings: A History of the Jodhpur Style, India Book House, Mumbai, 1999 ISBN 81-7508-139-2
  • Bakshi, S.R. & et al. (Eds.) Marwar and its Political Administration; Delhi, 2000 ISBN 81-7629-224-9
  • Tod, Payne, C.H. Annals of Rajasthan Annals of Marwar HC., 1994, ISBN 81-206-0350-8
  • Colonel James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Oriental Books, New Delhi, 1994
  • D.K.Taknet: "Heroes of a Desert Land" in B.M.Birla: A great visionary, Indus, New Delhi, 1996
  • Mohanram Maruka: "Marwar ka Itihas" in Jat Samaj, Agra (January–February, 1998)
  • Illan Cooper: "What is in a name", Marwar: A chronicle of Marwari History and Achievement, Arpan Publications, Mumbai, 1996
  • Illan Cooper: "A painted History", Marwar: A chronicle of Marwari History and Achievement, Arpan Publications, Mumbai, 1996
  • D.K.Taknet: Marwari Samaj Aur Brijmohan Birla, Indian Institute of Marwari Entrepreneurship, Jaipur,1993 ISBN 81-85878-00-5
  • Dr. Natthan Singh: Jat-Itihas, Jat-Samaj Kalyan-Parishad, Gwalior, 2004
  • Peasant movements and political mobilization: The Jats of Rajasthan by Richard Sisson
  • Institutionalization and Style in Rajasthan politics by J.Richard Sisson
  • Dr Vir Singh: The Jats- their role and contribution to the socio political life and Polity of North and north West India- Vol 2.Edited and com piled by Dr Vir Singh, ISBN 81-88629-51-0, distributed by D K Publishers, 4834 Ansari Road, New Delhi, web site www://
  • Justice Kan Singh Parihar: SOUVENIR-1998 of Parivar Parichay, page 47 , Published by – The souvenir sub committee of Parivar Parichay, 4/28, Lodi Colony, New Delhi – 110003
  • Peasant movements and political mobilization: The Jats of Rajasthan by Richard Sisson
  • Princely States Report in Rajputana
  • Rawat Tribhuwan Singh Rathore (Member of Barmer Royal Family)

External links

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

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