List of United States birds

List of United States birds

This list of United States birds is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species known from the United States as of July, 2008. It does include species recorded in all 50 states.

Continental United States birds most closely resemble those of Eurasia, which was connected to the continent as part of the supercontinent Laurasia until around 60 million years ago. Many groups occur throughout the northern hemisphere and worldwide. However some groups unique to the New World have also arisen; those represented in this list are the hummingbirds, the New World vultures, the New World quail, the tyrant flycatchers, the vireos, the mimids, the New World warblers, the tanagers, the cardinals and the icterids.

Several common birds in the United States, such as the House Sparrow, the Rock Dove, the European Starling, and the Mute Swan are introduced species, meaning that they are not native to this continent but were brought here by man from Europe or elsewhere. Introduced species are marked on this list as (I). There may be species that have individual escapees or small feral populations in North America that are not on this list. This is especially true of birds that are commonly held as pets, such as parrots and finches.

The status of one bird on this list, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker is controversial. Until 2005 this bird was widely considered to be extinct. In April of that year it was reported that ar least one adult male bird had been sighted in the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas. This report however, has not been universally accepted, and the American Birding Association still lists the Ivory-billed Woodpecker as extinct.

This list is based on a checklist used by the AOU, the list used by most field guides for North American birds. It does not include species from any territories or possessions.



The taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) used in the accompanying bird lists adhere to the conventions of the AOU's (1998) "Check-list of North American birds", the recognized scientific authority on the taxonomy and nomenclature of North America birds. The AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature, the body responsible for maintaining and updating the "Check-list", "strongly and unanimously continues to endorse the biological species concept (BSC), in which species are considered to be genetically cohesive groups of populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups" (AOU 1998). See Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for an alternative phylogenetic arrangement based on DNA-DNA hybridization.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in the United States as permanent residents, summer or winter residents or visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to denote certain categories of species:

*(A) = Accidental occurrence based on one or two (rarely more) records, and unlikely to occur regularly.

*(C) = Casual occurrence based on two or a few records, with subsequent records not improbable.

*(E) = Extinct; a recent member of the avifauna that no longer exists.

*(Ex) = Extirpated; no longer occurs in area of interest, but other populations still exist elsewhere.

*(I) = Introduced population established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous.

This list follows the ABA (American Birding Association) for determination of rarity. The markings (A) and (C) correspond to the ABA birding codes 5 and 4 respectively.=Ducks, geese, and swans=

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils. There are 135 species worldwide and 64 species which occur in the United States. The U.S. has the greatest diversity of waterfowl of any country on earth.

*Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, "Dendrocygna autumnalis"
*Fulvous Whistling-Duck, "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*Bean Goose, "Anser fabalis"
*Pink-footed Goose, "Anser brachyrhynchus" (C)
*Greater White-fronted Goose, "Anser albifrons"
*Lesser White-fronted Goose, "Anser erythropus" (A)
*Emperor Goose, "Chen canagica"
*Snow Goose, "Chen caerulescens"
*Ross's Goose, "Chen rossii"
*Cackling Goose, "Branta hutchinsii"
*Canada Goose, "Branta canadensis"
*Brant, "Branta bernicla"
*Hawaiian Goose, "Branta sandvicensis"
*Barnacle Goose, "Branta leucopsis" (A)
*Mute Swan, "Cygnus olor" (I)
*Trumpeter Swan, "Cygnus buccinator"
*Tundra Swan, "Cygnus columbianus"
*Whooper Swan, "Cygnus cygnus"
*Muscovy Duck, "Cairina moschata"
*Wood Duck, "Aix sponsa"
*Gadwall, "Anas strepera"
*Falcated Duck, "Anas falcata" (C)
*Eurasian Wigeon, "Anas penelope"
*American Wigeon, "Anas americana"
*American Black Duck, "Anas rubripes"
*Mallard, "Anas platyrhynchos"
*Mottled Duck, "Anas fulvigula"
*Eastern Spot-billed Duck, "Anas zonorhyncha" (A)
*Hawaiian Duck, "Anas wyvilliana"
*Laysan Duck, "Anas laysanensis"
*Blue-winged Teal, "Anas discors"
*Cinnamon Teal, "Anas cyanoptera"
*Northern Shoveler, "Anas clypeata"
*White-cheeked Pintail, "Anas bahamensis" (C)
*Northern Pintail, "Anas acuta"
*Garganey, "Anas querquedula"
*Baikal Teal, "Anas formosa" (C)
*Green-winged Teal, "Anas crecca"
*Canvasback, "Aythya valisineria"
*Redhead, "Aythya americana"
*Common Pochard, "Aythya ferina"
*Ring-necked Duck, "Aythya collaris"
*Tufted Duck, "Aythya fuligula"
*Greater Scaup, "Aythya marila"
*Lesser Scaup, "Aythya affinis"
*Steller's Eider, "Polysticta stelleri"
*Spectacled Eider, "Somateria fischeri"
*King Eider, "Somateria spectabilis"
*Common Eider, "Somateria mollissima"
*Harlequin Duck, "Histrionicus histrionicus"
*Labrador Duck, "Camptorhynchus labradorius" (E)
*Surf Scoter, "Melanitta perspicillata"
*White-winged Scoter, "Melanitta fusca"
*Black Scoter, "Melanitta nigra"
*Long-tailed Duck, "Clangula hyemalis"
*Bufflehead, "Bucephala albeola"
*Common Goldeneye, "Bucephala clangula"
*Barrow's Goldeneye, "Bucephala islandica"
*Smew, "Mergellus albellus"
*Hooded Merganser, "Lophodytes cucullatus"
*Common Merganser, "Mergus merganser"
*Red-breasted Merganser, "Mergus serrator"
*Masked Duck, "Nomonyx dominicus"
*Ruddy Duck, "Oxyura jamaicensis"

=Curassows and guans=

Order: Galliformes Family: Cracidae

The chachalacas, guans and curassows are birds in the family Cracidae. These are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colourful facial ornaments. There are 50 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in the United States.

*Plain Chachalaca, "Ortalis vetula"

=Partridges, grouse, turkeys, and Old World quail=

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump, with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds, or have been domesticated as a food source for humans. There are 180 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in the United States.

*Chukar, "Alectoris chukar" (I)
*Gray Francolin, "Francolinus pondicerianus" (I)
*Black Francolin, "Francolinus francolinus" (I)
*Erckel's Francolin, "Francolinus erckelii" (I)
*Himalayan Snowcock, "Tetraogallus himalayensis" (I)
*Gray Partridge, "Perdix perdix" (I)
*Japanese Quail, "Coturnix japonica" (I)
*Kalij Pheasant, "Lophura leucomelanos" (I)
*Ring-necked Pheasant, "Phasianus colchicus" (I)
*Common Peafowl, "Pavo cristatus" (I)
*Ruffed Grouse, "Bonasa umbellus"
*Greater Sage-Grouse, "Centrocercus urophasianus"
*Gunnison Sage-Grouse, "Centrocercus minimus"
*Willow Ptarmigan, "Lagopus lagopus"
*Rock Ptarmigan, "Lagopus mutus"
*White-tailed Ptarmigan, "Lagopus leucurus"
*Spruce Grouse, "Dendragapus canadensis"
*Dusky Grouse, "Dendragapus obscurus"
*Sooty Grouse, "Dendragapus fuliginosus"
*Sharp-tailed Grouse, "Tympanuchus phasianellus"
*Greater Prairie-Chicken, "Tympanuchus cupido"
*Lesser Prairie-Chicken, "Tympanuchus pallidicinctus"
*Wild Turkey, "Meleagris gallopavo"

New World quail

Order: GalliformesFamily: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. There are 32 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas, and 6 species which occur in the United States.
*Mountain Quail, "Oreortyx pictus"
*Scaled Quail, "Callipepla squamata"
*California Quail, "Callipepla californica"
*Gambel's Quail, "Callipepla gambelii"
*Northern Bobwhite, "Colinus virginianus"
*Montezuma Quail, "Cyrtonyx montezumae"


Order: GaviiformesFamily: Gaviidae

Loons are aquatic birds size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black, they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well, and fly adequately, but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are almost hopeless on land. All 5 species of loon occur in the United States.

*Red-throated Loon, "Gavia stellata"
*Arctic Loon, "Gavia arctica"
*Pacific Loon, "Gavia pacifica"
*Common Loon, "Gavia immer"
*Yellow-billed Loon, "Gavia adamsii"


Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide, though one—the Alaotra Grebe—may now be extinct. [1] Of these, 7 species have been recorded in the United States.

*Least Grebe, "Tachybaptus dominicus"
*Pied-billed Grebe, "Podilymbus podiceps"
*Horned Grebe, "Podiceps auritus"
*Red-necked Grebe, "Podiceps grisegena"
*Eared Grebe, "Podiceps nigricollis"
*Western Grebe, "Aechmorphorus occidentalis"
*Clark's Grebe, "Aechmorphorus clarkii"


Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos (genus Phoenicopterus monotypic in family Phoenicopteridae) are gregarious wading birds, usually 3–5 feet in height, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in the United States.

*American Flamingo, "Phoenicopterus ruber"


Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are amongst the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus "Diomedea" have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. There are 21 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in the United States.

*Yellow-nosed Albatross, "Thalassarche chlororhynchos" (C)
*Shy Albatross, "Thalassarche cauta" (C)
*Black-browed Albatross, "Thalassarche melanophris" (A)
*Light-mantled Albatross, "Phoebetria palpebrata" (A)
*Wandering Albatross, "Diomedea exulans" (A)
*Laysan Albatross, "Phoebastria immutabilis"
*Black-footed Albatross, "Phoebastria nigripes"
*Short-tailed Albatross, "Phoebastria albatrus"

Shearwaters and petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 38 species which occur in the United States.

*Northern Fulmar, "Fulmarus glacialis"
*Great-winged Petrel, "Pterodroma macroptera" (A)
*Tahiti Petrel, "Pterodroma rostrata" (A)
*Kermadec Petrel, "Pterodroma neglecta" (A)
*Herald Petrel, "Pterodroma arminjoniana"
*Murphy's Petrel, "Pterodroma ultima"
*Mottled Petrel, "Pterodroma inexpectata"
*Juan Fernandez Petrel, "Pterodroma externa"
*Hawaiian Petrel, "Pterodroma sandwichensis"
*Bermuda Petrel, "Pterodroma cahow" (C)
*White-necked Petrel, "Pterodroma cervicalis" (A)
*Bonin Petrel, "Pterodroma hypoleuca"
*Black-capped Petrel, "Pterodroma hasitata"
*Black-winged Petrel, "Pterodroma nigripennis"
*"Dark-rumped" Petrel "Pterodroma phaeopygia/sandwichensis" complex (A)
*Fea's/Zino's Petrel "Pterodroma feae/madeira" complex
*Cook's Petrel, "Pterodroma cookii"
*Pycroft's Petrel, "Pterodroma pycrofti" (A)
*Stejneger's Petrel, "Pterodroma longirostris" (C)
*Bulwer's Petrel, "Bulweria bulwerii" (A)
*Jouanin's Petrel, "Bulweria fallax" (A)
*Parkinson's Petrel, "Procellaria parkinsoni" (A)
*Streaked Shearwater, "Calonectris leucomelas" (C)
*Cory's Shearwater, "Calonectris diomedea"
*Cape Verde Shearwater, "Calonectris edwardsii" (A)
*Pink-footed Shearwater, "Puffinus creatopus"
*Flesh-footed Shearwater, "Puffinus carneipes"
*Greater Shearwater, "Puffinus gravis"
*Wedge-tailed Shearwater, "Puffinus pacificus" (C)
*Buller's Shearwater, "Puffinus bulleri"
*Sooty Shearwater, "Puffinus griseus"
*Short-tailed Shearwater, "Puffinus tenuirostris"
*Manx Shearwater, "Puffinus puffinus"
*Christmas Shearwater, "Puffinus nativitatis"
*Black-vented Shearwater, "Puffinus opisthomelas"
*Audubon's Shearwater, "Puffinus lherminieri"
*Newell's Shearwater, "Puffinus auricularis"
*Little Shearwater, "Puffinus assimilis" (A)


Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 22 species worldwide, 13 of which have been recorded in the United States.

*Wilson’s Storm-Petrel, "Oceanites oceanicus", "Pelagodroma marina" (C)
*Black-bellied Storm-Petrel, "Fregetta tropica"(A)
*European Storm-Petrel, "Hydrobates pelagicus" (A)
*Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma furcata"
*Ringed Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma hornbyi" (A)
*Leach’s Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma leucorhoa"
*Ashy Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma homochroa"
*Tristram's Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma tristrami"
*Band-rumped Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma castro"
*Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma tethys" (A)
*Black Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma melania"
*Least Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma microsoma"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head. There are three species worldwide, all of which have been recorded in the United States.

*White-tailed Tropicbird, "Phaethon lepturus"
*Red-billed Tropicbird, "Phaethon aethereus"
*Red-tailed Tropicbird, "Phaethon rubricauda" (C)

=Boobies and gannets=

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in the United States.

*Masked Booby, "Sula dactylatra"
*Blue-footed Booby, "Sula nebouxii" (C)
*Brown Booby, "Sula leucogaster"
*Red-footed Booby, "Sula sula" (C)
*Northern Gannet, "Morus bassanus"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in the United States.

*American White Pelican, "Pelecanus erythrorhynchos"
*Brown Pelican, "Pelecanus occidentalis"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order. There are 38 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in the United States.

*Brandt's Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax penicillatus"
*Neotropic Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax brasilianus"
*Double-crested Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax auritus"
*Great Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax carbo"
*Red-faced Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax urile"
*Pelagic Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax pelagicus"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. They often swim with only the neck above water, and are fish-eaters. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in the United States.

*Anhinga, "Anhinga anhinga"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black and white, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in the United States.

*Magnificent Frigatebird, "Fregata magnificens"
*Great Frigatebird, "Fregata minor" (C)
*Lesser Frigatebird, "Fregata ariel" (A)

Bitterns, herons, and egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and Egrets are medium to large sized wadng birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secrative. Unlike other long necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in the United States.

*American Bittern, "Botaurus lentiginosus"
*Yellow Bittern, "Ixobrychus sinensis" (A)
*Least Bittern, "Ixobrychus exilis"
*Great Blue Heron, "Ardea herodias"
*Gray Heron, "Ardea cinerea" (A)
*Great Egret, "Ardea alba"
*Intermediate Egret, "Mesophoyx intermedia" (A)
*Chinese Egret, "Egretta eulophotes" (A)
*Little Egret, "Egretta garzetta" (C)
*Western Reef-Heron, "Egretta gularis" (A)
*Snowy Egret, "Egretta thula"
*Little Blue Heron, "Egretta caerulea"
*Tricolored Heron, "Egretta tricolor"
*Reddish Egret, "Egretta rufescens"
*Cattle Egret, "Bubulcus ibis"
*Chinese Pond-Heron, "Ardeola bacchus" (A)
*Green Heron, "Butorides virescens"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron, "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, "Nyctanassa violacea"

Ibises and spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The family Threskiornithidae includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings. Their bodies tend to be elongated, the neck more so, with rather long legs. The bill is also long, decurved in the case of the ibises, straight and distinctively flattened in the spoonbills. There are 36 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in the United States.

*American White Ibis, "Eudocimus albus"
*Scarlet Ibis, "Eudocimus ruber" (A)
*Glossy Ibis, "Plegadis falcinellus"
*White-faced Ibis, "Plegadis chihi"
*Roseate Spoonbill, "Ajaia ajaja"


Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute. There are 19 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in the United States.

*Jabiru, "Jabiru mycteria" (A)
*Wood Stork, "Mycteria americana"

New World vultures

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses. There are 7 species worldwide, all of which are found only in the Americas, and 3 species which occur in the United States.

*Black Vulture, "Coragyps atratus"
*Turkey Vulture, "Cathartes aura"
*California Condor, "Gymnogyps californianus" (Ex)

=Eagles, kites, and allies=

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

The family Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 31 species which occur in the United States.

*Osprey, "Pandion haliaetus"
*Hook-billed Kite, "Chondrohierax uncinatus"
*Swallow-tailed Kite, "Elanoides forficatus"
*White-tailed Kite, "Elanus leucurus"
*Snail Kite, "Rostrhamus sociabilis"
*Mississippi Kite, "Ictinia mississippiensis"
*Black Kite, "Milvus migrans" (A)
*Bald Eagle, "Haliaeetus leucocephalus"
*White-tailed Eagle, "Haliaeetus albicilla" (C)
*Steller's Sea-Eagle, "Haliaeetus pelagicus" (C)
*Northern Harrier, "Circus cyaneus"
*Sharp-shinned Hawk, "Accipiter striatus"
*Cooper's Hawk, "Accipiter cooperii"
*Chinese Goshawk, "Accipiter soloensis" (A)
*Northern Goshawk, "Accipiter gentilis"
*Crane Hawk, "Geranospiza caerulescens" (A)
*Common Black-Hawk, "Buteogallus anthracinus"
*Harris's Hawk, "Parabuteo unicinctus"
*Gray Hawk, "Buteo nitidus"
*Roadside Hawk, "Buteo magnirostris" (A)
*Hawaiian Hawk, "Buteo solitarius"
*Red-shouldered Hawk, "Buteo lineatus"
*Broad-winged Hawk, "Buteo platypterus"
*Short-tailed Hawk, "Buteo brachyurus"
*Swainson's Hawk, "Buteo swainsoni"
*White-tailed Hawk, "Buteo albicaudatus"
*Zone-tailed Hawk, "Buteo albonotatus"
*Red-tailed Hawk, "Buteo jamaicensis"
*Ferruginous Hawk, "Buteo regalis"
*Rough-legged Hawk, "Buteo lagopus"
*Golden Eagle, "Aquila chrysaetos"

Caracaras and falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet.

*Collared Forest-Falcon, "Micrastur semitorquatus" (A)
*Crested Caracara, "Caracara cheriway"
*Eurasian Kestrel, "Falco tinnunculus" (C)
*American Kestrel, "Falco sparverius"
*Merlin, "Falco columbarius"
*Eurasian Hobby, "Falco subbuteo" (C)
*Red-footed Falcon, "Falco vespertinus" (A)
*Aplomado Falcon, "Falco femoralis" (C)
*Gyrfalcon, "Falco rusticolus"
*Peregrine Falcon, "Falco peregrinus"
*Prairie Falcon, "Falco mexicanus"

Rails, gallinules, and coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: RallidaeRallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in the United States.

*Yellow Rail, "Coturnicops noveboracensis"
*Black Rail, "Laterallus jamaicensis"
*Corn Crake, "Crex crex" (A)
*Clapper Rail, "Rallus longirostris"
*King Rail, "Rallus elegans"
*Virginia Rail, "Rallus limicola"
*Sora, "Porzana carolina"
*Laysan Rail, "Porzana palmeri" (E)
*Hawaiian Rail, "Porzana sandwichensis"E)
*Paint-billed Crake, "Neocrex erythrops" (A)
*Spotted Rail, "Pardirallus maculatus" (A)
*Purple Gallinule, "Porphyrio martinica"
*Common Moorhen, "Gallinula chloropus"
*Eurasian Coot, "Fulica atra" (A)
*American Coot, "Fulica americana"
*Hawaiian Coot, "Fulica alai"


Order: GruiformesFamily: Aramidae

The Limpkin is an odd bird that looks like a large rail, but is skeletally closer to the cranes. It is found in marshes with some trees or scrub in the Caribbean, South America and southern Florida.

*Limpkin, "Aramus guarauna"


Order: GruiformesFamily: GruidaeCranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in the United States.

*Sandhill Crane, "Grus canadensis"
*Common Crane, "Grus grus" (C)
*Whooping Crane, "Grus americana"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species in the United States.

*Double-striped Thick-knee, "Burhinus bistriatus" (A)

Lapwings and plovers

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in the continental United States.

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

*Northern Lapwing, "Vanellus vanellus" (C)
*Black-bellied Plover, "Pluvialis squatarola"
*European Golden-Plover, "Pluvialis apricaria" (C)
*American Golden-Plover, "Pluvialis dominica"
*Pacific Golden-Plover, "Pluvialis fulva"
*Lesser Sand-Plover, "Charadrius mongolus"
*Greater Sand-Plover, "Charadrius leschenaultii" (A)
*Collared Plover, "Charadrius collaris" (A)
*Snowy Plover, "Charadrius alexandrinus"
*Wilson's Plover, "Charadrius wilsonia"
*Common Ringed Plover, "Charadrius hiaticula"
*Semipalmated Plover, "Charadrius semipalmatus"
*Piping Plover, "Charadrius melodus"
*Little Ringed Plover, "Charadrius dubius" (A)
*Killdeer, "Charadrius vociferus"
*Mountain Plover, "Charadrius montanus"
*Eurasian Dotterel, "Charadrius morinellus" (C)


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large, obvious and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in the United States.

*American Oystercatcher, "Haematopus palliatus"
*American Black Oystercatcher, "Haematopus bachmani"

Stilts and avocets

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in the United States.

*Black-winged Stilt, "Himantopus himantopus" (A)
*Black-necked Stilt, "Himantopus mexicanus"
*American Avocet, "Recurvirostra americana"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The Jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in the United States.

*Northern Jacana, "Jacana spinosa" (C)

Sandpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the Sandpipers, Curlews, Godwits, Shanks, Tattlers, Woodcocks, Snipes, Dowitchers and Phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 63 species which occur in the United States. The U.S. has the greatest diversity of sandpipers of any country on earth.

*Common Greenshank, "Tringa nebularia"
*Greater Yellowlegs, "Tringa melanoleuca"
*Lesser Yellowlegs, "Tringa flavipes"
*Marsh Sandpiper, "Tringa stagnatilis" (A)
*Spotted Redshank, "Tringa erythropus" (C)
*Wood Sandpiper, "Tringa glareola"
*Green Sandpiper, "Tringa ochropus" (C)
*Solitary Sandpiper, "Tringa solitaria"
*Willet, "Catoptrophorus semipalmatus"
*Wandering Tattler, "Heteroscelus incanus"
*Gray-tailed Tattler, "Heteroscelus brevipes"
*Common Sandpiper, "Actitis hypoleucos"
*Spotted Sandpiper, "Actitis macularia"
*Terek Sandpiper, "Xenus cinereus"
*Upland Sandpiper, "Bartramia longicauda"
*Little Curlew, "Numenius minutus" (C)
*Eskimo Curlew, "Numenius borealis" (E?)
*Whimbrel, "Numenius phaeopus"
*Bristle-thighed Curlew, "Numenius tahitiensis"
*Far Eastern Curlew, "Numenius madagascariensis" (C)
*Eurasian Curlew, "Numenius arquata" (C)
*Long-billed Curlew, "Numenius americanus"
*Black-tailed Godwit, "Limosa limosa"
*Hudsonian Godwit, "Limosa haemastica"
*Bar-tailed Godwit, "Limosa lapponica"
*Marbled Godwit, "Limosa fedoa"
*Ruddy Turnstone, "Arenaria interpres"
*Black Turnstone, "Arenaria melanocephala"
*Surfbird, "Aphriza virgata"
*Great Knot, "Calidris tenuirostris" (C)
*Red Knot, "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling, "Calidris alba"
*Semipalmated Sandpiper, "Calidris pusilla"
*Western Sandpiper, "Calidris mauri"
*Red-necked Stint, "Calidris ruficollis"
*Little Stint, "Calidris minuta" (A)
*Temminck's Stint, "Calidris temminckii"
*Long-toed Stint, "Calidris subminuta"
*Least Sandpiper, "Calidris minutilla"
*White-rumped Sandpiper, "Calidris fuscicollis"
*Baird's Sandpiper, "Calidris bairdii"
*Pectoral Sandpiper, "Calidris melanotos"
*Sharp-tailed Sandpiper, "Calidris acuminata"
*Purple Sandpiper, "Calidris maritima"
*Rock Sandpiper, "Calidris ptilocnemis"
*Dunlin, "Calidris alpina"
*Curlew Sandpiper, "Calidris ferruginea"
*Stilt Sandpiper, "Calidris himantopus"
*Spoon-billed Sandpiper, "Eurynorhynchus pygmeus" (C)
*Broad-billed Sandpiper, "Limicola falcinellus" (C)
*Buff-breasted Sandpiper, "Tryngites subruficollis"
*Ruff, "Philomachus pugnax"
*Short-billed Dowitcher, "Limnodromus griseus"
*Long-billed Dowitcher, "Limnodromus scolopaceus"
*Jack Snipe, "Lymnocryptes minimus" (A)
*Wilson's Snipe, "Gallinago delicata"
*Common Snipe, "Gallinago gallinago"
*Pin-tailed Snipe, "Gallinago stenura" (A)
*Eurasian Woodcock, "Scolopax rusticola" (A)
*American Woodcock, "Scolopax minor"
*Wilson's Phalarope, "Phalaropus tricolor"
*Red-necked Phalarope, "Phalaropus lobatus"
*Red Phalarope, "Phalaropus fulicarius"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Glareolidae

The Pratincoles have short legs, very long pointed wings and long forked tails. Their most unusual feature for birds classed as waders is that they typically hunt their insect prey on the wing like swallows, although they can also feed on the ground. Their short bills are an adaptation to aerial feeding. Their flight is fast and graceful like a swallow or a tern, with many twists and turns to pursue their prey. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in the United States.

*Oriental Pratincole, "Glareola maldivarum" (A)

Gulls, terns, and skimmers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 102 species worldwide and 53 species found in the United States.

*Swallow-tailed Gull, "Creagrus furcatus" (A)
*Black-legged Kittiwake, "Rissa tridactyla"
*Red-legged Kittiwake, "Rissa brevirostris"
*Ivory Gull, "Pagophila eburnea"
*Sabine's Gull, "Xema sabini"
*Bonaparte's Gull, "Chroicocephalus philadelphia"
*Gray-hooded Gull, "Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus" (A)
*Black-headed Gull, "Chroicocephalus ridibundus"
*Little Gull, "Hydrocoleus minutus"
*Ross's Gull, "Rhodostethia rosea"
*Laughing Gull, "Leucophaeus atricilla"
*Franklin's Gull, "Leucophaeus pipixcan"
*Belcher's Gull, "Larus belcheri" (A)
*Black-tailed Gull, "Larus crassirostris" (C)
*Heermann's Gull, "Larus heermanni"
*Mew Gull, "Larus canus"
*Ring-billed Gull, "Larus delawarensis"
*Western Gull, "Larus occidentalis"
*Yellow-footed Gull, "Larus livens"
*California Gull, "Larus californicus"
*Herring Gull, "Larus argentatus"
*Yellow-legged Gull, "Larus cachinnans" (C)
*Thayer's Gull, "Larus thayeri"
*Iceland Gull, "Larus glaucoides"
*Lesser Black-backed Gull, "Larus fuscus"
*Slaty-backed Gull, "Larus schistisagus"
*Glaucous-winged Gull, "Larus glaucescens"
Common Tern]
*Glaucous Gull, "Larus hyperboreus"
*Great Black-backed Gull, "Larus marinus"
*Kelp Gull, "Larus dominicanus" (C)
*Gull-billed Tern, "Gelochelidon nilotica"
*Caspian Tern, "Hydroprogne caspia"
*Royal Tern, "Sterna maxima"
*Elegant Tern, "Sterna elegans"
*Sandwich Tern, "Sterna sandvicensis"
*Roseate Tern, "Sterna dougallii"
*Common Tern, "Sterna hirundo"
*Arctic Tern, "Sterna paradisaea"
*Forster's Tern, "Sterna forsteri"
*Least Tern, "Sternula antillarum"
*Aleutian Tern, "Onychoprion aleutica"
*Bridled Tern, "Onychoprion anaethetus"
*Sooty Tern, "Onychoprion fuscata"
*Large-billed Tern, "Phaetusa simplex" (A)
*White-winged Tern, "Chlidonias leucopterus" (C)
*Whiskered Tern, "Chlidonias hybridus" (A)
*Black Tern, "Chlidonias niger"
*Brown Noddy, "Anous stolidus"
*Black Noddy, "Anous minutus"
*Blue Noddy, "Procelsterna cerulea"
*White Tern, "Gygis alba"
*Black Skimmer, "Rynchops niger"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

Skuas are in general medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with a hooked tip, and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers. There are 7 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in the United States.

*Great Skua, "Stercorarius skua"
*South Polar Skua, "Stercorarius maccormicki"
*Pomarine Jaeger, "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Parasitic Jaeger, "Stercorarius parasiticus"
*Long-tailed Jaeger, "Stercorarius longicaudus"

=Auks, murres, and puffins=

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins at all, being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. There are 24 species worldwide and 22 species (with the Greak Auk's extinct, 21) which occur in the United States.

*Dovekie, "Alle alle"
*Common Murre, "Uria aalge"
*Thick-billed Murre, "Uria lomvia"
*Razorbill, "Alca torda"
*Great Auk, "Pinguinus impennis" (E)
*Black Guillemot, "Cepphus grylle"
*Pigeon Guillemot, "Cepphus columba"
*Long-billed Murrelet, "Brachyramphus perdix" (C)
*Marbled Murrelet, "Brachyramphus marmoratus"
*Kittlitz's Murrelet, "Brachyramphus brevirostris"
*Xantus's Murrelet, "Synthliboramphus hypoleucus"
*Craveri's Murrelet, "Synthliboramphus craveri"
*Ancient Murrelet, "Synthliboramphus antiquus"
*Cassin's Auklet, "Ptychoramphus aleuticus"
*Parakeet Auklet, "Aethia psittacula"
*Least Auklet, "Aethia pusilla"
*Whiskered Auklet, "Aethia pygmaea"
*Crested Auklet, "Aethia cristatella"
*Rhinoceros Auklet, "Cerorhinca monocerata"
*Atlantic Puffin, "Fratercula arctica"
*Horned Puffin, "Fratercula corniculata"
*Tufted Puffin, "Fratercula cirrhata"


Order: PterocliformesFamily: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species that has been introduced to Hawaii.

*Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse, "Pterocles exustus" (I)

=Pigeons and doves=

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. They feed on seeds, fruit and plants. Unlike most other birds, the doves and pigeons produce "crop milk," which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop. Both sexes produce this highly nutritious substance to feed to the young. There are 308 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in the United States.

*Rock Pigeon, "Columba livia" (I)
*Scaly-naped Pigeon, "Patagioenas squamosa" (A)
*White-crowned Pigeon, "Patagioenas leucocephala"
*Red-billed Pigeon, "Patagioenas flavirostris"
*Band-tailed Pigeon, "Patagioenas fasciata"
*Oriental Turtle-Dove, "Streptopelia orientalis" (C)
*European Turtle-Dove, "Streptopelia turtur" (A)
*Eurasian Collared-Dove, "Streptopelia decaocto" (I)
*Spotted Dove, "Streptopelia chinensis" (I)
*Zebra Dove, "Geopelia striata" (I)
*White-winged Dove, "Zenaida asiatica"
*Zenaida Dove, "Zenaida aurita" (A)
*Mourning Dove, "Zenaida macroura"
*Passenger Pigeon, "Ectopistes migratorius" (E)
*Inca Dove, "Columbina inca"
*Common Ground-Dove, "Columbina passerina"
*Ruddy Ground-Dove, "Columbina talpacoti"
*White-tipped Dove, "Leptotila verreauxi"
*Key West Quail-Dove, "Geotrygon chrysia" (C)
*Ruddy Quail-Dove, "Geotrygon montana" (A)

Lories and lorikeets, parakeets, macaws, and parrots

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in the United States.

*Budgerigar, "Melopsittacus undulatus" (I)
*Pale-headed Rosella, "Platycercus adscitus" (I)
*Rose-ringed Parakeet, "Psittacula krameri" (I)
*Mitred Parakeet, "Aratinga mitrata" (I)
*Monk Parakeet, "Myiopsitta monachus" (I)
*Carolina Parakeet, "Conuropsis carolinensis" (E)
*Green Parakeet, "Aratinga holochlora"
*Thick-billed Parrot, "Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha" (Ex)
*White-winged Parakeet, "Brotogeris versicolurus" (I)
*Red-crowned Parrot, "Amazona viridigenalis"

=Cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis=

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species world wide and 8 North American species.

*Common Cuckoo, "Cuculus canorus"
*Oriental Cuckoo, "Cuculus saturatus" (C)
*Black-billed Cuckoo, "Coccyzus erythropthalmus"
*Yellow-billed Cuckoo, "Coccyzus americanus"
*Mangrove Cuckoo, "Coccyzus minor"
*Greater Roadrunner, "Geococcyx californianus"
*Smooth-billed Ani, "Crotophaga ani"
*Groove-billed Ani, "Crotophaga sulcirostris"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species world wide and 1 North American species.

*Barn Owl, "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in the United States.

*Flammulated Owl, "Otus flammeolus"
*Oriental Scops-Owl, "Otus sunia" (A)
*Western Screech-Owl, "Megascops kennicottii"
*Eastern Screech-Owl, "Megascops asio"
*Whiskered Screech-Owl, "Megascops trichopsis"
*Great Horned Owl, "Bubo virginianus"
*Snowy Owl, "Bubo scandiacus"
*Northern Hawk Owl, "Surnia ulula"
*Northern Pygmy Owl, "Glaucidium gnoma"
*Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, "Glaucidium brasilianum"
*Elf Owl, "Micrathene whitneyi"
*Burrowing Owl, "Athene cunicularia"
*Mottled Owl, "Ciccaba virgata" (A)
*Spotted Owl, "Strix occidentalis"
*Barred Owl, "Strix varia"
*Great Gray Owl, "Strix nebulosa"
*Long-eared Owl, "Asio otus"
*Stygian Owl, "Asio stygius" (A)
*Short-eared Owl, "Asio flammeus"
*Boreal Owl, "Aegolius funereus"
*Northern Saw-whet Owl, "Aegolius acadicus"


Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is crypically coloured to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in the United States.

*Lesser Nighthawk, " Chordeiles acutipennis"
*Common Nighthawk, " Chordeiles minor"
*Antillean Nighthawk, " Chordeiles gundlachii"
*Common Pauraque, " Nyctidromus albicollis"
*Common Poorwill, " Phalaenoptilus nuttallii"
*Chuck-will's-widow, " Caprimulgus carolinensis"
*Buff-collared Nightjar, " Caprimulgus ridgwayi" (C)
*Whip-poor-will, " Caprimulgus vociferus"
*Gray Nightjar, " Caprimulgus indicus" (A)


Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

The swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in the United States.

*Guam Swiftlet, "Aerodramus bartschi" (I)
*Black Swift, "Cypseloides niger"
*White-collared Swift, "Streptoprocne zonaris" (A)
*Chimney Swift, "Chaetura pelagica"
*Vaux's Swift, "Chaetura vauxi"
*White-throated Needletail "Hirundapus caudacutus" (A)
*Common Swift, "Apus apus" (A)
*Pacific Swift, "Apus pacificus" (A)
*Fork-tailed Swift, "Apus pacificus" (C)
*White-throated Swift, "Aeronautes saxatalis"
*Antillean Palm-Swift, "Tachornis phoenicobia" (A)


Order: ApodiformesFamily: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. There are 337 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in the United States.

*Green Violetear, "Colibri thalassinus" (C)
*Green-breasted Mango, "Anthracothorax prevostii" (C)
*Broad-billed Hummingbird, "Cynanthus latirostris"
*White-eared Hummingbird, "Hylocharis leucotis"
*Xantus's Hummingbird, "Hylocharis xantusii" (A)
*Berylline Hummingbird, "Amazilia beryllina"
*Buff-bellied Hummingbird, "Amazilia yucatanensis"
*Cinnamon Hummingbird, "Amazilia rutila" (A)
*Violet-crowned Hummingbird, "Amazilia violiceps"
*Blue-throated Hummingbird, "Lampornis clemenciae"
*Magnificent Hummingbird, "Eugenes fulgens"
*Plain-capped Starthroat, "Heliomaster constantii" (C)
*Bahama Woodstar, "Calliphlox evelynae" (A)
*Lucifer Hummingbird, "Calothorax lucifer"
*Ruby-throated Hummingbird, "Archilochus colubris"
*Black-chinned Hummingbird, "Archilochus alexandri"
*Anna's Hummingbird, "Calypte anna"
*Costa's Hummingbird, "Calypte costae"
*Calliope Hummingbird, "Stellula calliope"
*Bumblebee Hummingbird, "Atthis heloisa" (A)
*Broad-tailed Hummingbird, "Selasphorus platycercus"
*Rufous Hummingbird, "Selasphorus rufus"
*Allen's Hummingbird, "Selasphorus sasin"


Order: TrogoniformesFamily: Trogonidae

Trogons are residents of tropical forests worldwide, with the greatest diversity in Central and South America. They feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons do not migrate.Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. They nest in holes in trees or termite nests, laying white or pastel-coloured eggs. There are 33 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in the United States.

*Elegant Trogon, "Trogon elegans"
*Eared Quetzal, "Euptilotis neoxenus" (C)


Order: UpupiformesFamily: Upupidae

Hoopoes spend much time on the ground hunting insects and worms. This black, white and pink bird is quite unmistakable, especially in its erratic flight, which is like that of a giant butterfly. The crest is erectile, but is mostly kept closed. It walks on the ground like a starling. The song is a trisyllabic "oop-oop-oop", which gives rise to its English and scientific names.

*Eurasian Hoopoe, "Upupa epops" (A)


Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Cerylidae

Kingfishers are medium sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in the United States.

*Ringed Kingfisher, "Megaceryle torquata"
*Belted Kingfisher, "Megaceryle alcyon"
*Green Kingfisher, "Chloroceryle americana"

Woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 25 species which occur in the United States.

*Eurasian Wryneck, "Jynx torquilla" (A)
*Lewis's Woodpecker, "Melanerpes lewis"
*Red-headed Woodpecker, "Melanerpes erythrocephalus"
*Acorn Woodpecker, "Melanerpes formicivorus"
*Gila Woodpecker, "Melanerpes uropygialis"
*Golden-fronted Woodpecker, "Melanerpes aurifrons"
*Red-bellied Woodpecker, "Melanerpes carolinus"
*Williamson's Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus thyroideus"
*Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus varius"
*Red-naped Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus nuchalis"
*Red-breasted Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus ruber"
*Great Spotted Woodpecker, "Dendrocopos major" (C)
*Ladder-backed Woodpecker, "Picoides scalaris"
*Nuttall's Woodpecker, "Picoides nuttallii"
*Downy Woodpecker, "Picoides pubescens"
*Hairy Woodpecker, "Picoides villosus"
*Arizona Woodpecker, "Picoides arizonae"
*Red-cockaded Woodpecker, "Picoides borealis"
*White-headed Woodpecker, "Picoides albolarvatus"
*American Three-toed Woodpecker, "Picoides dorsalis"
*Black-backed Woodpecker, "Picoides arcticus"
*Northern Flicker, "Colaptes auratus"
*Gilded Flicker, "Colaptes chrysoides"
*Pileated Woodpecker, "Dryocopus pileatus"
*Ivory-billed Woodpecker, "Campephilus principalis" (E?)

Tyrant flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. There are 429 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas, and 46 species which occur in the United States.

*Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet, "Camptostoma imberbe"
*Greenish Elaenia, "Myiopagis viridicata" (A)
*Caribbean Elaenia, "Elaenia martinica" (A)
*Tufted Flycatcher, "Mitrephanes phaeocercus" (A)
*Olive-sided Flycatcher, "Contopus cooperi"
*Greater Pewee, "Contopus pertinax"
*Western Wood-Pewee, "Contopus sordidulus"
*Eastern Wood-Pewee, "Contopus virens"
*Cuban Pewee, "Contopus caribaeus" (A)
*Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, "Empidonax flaviventris"
*Acadian Flycatcher, "Empidonax virescens"
*Alder Flycatcher, "Empidonax alnorum"
*Willow Flycatcher, "Empidonax traillii"
*Least Flycatcher, "Empidonax minimus"
*Hammond's Flycatcher, "Empidonax hammondii"
*Gray Flycatcher, "Empidonax wrightii"
*Dusky Flycatcher, "Empidonax oberholseri"
*Pacific-slope Flycatcher, "Empidonax difficilis"
*Cordilleran Flycatcher, "Empidonax occidentalis"
*Buff-breasted Flycatcher, "Empidonax fulvifrons"
*Black Phoebe, "Sayornis nigricans"
*Eastern Phoebe, "Sayornis phoebe"
*Say's Phoebe, "Sayornis saya"
*Vermilion Flycatcher, "Pyrocephalus rubinus"
*Dusky-capped Flycatcher, "Myiarchus tuberculifer"
*Ash-throated Flycatcher, "Myiarchus cinerascens"
*Nutting's Flycatcher, "Myiarchus nuttingi" (A)
*Great Crested Flycatcher, "Myiarchus crinitus"
*Brown-crested Flycatcher, "Myiarchus tyrannulus"
*La Sagra' s Flycatcher, "Myiarchus sagrae" (C)
*Great Kiskadee, "Pitangus sulphuratus"
*Social Flycatcher, "Myiozetetes similis" (A)
*Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher, "Myiodynastes luteiventris"
*Piratic Flycatcher, "Legatus leucophaius" (A)
*Variegated Flycatcher, "Empidonomus varius" (A)
*Tropical Kingbird, "Tyrannus melancholicus"
*Couch's Kingbird, "Tyrannus couchii"
*Cassin's Kingbird, "Tyrannus vociferans"
*Thick-billed Kingbird, "Tyrannus crassirostris"
*Western Kingbird, "Tyrannus verticalis"
*Eastern Kingbird, "Tyrannus tyrannus"
*Gray Kingbird, "Tyrannus dominicensis"
*Loggerhead Kingbird, "Tyrannus caudifasciatus" (A)
*Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, "Tyrannus forficatus"
*Fork-tailed Flycatcher, "Tyrannus savana" (C)
*Rose-throated Becard, "Pachyramphus aglaiae"
*Masked Tityra, "Tityra semifasciata" (A)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in the United States.

*Brown Shrike, "Lanius cristatus" (C)
*Loggerhead Shrike, "Lanius ludovicianus"
*Northern Shrike, "Lanius excubitor"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. There are 52 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Mexico.

*White-eyed Vireo, "Vireo griseus"
*Thick-billed Vireo, "Vireo crassirostris" (A)
*Bell's Vireo, "Vireo bellii"
*Black-capped Vireo, "Vireo atricapilla"
*Gray Vireo, "Vireo vicinior"
*Yellow-throated Vireo, "Vireo flavifrons"
*Plumbeous Vireo, "Vireo plumbeus"
*Cassin's Vireo, "Vireo cassinii"
*Blue-headed Vireo, "Vireo solitarius"
*Hutton's Vireo, "Vireo huttoni"
*Warbling Vireo, "Vireo gilvus"
*Philadelphia Vireo, "Vireo philadelphicus"
*Red-eyed Vireo, "Vireo olivaceus"
*Yellow-green Vireo, "Vireo flavoviridis"
*Black-whiskered Vireo, "Vireo altiloquus"
*Yucatan Vireo, "Vireo magister" (A)

Jays, crows, magpies, and ravens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show levels of learned behavior of a high degree. There are 120 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in the United States.

*Gray Jay, "Perisoreus canadensis"
*Steller's Jay, "Cyanocitta stelleri"
*Blue Jay, "Cyanocitta cristata"
*Green Jay, "Cyanocorax yncas"
*Brown Jay, "Cyanocorax morio"
*Florida Scrub Jay, "Aphelocoma coerulescens"
*Island Scrub Jay, "Aphelocoma insularis"
*Western Scrub Jay, "Aphelocoma californica"
*Mexican Jay, "Aphelocoma ultramarina"
*Pinyon Jay, "Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus"
*Clark's Nutcracker, "Nucifraga columbiana"
*Black-billed Magpie, "Pica hudsonia"
*Yellow-billed Magpie, "Pica nuttalli"
*Eurasian Jackdaw, "Corvus monedula" (C)
*Hawaiian Crow, "Corvus hawaiiensis"
*American Crow, "Corvus brachyrhynchos"
*Northwestern Crow, "Corvus caurinus"
*Tamaulipas Crow, "Corvus imparatus"
*Fish Crow, "Corvus ossifragus"
*Chihuahuan Raven, "Corvus cryptoleucus"
*Common Raven, "Corvus corax"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in the United States.

*Sky Lark, "Alauda arvensis" (regular migrant-AK) (A-CA) (Ex-NY) (I-BC & WA)
*Horned Lark, "Eremophila alpestris"

=Swallows and martins=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Mexico.

*Purple Martin, "Progne subis"
*Cuban Martin, "Progne cryptoleuca" (A)
*Gray-breasted Martin, "Progne chalybea" (A)
*Southern Martin, "Progne elegans" (A)
*Brown-chested Martin, "Progne tapera" (A)
*Tree Swallow, "Tachycineta bicolor"
*Mangrove Swallow, "Tachycineta albilinea" (A)
*Violet-green Swallow, "Tachycineta thalassina"
*Bahama Swallow, "Tachycineta cyaneoviridis" (C)
*Northern Rough-winged Swallow, "Stelgidopteryx serripennis"
*Bank Swallow, "Riparia riparia"
*Cliff Swallow, "Petrochelidon pyrrhonota"
*Cave Swallow, "Petrochelidon fulva"
*Barn Swallow, "Hirundo rustica"
*House Martin, "Delichon urbica" (C)

=Chickadees and titmice=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 13 species which occur in the United States.

*Varied Tit, "Poecile varia" (I)
*Carolina Chickadee, "Poecile carolinensis"
*Black-capped Chickadee, "Poecile atricapilla"
*Mountain Chickadee, "Poecile gambeli"
*Mexican Chickadee, "Poecile sclateri"
*Chestnut-backed Chickadee, "Poecile rufescens"
*Boreal Chickadee, "Poecile hudsonica"
*Gray-headed Chickadee, "Poecile cincta"
*Bridled Titmouse, "Baeolophus wollweberi"
*Oak Titmouse, "Baeolophus inornatus"
*Juniper Titmouse, "Baeolophus ridgwayi"
*Tufted Titmouse, "Baeolophus bicolor"
*Black-crested Titmouse, "Baeolophus atricristatus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Remizidae

The Verdin one of the smallest passerines in North America. It is gray overall, and adults have a bright yellow head and rufous "shoulder patch" (the lesser coverts). Verdins are insectivorous, continuously foraging among the desert trees and scrubs. They are usually solitary except when they pair up to construct their conspicuous nests. There are 13 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in the United States.

*Verdin, "Auriparus flaviceps"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Aegithalidae

The Bushtits are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet that includes insects. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in the United States.

*Bushtit, "Psaltriparus minimus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. There are 24 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in the United States.

*Red-breasted Nuthatch, "Sitta canadensis"
*White-breasted Nuthatch, "Sitta carolinensis"
*Pygmy Nuthatch, "Sitta pygmaea"
*Brown-headed Nuthatch, "Sitta pusilla"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in the United States.

*Brown Creeper, "Certhia americana"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Troglodytidae

Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 9 species which occur in the United States.

*Cactus Wren, "Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus"
*Rock Wren, "Salpinctes obsoletus"
*Canyon Wren, "Catherpes mexicanus"
*Carolina Wren, "Thryothorus ludovicianus"
*Bewick's Wren, "Thryomanes bewickii"
*House Wren, "Troglodytes aedon"
*Winter Wren, "Troglodytes troglodytes"
*Sedge Wren, "Cistothorus platensis"
*Marsh Wren, "Cistothorus palustris"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. These birds have adaptations which allows them to submerge and walk on the bottom to feed on insect larvae. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in the United States.

*American Dipper, "Cinclus mexicanus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pycnonotidae

The bulbuls are a family of medium-sized passerine songbirds native to Africa and tropical Asia. These are noisy and gregarious birds with often beautiful striking songs. There are 130 species worldwide and 2 species which occurs in the continental United States.

*Red-vented Bulbul, "Pycnonotus cafer" (I)
*Red-whiskered Bulbul "Pycnonotus jocosus" (I)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small passerine birds native to tropical and sub-tropical Africa, southern Asia and Australasia. The birds of this group are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage above being generally either some dull color like greenish olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. But as indicated by their scientific name, derived from the Ancient Greek for girdle-eye, around the eyes of many species is a conspicuous white ring. They have rounded wings and strong legs. The size ranges up to 15cm (6 inches) in length. All the species of white-eyes are sociable, forming large flocks which only separate on the approach of the breeding season. Though mainly insectivorous, they eat nectar and fruits of various kinds. There are 96 species worldwide and 1 species that has been introduced to Hawaii.

*Japanese White-eye, "Zosterops japonicus" (I)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Meliphagidae

Honeyeaters prefer to flit quickly from perch to perch in the outer foliage, stretching up or sideways or hanging upside down at need. They have a highly developed brush-tipped tongue, longer in some species than others, frayed and fringed with bristles which soak up liquids readily. The tongue is flicked rapidly and repeatedly into a flower, the upper mandible then compressing any liquid out when the bill is closed. All species of honeyeaters below were endemic to Hawaii, but are now extinct. The Kauai Oo was the last species to survive, last seen in 1987. There are 182 species worldwide.

*Kaua‘i ‘Ō‘ō, "Moho braccatus" (E)
*O‘ahu ‘Ō‘ō, "Moho apicalus" (E)
*Molokaʻi ʻŌʻō, "Moho bishopi" (E)
*Hawaiʻi ʻŌʻō, "Moho nobilis" (E)
*Kioea, "Chaetoptila angustipluma" (E)

Monarch flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicruridae

The Monarchinae are a relatively recent grouping of a number of seemingly very different birds, mostly from the southern hemisphere, which are more closely related than they at first appear. Many of the approximately 140 species making up the family were previously assigned to other groups, largely on the basis of general morphology or behaviour. With the new insights generated by the DNA-DNA hybridisation studies of Sibley and his co-workers toward the end of the 20th century, however, it became clear that these apparently unrelated birds were all descended from a common ancestor. The Monarchinae are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, many of which hunt by flycatching. 1 species endemic to Hawaii represents the group.

‘Elepaio, "Chasiempis sandwichensis"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Regulidae

The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus "Regulus". The adults have coloured crowns, giving rise to their name. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in the United States.

*Golden-crowned Kinglet, "Regulus satrapa"
*Ruby-crowned Kinglet, "Regulus calendula"

Old World warblers and gnatcatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in the United States.

*Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler, "Locustella ochotensis" (C)
*Lanceolated Warbler, "Locustella lanceolata" (A)
*Willow Warbler, "Phylloscopus trochilus" (A)
*Wood Warbler, "Phylloscopus sibilatrix" (A)
*Dusky Warbler, "Phylloscopus fuscatus" (C)
*Yellow-browed Warbler, "Phylloscopus inornatus" (A)
*Pallas's Warbler, "Phylloscopus proregulus" (A)
*Arctic Warbler, "Phylloscopus borealis"
*Japanese Bush-warbler, "Cettia diphone" (I)
*Lesser Whitethroat, "Sylvia curruca" (A)
*Laysan Millerbird, "Acrocephalus familiaris"
*Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila caerulea"
*California Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila californica"
*Black-tailed Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila melanura"
*Black-capped Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila nigriceps" (C)

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

The Old World flycatcher is a large family of small passerine birds. These are mainly small arboreal insectivores, many of which, as the name implies, take their prey on the wing. There 274 species worldwide and 8 species which occurs in the United States.

*White-rumped Shama, "Copsychus malabaricus" (I)
*Narcissus Flycatcher, "Ficedula narcissina" (A)
*Mugimaki Flycatcher, "Ficedula mugimaki" (A)
*Red-breasted Flycatcher, "Ficedula parva" (C)
*Dark-sided Flycatcher, "Muscicapa sibirica" (C)
*Grey-streaked Flycatcher, "Muscicapa griseisticta" (C)
*Asian Brown Flycatcher, "Muscicapa dauurica" (A)
*Spotted Flycatcher, "Muscicapa striata" (A)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The Thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 33 species which occur in the United States.

*Siberian Rubythroat, "Luscinia calliope"
*Bluethroat, "Luscinia svecica"
*Siberian Blue Robin, "Luscinia cyane" (A)
*Red-flanked Bluetail, "Tarsiger cyanurus" (C)
*Northern Wheatear, "Oenanthe oenanthe"
*Stonechat, "Saxicola torquatus" (C)
*Eastern Bluebird, "Sialia sialis"
*Western Bluebird, "Sialia mexicana"
*Mountain Bluebird, "Sialia currucoides"
*Townsend's Solitaire, "Myadestes townsendi"
*Kama'O, "Myadestes myadestinus" (E)
*Oloma'O, "Myadestes lanaiensis"
*ʻŌmaʻo, "Myadestes obscurus"
*ʻĀmaui, "Myadestes woahensis" (E)
*Puaiohi, "Myadestes palmeri"
*Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush, "Catharus aurantiirostris" (A)
*Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush, "Catharus mexicanus" (A)
*Veery, "Catharus fuscescens"
*Gray-cheeked Thrush, "Catharus minimus"
*Bicknell's Thrush, "Catharus bicknelli"
*Swainson's Thrush, "Catharus ustulatus"
*Hermit Thrush, "Catharus guttatus"
*Wood Thrush, "Hylocichla mustelina"
*Eyebrowed Thrush, "Turdus obscurus"
*Dusky Thrush, "Turdus naumanni" (C)
*Fieldfare, "Turdus pilaris" (C)
*Redwing, "Turdus iliacus" (C)
*Clay-colored Thrush, "Turdus grayi"
*White-throated Thrush, "Turdus assimilis" (A)
*Rufous-backed Robin, "Turdus rufopalliatus"
*American Robin, "Turdus migratorius"
*Varied Thrush, "Ixoreus naevius"
*Aztec Thrush, "Ridgwayia pinicola" (C)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

The Old World babblers or timaliids are a large family of mostly Old World passerine birds. They are rather diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. These birds have strong legs, and many are quite terrestrial. This group is not strongly migratory, and most species have short rounded wings, and a weak flight. There are 335 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in the United States.

*Greater Necklaced Laughingthrush, "Garulax pectoralis" (I)
*Grey-sided Laughingthrush, "Garulax caerulatus" (I)
*Hwamei, "Garrulax canorus" (I)
*Red-billed Leiothrix, "Leiothrix lutea" (I)
*Wrentit, "Chamaea fasciata"

Mockingbirds and thrashers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Mimidae

The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance. There are 35 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in the United States.

*Gray Catbird, "Dumetella carolinensis"
*Northern Mockingbird, "Mimus polyglottos"
*Bahama Mockingbird, "Mimus gundlachii" (C)
*Sage Thrasher, "Oreoscoptes montanus"
*Brown Thrasher, "Toxostoma rufum"
*Long-billed Thrasher, "Toxostoma longirostre"
*Bendire's Thrasher, "Toxostoma bendirei"
*Curve-billed Thrasher, "Toxostoma curvirostre"
*California Thrasher, "Toxostoma redivivum"
*Crissal Thrasher, "Toxostoma crissale"
*Le Conte's Thrasher, "Toxostoma lecontei"
*Blue Mockingbird, "Melanotis caerulescens" (A)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized Old World passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and most are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. The plumage of several species is dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in the United States.

*European Starling, "Sturnus vulgaris" (I)
*Common Myna, "Acridotheres tistis" (I)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Prunellidae

Accentors are small, fairly drab species superficially similar, but unrelated to, sparrows. However, accentors have thin sharp bills, reflecting their diet of insects in summer, augmented with seeds and berries in winter. There are 13 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in the United States.

*Siberian Accentor, "Prunella montanella" (C)

Wagtails and pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in the United States.

*Eastern Yellow Wagtail, "Motacilla tschutschensis"
*Citrine Wagtail, "Motacilla citreola" (A)
*Grey Wagtail, "Motacilla cinerea" (C)
*White Wagtail, "Motacilla alba"
*Tree Pipit, "Anthus trivialis" (A)
*Olive-backed Pipit, "Anthus hodgsoni"
*Pechora Pipit, "Anthus gustavi" (C)
*Red-throated Pipit, "Anthus cervinus"
*American Pipit, "Anthus rubescens"
*Sprague's Pipit, "Anthus spragueii"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in the United States.

*Bohemian Waxwing, "Bombycilla garrulus"
*Cedar Waxwing, "Bombycilla cedrorum"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ptilogonatidae

The silky-flycatchers are a small family of passerine birds which occur mainly in Central America. They are related to waxwings, and most species have small crests. There are 4 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in the United States.

*Gray Silky-flycatcher, "Ptilogonys cinereus" (A)
*Phainopepla, "Phainopepla nitens"

Olive Warbler

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Peucedramidae

The Olive Warbler has a grey body with some olive-green on the wings and two white wing bars. The male's head and breast are orange, and there is a black patch through the eye. It is the only member in its family. This is the only species in its family.

*Olive Warbler, "Peucedramus taeniatus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Parulidae

The Wood Warblers are a group of small often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some like are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. There are 119 species worldwide and 57 species which occur in the United States.

*Bachman's Warbler, "Vermivora bachmanii" (E?)
*Blue-winged Warbler, "Vermivora pinus"
*Golden-winged Warbler, "Vermivora chrysoptera"
*Tennessee Warbler, "Vermivora peregrina"
*Orange-crowned Warbler, "Vermivora celata"
*Nashville Warbler, "Vermivora ruficapilla"
*Virginia's Warbler, "Vermivora virginiae"
*Colima Warbler, "Vermivora crissalis"
*Lucy's Warbler, "Vermivora luciae"
*Crescent-chested Warbler, "Parula superciliosa" (A)
*Northern Parula, "Parula americana"
*Tropical Parula, "Parula pitiayumi"
*Yellow Warbler, "Dendroica petechia"
*Chestnut-sided Warbler, "Dendroica pensylvanica"
*Magnolia Warbler, "Dendroica magnolia"
*Cape May Warbler, "Dendroica tigrina"
*Black-throated Blue Warbler, "Dendroica caerulescens"
*Yellow-rumped Warbler, "Dendroica coronata"
*Black-throated Gray Warbler, "Dendroica nigrescens"
*Golden-cheeked Warbler, "Dendroica chrysoparia"
*Black-throated Green Warbler, "Dendroica virens"
*Townsend's Warbler, "Dendroica townsendi"
*Hermit Warbler, "Dendroica occidentalis"
*Blackburnian Warbler, "Dendroica fusca"
*Yellow-throated Warbler, "Dendroica dominica"
*Grace's Warbler, "Dendroica graciae"
*Pine Warbler, "Dendroica pinus"
*Kirtland's Warbler, "Dendroica kirtlandii"
*Prairie Warbler, "Dendroica discolor"
*Palm Warbler, "Dendroica palmarum"
*Bay-breasted Warbler, "Dendroica castanea"
*Blackpoll Warbler, "Dendroica striata"
*Cerulean Warbler, "Dendroica cerulea"
*Black-and-white Warbler, "Mniotilta varia"
*American Redstart, "Setophaga ruticilla"
*Prothonotary Warbler, "Protonotaria citrea"
*Worm-eating Warbler, "Helmitheros vermivorus"
*Swainson's Warbler, "Limnothlypis swainsonii"
*Ovenbird, "Seiurus aurocapilla"
*Northern Waterthrush, "Seiurus noveboracensis"
*Louisiana Waterthrush, "Seiurus motacilla"
*Kentucky Warbler, "Oporornis formosus"
*Connecticut Warbler, "Oporornis agilis"
*Mourning Warbler, "Oporornis philadelphia"
*MacGillivray's Warbler, "Oporornis tolmiei"
*Common Yellowthroat, "Geothlypis trichas"
*Gray-crowned Yellowthroat, "Geothlypis poliocephala" (C)
*Hooded Warbler, "Wilsonia citrina"
*Wilson's Warbler, "Wilsonia pusilla"
*Canada Warbler, "Wilsonia canadensis"
*Red-faced Warbler, "Cardellina rubrifrons"
*Painted Redstart, "Myioborus pictus"
*Slate-throated Redstart, "Myioborus miniatus" (C)
*Fan-tailed Warbler, "Euthlypis lachrymosa" (C)
*Golden-crowned Warbler, "Basileuterus culicivorus" (C)
*Rufous-capped Warbler, "Basileuterus rufifrons" (C)
*Yellow-breasted Chat, "Icteria virens"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Coerebidae or Genus "Coereba" "Incertae sedis"

The Bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers and is the only member of the genus Coereba (Vieillot, 1809) and is normally placed within the family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct (hence the assignment Genus: "Coereba" "Incertae sedis").

*Bananaquit, "Coereba flaveola" (C)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thraupidae

The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seedeaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. There are 256 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in the United States.

*Hepatic Tanager, "Piranga flava"
*Summer Tanager, "Piranga rubra"
*Scarlet Tanager, "Piranga olivacea"
*Western Tanager, "Piranga ludoviciana"
*Flame-colored Tanager, "Piranga bidentata" (C)
*Western Spindalis, "Spindalis zena" (C)

American sparrows, towhees, juncos, and longspurs

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 63 species which occur in the continental United States.

*White-collared Seedeater, "Sporophila torqueola"
*Yellow-faced Grassquit, "Tiaris olivacea" (C)
*Black-faced Grassquit, "Tiaris bicolor" (A)
*Saffron Finch, "Sicalis flaveola" (I)
*Red-crested Cardinal, "Paroaria coronata" (I)
*Yellow-billed Cardinal, "Paroaria capitata" (I)
*Olive Sparrow, "Arremonops rufivirgatus"
*Green-tailed Towhee, "Pipilo chlorurus"
*Spotted Towhee, "Pipilo maculatus"
*Eastern Towhee, "Pipilo erythrophthalmus"
*Canyon Towhee, "Pipilo fuscus"
*California Towhee, "Pipilo crissalis"
*Abert's Towhee, "Pipilo aberti"
*Rufous-winged Sparrow, "Aimophila carpalis"
*Cassin's Sparrow, "Aimophila cassinii"
*Bachman's Sparrow, "Aimophila aestivalis"
*Botteri's Sparrow, "Aimophila botterii"
*Rufous-crowned Sparrow, "Aimophila ruficeps"
*Five-striped Sparrow, "Aimophila quinquestriata"
*American Tree Sparrow, "Spizella arborea"
*Chipping Sparrow, "Spizella passerina"
*Clay-colored Sparrow, "Spizella pallida"
*Brewer's Sparrow, "Spizella breweri"
*Field Sparrow, "Spizella pusilla"
*Worthen's Sparrow, "Spizella wortheni" (A)
*Black-chinned Sparrow, "Spizella atrogularis"
*Vesper Sparrow, "Pooecetes gramineus"
*Lark Sparrow, "Chondestes grammacus"
*Black-throated Sparrow, "Amphispiza bilineata"
*Sage Sparrow, "Amphispiza belli"
*Lark Bunting, "Calamospiza melanocorys"
*Savannah Sparrow, "Passerculus sandwichensis"
*Grasshopper Sparrow, "Ammodramus savannarum"
*Baird's Sparrow, "Ammodramus bairdii"
*Henslow's Sparrow, "Ammodramus henslowii"
*Le Conte's Sparrow, "Ammodramus leconteii"
*Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow, "Ammodramus nelsoni"
*Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow, "Ammodramus caudacutus"
*Seaside Sparrow, "Ammodramus maritimus"
*Fox Sparrow, "Passerella iliaca"
*Song Sparrow, "Melospiza melodia"
*Lincoln's Sparrow, "Melospiza lincolnii"
*Swamp Sparrow, "Melospiza georgiana"
*White-throated Sparrow, "Zonotrichia albicollis"
*Harris's Sparrow, "Zonotrichia querula"
*White-crowned Sparrow, "Zonotrichia leucophrys"
*Golden-crowned Sparrow, "Zonotrichia atricapilla"
*Dark-eyed Junco, "Junco hyemalis"
*Yellow-eyed Junco, "Junco phaeonotus"
*McCown's Longspur, "Calcarius mccownii"
*Lapland Longspur, "Calcarius lapponicus"
*Smith's Longspur, "Calcarius pictus"
*Chestnut-collared Longspur, "Calcarius ornatus"
*Pine Bunting, "Emberiza leucocephalos" (A)
*Little Bunting, "Emberiza pusilla" (C)
*Rustic Bunting, "Emberiza rustica"
*Yellow-throated Bunting, "Emberiza elegans" (A)
*Yellow-breasted Bunting, "Emberiza aureola" (A)
*Gray Bunting, "Emberiza variabilis" (A)
*Pallas's Bunting, "Emberiza pallasi" (A)
*Reed Bunting, "Emberiza schoeniclus" (C)
*Snow Bunting, "Plectrophenax nivalis"
*McKay's Bunting, "Plectrophenax hyperboreus"

=Cardinals, saltators, and grosbeaks=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cardinalidae

The Cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 43 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in the United States.

*Crimson-collared Grosbeak, "Rhodothraupis celaeno" (C)
*Northern Cardinal, "Cardinalis cardinalis"
*Pyrrhuloxia, "Cardinalis sinuatus"
*Yellow Grosbeak, "Pheucticus chrysopeplus" (C)
*Rose-breasted Grosbeak, "Pheucticus ludovicianus"
*Black-headed Grosbeak, "Pheucticus melanocephalus"
*Blue Bunting, "Cyanocompsa parellina" (C)
*Blue Grosbeak, "Passerina caerulea"
*Lazuli Bunting, "Passerina amoena"
*Indigo Bunting, "Passerina cyanea"
*Varied Bunting, "Passerina versicolor"
*Painted Bunting, "Passerina ciris"
*Dickcissel, "Spiza americana"

=Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles, and orioles=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Icteridae

The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species worldwide and 25 species which occur in the United States.

*Bobolink, "Dolichonyx oryzivorus"
*Red-winged Blackbird, "Agelaius phoeniceus"
*Tricolored Blackbird, "Agelaius tricolor"
*Tawny-shouldered Blackbird, "Agelaius humeralis" (A)
*Eastern Meadowlark, "Sturnella magna"
*Western Meadowlark, "Sturnella neglecta"
*Yellow-headed Blackbird, "Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus"
*Rusty Blackbird, "Euphagus carolinus"
*Brewer's Blackbird, "Euphagus cyanocephalus"
*Common Grackle, "Quiscalus quiscula"
*Boat-tailed Grackle, "Quiscalus major"
*Great-tailed Grackle, "Quiscalus mexicanus"
*Shiny Cowbird, "Molothrus bonariensis"
*Bronzed Cowbird, "Molothrus aeneus"
*Brown-headed Cowbird, "Molothrus ater"
*Black-vented Oriole, "Icterus wagleri" (A)
*Orchard Oriole, "Icterus spurius"
*Hooded Oriole, "Icterus cucullatus"
*Streak-backed Oriole, "Icterus pustulatus" (C)
*Bullock's Oriole, "Icterus bullockii"
*Spot-breasted Oriole, "Icterus pectoralis" (I)
*Altamira Oriole, "Icterus gularis"
*Audubon's Oriole, "Icterus graduacauda"
*Baltimore Oriole, "Icterus galbula"
*Scott's Oriole, "Icterus parisorum"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 25 species which occur in the United States.

*Island Canary, "Serinus canaria" (I)
*Yellow-fronted Canary, "Serinus mozambicus" (I)
*Common Chaffinch, "Fringilla coelebs" (A)
*Brambling, "Fringilla montifringilla"
*Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch, "Leucosticte tephrocotis"
*Black Rosy-Finch, "Leucosticte atrata"
*Brown-capped Rosy-Finch, "Leucosticte australis"
*Pine Grosbeak, "Pinicola enucleator"
*Common Rosefinch, "Carpodacus erythrinus" (C)
*Purple Finch, "Carpodacus purpureus"
*Cassin's Finch, "Carpodacus cassinii"
*House Finch, "Carpodacus mexicanus"
*Red Crossbill, "Loxia curvirostra"
*White-winged Crossbill, "Loxia leucoptera"
*Common Redpoll, "Carduelis flammea"
*Hoary Redpoll, "Carduelis hornemanni"
*Eurasian Siskin, "Carduelis spinus" (A)
*Pine Siskin, "Carduelis pinus"
*Lesser Goldfinch, "Carduelis psaltria"
*Lawrence's Goldfinch, "Carduelis lawrencei"
*American Goldfinch, "Carduelis tristis"
*Oriental Greenfinch, "Carduelis sinica" (C)
*Eurasian Bullfinch, "Pyrrhula pyrrhula" (C)
*Evening Grosbeak, "Coccothraustes vespertinus"
*Hawfinch, "Coccothraustes coccothraustes" (C)

Hawaiian honeycreeper

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Drepanididae

Hawaiian honeycreepers are small passerine birds endemic to Hawaiʻi. Most authorities categorize this group as a family Drepanididae, but some biologists still place as a subfamily Drepanidinae of the finch family Fringillidae. The wide range of bills in this group, from thick finch-like bills to slender downcurved bills for probing flowers have arisen through adaptive radiation, where an ancestral finch has evolved to fill a large number of ecological niches. There are or were 33 species.

*Laysan Finch, "Telespiza cantans"
*Nihoa Finch, "Telespiza ultima"
*ʻŌʻū, "Psittirostra psittacea"
*Lanai Hookbill, "Dysmorodropanis munroi" (E)
*Palila, "Loxiodes balleui"
*Kaua'i Palila, "Loxiodes kikuichi" (E)
*Lesser Koa Finch, "Rhodacanthis flaviceps" (E)
*Greater Koa Finch, "Rhodacanthis palmeri" (E)
*Kona Grosbeak, "Chloridops kona" (E)
*Maui Parrotbill, "Pseudonestor xanthrophrys"
*Common ʻAmakihi, "Hemignathus virens"
*Oʻahu ʻAmakihi, "Hemignathus flavus"
*Kaua'i 'Amakihi, "Hemignathus kauaiensis"
*Greater 'Amakihi, "Hemignathus sagittirostris" (E)
*Hawaiʻi ʻAkialoa, "Hemignathus obscurus" (E)
*Kauai 'Akialoa, "Hemignathus ellisianus" (E)
*Nukupu'u, "Hemignathus lucidus"
*Oval-billed Nukupu'u, "Hemignathus vorpalis" (E)
*ʻAkiapolaʻau, "Hemignathus munroi"
*Anianiau, "Magumma parva"
*ʻAkikiki, "Oreomystis bairdi"
*Hawaiʻi Creeper, "Oreomystis mana"
*Oʻahu ʻAlauahio, "Paroreomyza maculata"
*Kakawahie, "Paroreomyza flammea" (E)
*Maui Nui ʻAlauahio, "Paroreomyza montana"
*'Akeke'E, "Loxops caeruleirostris"
*'Akepa, "Loxops coccineus"
*ʻUla-ʻai-hawane, "Ciridops anna" (E)
*ʻIʻiwi, "Vestiara coccinea"
*Hawai'i Mamo, "Drepanis pacifica" (E)
*Black Mamo, "Drepanis funerea" (E)
*'Akohekohe, "Palmeria dolei"
*ʻApapane, "Himatione sanguinea"
*Poʻo-uli, "Melamprosops phaeosoma"

Estrildid finches

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds native to the Old World tropics. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 11 introduced species which occur in Hawaii.

*Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu, "Uraeginthus bengalus" (I)
*Lavender Waxbill, "Estrilda caerulescens" (I)
*Orange-cheeked Waxbill, "Estrilda melpoda" (I)
*Black-rumped Waxbill, "Estrilda troglodytes" (I)
*Common Waxbill, "Estrilda astrild" (I)
*Red Avadavat, "Amandava amandava" (I)
*African Silverbill, "Lonchura cantans" (I)
*Indian Silverbill, "Lonchura malabarica" (I)
*Nutmeg Mannikin, "Lonchura punctulata" (I)
*Tricoloured Munia, "Lonchura malacca" (I)
*Java Sparrow, "Padda oryzivora" (I)

=Old World sparrows=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 2 species which occurs in the United States.

*House Sparrow, "Passer domesticus (I)"
*Eurasian Tree Sparrow, "Passer montanus (I)"

List of Hawaii birds

Listed here separately are all bird species known to occur in the Hawaiian Islands. Some species may be duplicative of those listed above.

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region


* [ "ABA Checklist"] . Accessed December 29, 2007.
* [ "The A.O.U. Check-list of North American birds", seventh edition] - the official source on the taxonomy of birds found in North and Middle America. Accessed December 29, 2007.
*"Splitting headaches? Recent taxonomic changes affecting the British and Western Palaearctic lists" - Martin Collinson, British Birds vol 99 (June 2006), 306-323

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