Ancient Macedonian language

Ancient Macedonian language

:"For the unrelated modern Slavic language, see Macedonian language."language
name=Ancient Macedonian
region=Macedon ("extinct language")
extinct=absorbed by Attic Greek in the 4th century BC
fam2= possibly Greek

Ancient Macedonian was the language of the ancient Macedonians. It was spoken in Macedon during the 1st millennium BC. Marginalized from the 5th century BC, it was gradually replaced by what became the "common" Koine Greek dialect of the Hellenistic Era. It was probably spoken predominantly in the inland regions away from the coast. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language probably related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear: possibly a dialect of Greek; a sibling language to Greek; or a close cousin to Greek and perhaps related to Thracian and Phrygian. Some linguists use the term "Hellenic" to refer to ancient languages which are more closely related to Ancient Greek than to any other known IE language but whose ancestry cannot be determined with any greater accuracy [ The [ Linguist List] is classifying ancient Macedonian with Greek (all known ancient and modern dialects) under a "Hellenic" supertree.] . Under this classification system, the ancient Macedonian language would be Hellenic but may or may not also be Greek.

Knowledge of the language is very limited because there are no surviving texts that are indisputably written in the language, though a body of authentic Macedonian words has been assembled from ancient sources, mainly from coin inscriptions, and from the 5th century lexicon of Hesychius of Alexandria, amounting to about 150 words and 200 proper names, similar to standard Greek, but a small minority might not be easily reconciled with standard Greek phonology.

The Pella curse tablet, a text written in a distinct Doric Greek idiom, found in 1986, dated to between mid to early 4th century BC, has been forwarded as an argument that the ancient Macedonian language was a dialect of North-Western Greek, part of the Doric dialects (O. Masson, 1996). Before the discovery it was proposed that the Macedonian dialect was an early form of Greek, spoken alongside Doric proper at that time (Rhomiopoulou, 1980).


From the few words that survive, only a little can be said about the language. A notable sound-law is that the Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirates (/bʰ, dʰ, gʰ/) appear as voiced stops /b, d, g/, (written Polytonic|β, δ, γ), in contrast to all known Greek dialects, which have unvoiced them to /pʰ, tʰ, kʰ/ (Polytonic|φ, θ, χ) with few exceptions [Exceptions to the rule:

*Polytonic|ἀρφύς " [ arhphys] " Macedonian (Attic [ ἁρπεδών] harpedôn cord, yarn)
*Polytonic|βάγαρον " [ bagaron] " (Attic χλιαρόν "chliaron" 'warm') (Cf. Attic " [ phôgô] " 'roast') (Laconian)
*Polytonic|βώνημα " [ bônêma] " speech (Homeric,Ionic eirêma [ eireo] ) (Cf.Attic [ phônêma] sound , speech) (Laconian)
*Polytonic|κεβλὴ " [ keblê] " Callimachus Fr.140 Macedonian Polytonic|κεβ(α)λή "keb(a)lē" versus Attic Polytonic|κεφαλή "kephalē" ('head')
*Polytonic|κεβλήπυρις " [ keblēpyris] " ('red-cap bird') , (Aristophanes Birds)
*Polytonic|κεβλήγονος " [ keblêgonos] " born from the head, Euphorion 108 for Athena , with its seed in its head Nicander Alexipharmaca 433.
*Polytonic|πέχαρι " [ pechari] " deer (Laconian [ berkios] ) Amerias
*Polytonic|Ὑπερβέρετος "Hyperberetos" Cretan month June , Macedonian September Hyperberetaios (Hellenic Calendars)(Attic [ hyperpheretês] supreme, [ hyperpherô] transfer,excel
] .

*Macedonian Polytonic|δάνος "dánοs" ('death', from PIE *"dhenh2-" 'to leave'), compare Attic Polytonic|θάνος "thános"
*Macedonian Polytonic|ἀβροῦτες "abroûtes" or Polytonic|ἀβροῦϜες "abroûwes" as opposed to Attic Polytonic|ὀφρῦς "ophrûs" for 'eyebrows'
*Macedonian Polytonic|Βερενίκη "Bereníkē" versus Attic Polytonic|Φερενίκη "Phereníkē", 'bearing victory'
*Macedonian Polytonic|ἄδραια "adraia" ('bright weather'), compare Attic Polytonic|αἰθρία "aithría", from PIE *"h2aidh-"
*Macedonian Polytonic|βάσκιοι "báskioi" ('fasces'), Attic Polytonic|φάσκωλος "pháskōlos" 'leather sack' , from PIE *"bhasko"
*According to Herodotus 7.73 (ca. 440 BC), the Macedonians claimed that the "Phryges" were called "Brygoi" before they migrated from Thrace to Anatolia (around 1200 BC).
*According to Plutarch,Moralia [Greek Questions 292e - Question 9 - Why do Delphians call one of their months Bysios [] .] Macedonians use 'b' instead of 'ph',while Delphians use 'b' in the place of 'p'.
*Macedonian Polytonic|μάγειρος "mágeiros" ('butcher') was a loan from Doric into Attic. Vittore Pisani has suggested an ultimately Macedonian origin for the word, which could then be cognate to Polytonic|μάχαιρα "mákhaira" ('knife', h-", 'to fight')

The same treatment is known from other Paleo-Balkan languages, e.g. Phrygian brater, Illyrian (and Elean, North-West dialect, by exception) [ bra] [Reported as Elean and later proposed as Illyrian.] but Attic [ phrater] and [ phratra] all from PIE *bhrater- brother. Since these languages are all known via the Greek alphabet, which has no signs for voiced aspirates, it is unclear whether de-aspiration had really taken place, or whether Polytonic|β, δ, γ were just picked as the closest matches to express voiced aspirates.

If Polytonic|γοτάν "gotán" ('pig') is related to *"gwou" ('cattle'), this would indicate that the labiovelars were either intact, or merged with the velars, unlike the usual Greek treatment (Attic Polytonic|βοῦς "boûs"). Such deviations, however, are not unknown in Greek dialects; compare Doric (Spartan) Polytonic|γλεπ- "glep-" for common Greek Polytonic|βλεπ- "blep-", as well as Doric Polytonic|γλάχων "gláchōn" and Ionic Polytonic|γλήχων "glēchōn" for common Greek Polytonic|βλήχων "blēchōn". [Albrecht von Blumenthal, "Hesychstudien", Stuttgart, 1930, 21.]

A number of examples suggest that voiced velar stops were devoiced, especially word-initially: Polytonic|κάναδοι "kánadoi", 'jaws' (Polytonic|κόμβους "kómbous", 'molars' (Polytonic|ἀρκόν "arkón" (Attic Polytonic|ἀργός "argós"); the Macedonian toponym "Akesamenai", from the Pierian name "Akesamenos" (if "Akesa-" is cognate to Greek "agassomai", "agamai", "to astonish"; cf. the Thracian name "Agassamenos").

In Aristophanes' "The Birds", the form Polytonic|κεβλήπυρις "keblēpyris" ('red-cap bird') is [ found] , showing a Macedonian-style voiced stop in place of a standard Greek unvoiced aspirate: Polytonic|κεβ(α)λή "keb(a)lē" versus Polytonic|κεφαλή "kephalē" ('head').


Due to the fragmentary attestation various interpretations are possible.B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.) "Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present." [ Online paper] ] The discussion is closely related to the reconstruction of the Proto-Greek language. The suggested historical interpretations of Macedonian include: cite book| last= Mallory |first= J.P.| authorlink= JP Mallory| editor =Mallory, J.P. and Adams, D.Q. (eds.) | year= 1997| title=Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture |location= Chicago-London|publisher= Fitzroy Dearborn |id= ISBN 1-884964-98-2|pages = p. 361]

*an Indo-European language which is a close cousin to Greek and also related to Thracian and Phrygian languages, suggested by A. Meillet (1913) and I. I. Russu (1938), [A. Meillet [1913] 1965, "Apeçu d'une histoire de la langue grecque", 7th ed., Paris, p. 61. I. Russu 1938, in "Ephemeris Dacoromana" 8, 105-232. Quoted after Brixhe/Panayotou 1994: 209.] or part of a Sprachbund encompassing Thracian, Illyrian and Greek (Kretschmer 1896, E. Schwyzer 1959).
*an "Illyrian" dialect mixed with Greek, suggested by K. O. Müller (1825) and by G. Bonfante (1987).
*various explicitly Greek scenarios:
**a Greek dialect, part of the North-Western (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, Epirote) variants of Doric Greek , suggested by N.G.L. Hammond (1989) and O. Masson (1996).cite encyclopedia | last = Masson | first = Olivier | title= [Ancient] Macedonian language|editor = Hornblower, S. and Spawforth A. (eds.) | encyclopedia = The Oxford Classical Dictionary | origyear = 1996 | edition = revised 3rd ed. | year = 2003 | publisher = Oxford University Press | location = USA | id =ISBN 0-19-860641-9 | pages =pp. 905-906 ] cite book| last= Hammond| first= N.G.L |authorlink= Nicholas Hammond (historian)|title= The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History| origyear = 1989| edition = reprint ed. |publisher= Oxford University Press|location=USA |year= 1993|id=ISBN 0-19-814927-1 ]
**a northern Greek dialect, related to Aeolic Greek and Thessalian, suggested among others by A.Fick (1874) and O.Hoffmann (1906). Ahrens, F. H. L. (1843), "De Graecae linguae dialectis", Göttingen, 1839-1843 ; Hoffmann, O. "Die Makedonen. Ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum", Göttingen, 1906.]
**a Greek dialect with a non-Indo-European substratal influence, suggested by M. Sakellariou (1983).
**a NW Doric Greek dialect with a Phrygian influence on a par with the Anatolian substratum on Pamphylian Greek (C.Brixhe, A.Panayotou 1994). [A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity p.498 [] ISBN 0521833078] [Indo-European Linguistics [] p.28 by Michael Meier-Brügger, Matthias Fritz, Manfred Mayrhofer ISBN 3110174332]

Indo-European close to Greek

Some linguists (e.g. A. Meillet) consider Macedonian an Indo-European language in its own right, close to Greek but perhaps not of unambiguously Greek stock, and treat it as other poorly attested languages as Thracian and/or Phrygian of some geographical proximity. Those who look towards "Thraco-Phrygian" (as I. I. Russu, 1938) do so sometimes, at the cost of unwarranted segmentations such as that of "Ἀλέξανδρος" into "unicode|†Ἀλε-" and "unicode|†ξανδ-". The name is attested as early as the Mycenaean Greek period (c. 1600 -1100 BC) next to the feminine "a-re-ka-sa-da-ra" (unicode|𐀀𐀩𐀏𐀭𐀅𐀨, Classical Greek "Ἀλεξάνδρα"). Schwyzer [ "Griechische Grammatik", Munich 1939, vol. 1, 69-71.] and others hypothesize that linguistically Macedonian was between Illyrian and Thracian, a kind of intermediary language linking the two, in the sense of a dialect continuum or Sprachbund, since a genetic "Thraco-Illyrian" unity is highly uncertain and cannot be proven on grounds of the surviving evidence. In 1999, A. Garrett has surmised that Macedonian may at an early stage have been part of a dialect continuum which spanned the ancestor dialects of all south-western Indo-European languages (including Greek), but that it then remained peripheral to later areal processes of convergence which produced Greek proper. He argues that under this perspective sound-change isoglosses such as the deaspiration of voiced stops may be of limited diagnostic value, while ultimately the question of whether Macedonian belongs or does not belong to a genetic union with Greek is moot. [Andrew Garrett (1999): "A new model of Indo-European subgrouping and dispersal". In: Chang, S. S, Liaw, L. and Ruppenhofer, J, Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12-15, Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society, 146-56, 1999. [ Online paper (PDF)] ]

Vladimir I. Georgiev [Georgiev, Vladimir (1981), "Introduction to the history of the Indo-European languages". Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Cited in Blažek, Václav (2007) "From August Schleicher to Sergei Starostin. On the development of the tree-diagram models of the Indo-European languages", "Journal of Indo-European Studies" 35: 82-109] places Greek and Macedonian on a common branch of an IE family tree; this branch he groups together with Phrygian and Armenian to form a grouping termed "Central" Indo-European. Similarly, Eric P. Hamp [Hamp, Eric P. (1990) "The Pre-Indo-European Language of Northern (Central) Europe". In: "When Worlds Collide: The Indo-Europeans and the Pre-Indo-Europeans," eds. T.L. Markey & J.A.C. Greppin. Ann Arbor: Karoma, 291-309. Cited in Blažek, "op.cit."] assumes a common branch of Greek plus Macedonian, with the next larger unit formed together with Armenian and termed "Pontic South Indo-European".

Hellenic language

Some linguists have proposed calling the common Greek-Macedonian group together "Hellenic". A "Hellenic" group comprising Greek and Macedonian is also suggested as a possibility by Brian Joseph and has been adopted in the classification scheme used by the LINGUIST List. [ The [ Linguist List] is classifying ancient Macedonian with Greek (all known ancient and modern dialects) under a "Hellenic" supertree.]

A number of the Macedonian words, particularly in Hesychius' lexicon, are disputed (i.e., some do not consider them actual Macedonian words) and some may have been corrupted in the transmission. Thus "abroutes", may be read as abrouwes (Polytonic|αβρουϝες), with tau (Polytonic|Τ) replacing a digamma (polytonic|F). [Olivier Masson, "Sur la notation occasionnelle du digamma grec par d'autres consonnes et la glose macédonienne abroutes", "Bulletin de la Société de linguistique de Paris", 90 (1995) 231-239.] If so, this word would perhaps be encompassable within a Greek dialect; however, others (e.g. A. Meillet) see the dental as authentic and think that this specific word would perhaps belong to an Indo-European language different from Greek.

Greek dialect

Another school of thought favours Macedonian as an explicitly Greek dialect. Those who favour a purely Greek nature of Macedonian as a northern Greek dialect are numerous and include early scholars like H. Ahrens, O. Hoffmann or A. Fick. [ H. Ahrens, "De Graecae linguae dialectis", Göttingen, 1843; O. Hoffmann, "Die Makedonen. Ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum", Göttingen 1906.] A recent proponent of this school was Professor Olivier Masson, who in his article on the ancient Macedonian language in the third edition of the Oxford Classical Dictionary tentatively suggested that Macedonian was related to North-Western Greek dialects:As to Macedonian Polytonic|β, δ, γ = Greek Polytonic|φ, θ, χ, Claude Brixhe [Claude Brixhe, "Un «nouveau» champ de la dialectologie grecque: le macédonien", in: A. C. Cassio (ed.), "Katà diálekton. Atti del III Colloquio Internazionale di Dialettologia Greca" (A.I.O.N., XIX), Napoli 1996, 35-71.] suggests that it may have been a later development: The letters may already have designated not voiced stops, i.e. [IPA|b, d, g] , but voiced fricatives, i.e. [IPA|β, δ, γ] , due to a voicing of the voiceless fricatives [IPA|φ, θ, x] (= Classical Attic [IPA|pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] ). Brian Joseph sums up that " [t] he slender evidence is open to different interpretations, so that no definitive answer is really possible", but cautions that "most likely, Ancient Macedonian was not simply an Ancient Greek dialect on a par with Attic or Aeolic". In this sense, some authors also call it a "deviant Greek dialect."

Macedonian in Classical sources

Among the references that have been discussed as possibly bearing some witness to the linguistic situation in Macedonia, there is a sentence from a fragmentary dialogue, apparently between an Athenian and a Macedonian, in an extant fragment of the 5th century BC comedy 'Macedonians' by the Athenian poet Strattis (fr. 28), where a stranger is portrayed as speaking in a rural Greek dialect. His language contains expressions such as _gr. ὕμμες ὡττικοί for _gr. ὑμείς αττικοί "you Athenians", _gr. ὕμμες being also attested in Homer, Sappho (Lesbian) and Theocritus (Doric), while _gr. ὡττικοί appears only in "funny country bumpkin" contexts of Attic comedy. [Steven Colvin, "Dialect in Aristophanes and the politics of language in Ancient Greek," Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 279.]

Another text that has been quoted as evidence is a passage from Livy (lived 59 BC-14 AD) in his "Ab urbe condita" (31.29). Describing political negotiations between Macedonians and Aetolians in the late 3rd century BC, Livy has a Macedonian ambassador argue that Aetolians and Macedonians were "men of the same language". [ [ Livy 31.29.15 (in Latin)] .] This has been interpreted as referring to their common North-West Greek speech (as opposed to Attic Koiné). [A. Panayotou: The position of the Macedonian dialect. In: Maria Arapopoulou, Maria Chritē, Anastasios-Phoivos Christides (eds.), "A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2007. 433-458 ( [,+Aetolians,+and+Acarnanians+spoke+the+same+dialect+(context+dating+ca.&hl=de&sig=6co-S_dXeFu4YHWUvkQQPZ2I99w#PPA433,M1 Google Books] ).]

Quintus Curtius Rufus, Philotas's trial [E. Kapetanopoulos, "Alexander’s patrius sermo in the Philotas affair", "The ancient world" 30 (1999) 117-128. [ Pdf] or [ Htm] ] .

Over time, "Macedonian" (μακεδονικός), when referring to language (and related expressions such as "μακεδονίζειν"; to speak in the Macedonian fashion) acquired the meaning of Koine Greek. [ C. Brixhe, A. Panayotou, 1994, «Le Macédonien» in "Langues indo-européennes", p. 208]

Adoption of the Attic dialect

As southern Greek influence increased, Macedonians increasingly began to adopt the Attic dialect in its emergent koine form. It is estimated that ancient Macedonian became supplanted in official discourse by the 4th century BC. [In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon - Eugene N. Borza, p.94 (citing Hammond); G. Horrocks, "Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers" (1993), ch.4.1.]

James L. O'Neil's (University of Sydney) pointed out : "Beside Pella curse tablet three other, very brief, 4th century inscriptions are also indubitably Doric. These show that a Doric dialect was spoken in Macedon, as we would expect from the West Greek forms of Greek names found in Macedon. And yet later Macedonian inscriptions are in Koine avoiding both Doric forms and the Macedonian voicing of consonants. The native Macedonian dialect had become unsuitable for written documents" (Pella curse tablet#Dating and significance)

Greek Epigraphy

The below list includes only those regions and elements that may be related or have been written by Macedonians before 350 BC.Early evidence from coastal cities dates back to 600-550 BC in Central Macedonia (Sane [ [ Epigraphical Database: SEG 42:624,1 ] ] ,Therme [ [ Epigraphical Database: SEG 50:636 ] ] ) ~ 550 BC East Macedonia (Neapolis) [ [ Epigraphical Database: SEG 24:622 ] ] and 5th c.BC West side(Pydna) [ [ Epigraphical Database: SEG 46:801 ] ] .There is also a Carian inscription found in Therme 6th c. BC [ [ Epigraphical Database: SEG 48:847 ] ] .

*Elimeia [ ca. 500-475 BC] Doric "the temples of Athena in "Megara"
*Aiane [ ca. 500-475 BC] "Apakos" hapax with letter (unicode|ϟ) qoppa
*Aiane [ ca. 500-450 BC] "Kleiona" hapax
*Pella [ ca. 500-450 BC] "Pythagores of Aristokrates , Aristobole"
*Aiane [ c.a 450BC] "Arka poseria (Arka = slow - Att. Arga, poseria = cups - Att. Poteria)"
*Aigai [ early 5th c.BC] "Peperias" hapax
*Eordea [ early 5th BC] "of Machatas" (never attested as Magatas)
*Aiane [ early 5th BC] "..I am -alios of Dolio-.." Doric polytonic|ἐμὶ emi Attic polytonic|εἰμί emi but Attic polytonic|τῆς tês instead of Doric polytonic|τᾶς tâs
*Aiane [ ca. 450 BC] "wools of Arkaps (Arkapos)" hapax
*Aiane [ ca. 450-400 BC] "Attya" hapax
*Aiane [ 5th c. BC] "Themis" (gen. Themidos)
*Aigai [ ca. 430-420 BC] Argive Doric "I am the prize from Argive Hera" (Royal tomb) [Thucydides and Pindar: Historical Narrative and the World of Epinikian Poetry [,M1] by Simon Hornblower]
*Aigai [ late 5th c. BC] "He loves _ _ina"
*Pella [ ca. 400 BC] "Xanthos son of Demetrios and Amadika" (attested also as "Ammadika" and "Ammadikos" only in Macedon)
*Pella [ late 5th/early 4th c. BC] "Zôbia" (epitaph) (oldest evidence of this rare name)
*Pella [ late 5th/early 4th c. BC] "Eugeneia daughter of Xenon" (epitaph)
*Pella [ late 5th/early 4th c. BC] "Xenariste of Boula_ _ _" (epitaph)
*Aigai [ late 5th/early 4th c. BC] "here Kallim- ..of well-pillared temples (eustyloi naoi) .. of esteemed" Callimachus (sculptor) ?
*Pella [ late 5th/early 4th c. BC] "I lay here dead, my homeland is Corinth , servant of Enodia , with name Timarete"
*Dion [ late 5th/early 4th c. BC] "Aristotima , Sôsos"
*Dion [ late 5th c. BC] "Theotimos of Parmenon"
*Pella [ ca. 400-350 BC] " from Herakleion"
*Beroea [ ca. 400-350 BC] "Andreas of Andron from Osbe"
*Pella Katadesmos- [ ca. 380-350 BC] "Dagina" hapax
*Aigai ca. 350 BC [ Berennô of Philistos] [ Harpalos of Peucolaos] [ Sillis] (Epitaphs)(Berennô hapaxHarpalus Peukolaos Sillis ,firstly attested in Macedon)
*Lete ca. 340 BC Orphic Derveni papyrus

Macedonian words in epigraphy

*Macedonian onomasticon : the earliest massive epigraphical documents are, the second Athenian alliance decree with Perdiccas II (~417-413 BC), the decree of Kalindoia,~335-300 BC) and seven curse tablets of the 4th c.BC bearing mostly names [Athens,bottom- [ IG I³ 89] -- Kalindoia- [ Meletemata 11 K31] -- Pydna- [ SEG 52:617,I] (6) till SEG 52:617,VI - Mygdonia- [ SEG 49:750] ] [Greek Personal Names: Their Value as Evidence [] by Simon Hornblower, Elaine Matthews] .

*Macedonian sound-law : it is restricted to names and one epithet of Artemis.
**Berenika priestess of Demetra ca. 350 BC is the oldest evidence.However it never turned into Pherenike in Macedon or Egypt.On the contrary Attic Pherenik- became Berenik- ; hence popular Athenian name Berenikides after 3rd c.BC [Google [] - [] Βερενικ- Athens:190Egypt:155 Northern Greece:5 Syria: 1] .
**Bila Brateadou (Attic Phile , Doric Phila Prateadou or Phrateadou (Aigai ca. 350-300 BC [Bila Brateadou [] ] .
**Phylomaga (Attic Phylomache) (Methone,Pieria ca. 350-300 BC) [Phylomaga [] ] .
**Lamaga , Laomaga (Attic Laomache) [Beroia — ca. 150-100 BC Laomaga [] - Pydna early 2nd c. BC Lamaga [] ]

*Polytonic|ἄγημα "ágēma", 'vanguard, guards' ( 4 times only in Macedon ~ 200 BC ) [Amphipolis SEG 49:855 B (2.8.) [] -- Kassandreia SEG 49:722 (17.20.) [] cf. Polybius, "Histories", 5.65.2] (Attic Polytonic|ἄγω " [;query=entry%3D%231084;layout=;loc=a%29gwgai%3Dos ágô] " lead,drive PIE *ag-)
*Polytonic|ἀρχικερδέμπορος " [ archikerdemporos] " president of guild of merchants (hapax) [A Thessalonian in Thasos Aliki — ca. 2nd c.AD [] ] ( [ Kerdemporos] epithet of Hermes Orph.H.28.6 .
*Polytonic|Βλουρεῖτις "Bloureitis" epithet of Artemis. (Skydra 106 AD, hapax) [Skydra [ Epigraphical Database] ] .LSJ: Polytonic|Φιλωρεῖτις [ Philôreitês] . Artemis Agrotera (Huntress [Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology > v. 1, page 83 [] ] ), "Gazoreitis" (from Gazoros, north of Kerkini lake), "Bloureitis" (fond of mountains). phil- + [ oros , ouros] mountain.
*Polytonic|Δάῤῥων "Darrhôn" minor god of healing
*Polytonic|ἐδέατρος " [ edeatros] " as archedeatros; 'taster', (Attic thaliarchos) Ptolemy I Soter first edeatros appointed by Alexander (See Athenaeus) [The Learned Banqueters III.106e-V [ III.106e-V] ] (3 inscriptions, all related to late Ptolemies) [Delos [] -Cyprus [] -Alexandria [] ]
*Polytonic|ἑταῖροι "hetairoi , companion cavalry" after 350 BC [Lete— ca. 350-300 BC [] -- Amphipolis late 3rd/early 2nd c. BC [ B, 26] -- Amphipolis — ca. 300-275 BC [ Antigonos of Kallas] ] (Attic [ hetaîroi] , comrades) PIE *swe-t-aro < suffixed form of *swe)
*Polytonic|κότθυβος "kotthubos" non-metallic armour. (Amphipolis - ca.200 BC, hapax) [Amphipolis [ Epigraphical Database] frg B.col I,2] . (Cf.Attic [ kosumbos] , fringe, hairnet) (Hesych. polytonic|κοσύμβη "kosumbe" Cretan small shield, polytonic|ἀνάδεσμα, "anadesma", bandage, polytonic|ἐγκόμβωμα, "enkomboma", outward ornamental garment, Egyptian Polytonic|περίζωμα "perizoma" girdle. About the military decree of Amphipolis, see Phalanx, last paragraph.
*Polytonic|Κυναγίδας " [ Kynagidas] " epithet of Herakles. (Mycenaean Gk. Kynagitas attested in Linear B as ki-na-ke-ta, Attic kynegos, Doric [ kynagos] Hunter) attested in 14 inscriptions of various places in Macedonia from 4th century BC to 2nd century AD. Polytonic|Κυναγὼ "Kynago" epithet of Artemis, attested twice. (Protectors of Hunters). Oldest inscription in Beroea — ca. 350-300 BC [Beroia Kynagidas [ Epigraphical Database] ] (spelled in one inscription, Kounagidas)
*Polytonic|κνῖμα or Polytonic|κνίμα "knima" ( line 17 see "trakylion" below ).
*Macedonian months , of which "Dystros" and "Gorpiaios" have no apparent etymology.
*Polytonic|νεύω "neuo" pray (Thessalian nebeuo [Thessalian polytonic|νεβεύσασα [] ] ) (Attic [ euchomai] ) (Attic [ neuo] nod,wink). Attested as feminine past participles in Berenika's "archineusasai" women and Alexandra Argaiou, [ Kala] Thea neusasa [Lete ca. 150 BC [] ] .
*Polytonic|παπᾶ " [ papa] ", an expression like "ouch" (Attic papae, Locrian " [ papa] ", Greek demotic apapa) [ [ William Nickerson Bates, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 34, pp. 44-46] ]
*Polytonic|πελιγᾶνες " [ peligânes] " Macedonian senators, (wiki peliganes)
*Polytonic|πυρόκαυσις "pyrokausis" ( 9 times in 2 inscriptions ~200 BC ) [late 3rd/early 2nd c. BC Amphipolis SEG 49:855 (A. [] -- Kassandreia SEG 49:722 ( [] ] (additional draft,military recruitment per family. Each family provided one soldier.
*Polytonic|σάρισσα "sárissa" (σάρισα "sarisa" attested hapax with one "s" in the military decree of Amphipolis [Amphipolis [ Epigraphical Database] frg B.col I,3] ), a long pike used by the Macedonian phalanx (Theophrastus, Polybius; etymology unknown – BlumenthalBlumenthal, "Hesychstudien", Stuttgart, 1930.] reconstructs "*skwrvi-entia-" to a root for 'cut', but this is speculative; perhaps (Attic polytonic|σαίρω [ sairô] to show the teeth, grin like a dog, esp. in scorn or malice), (polytonic|σαρόω-ῶ [ saroô] sweep clean, wipe out, [ sarôsis] sweeping away, [ sarôtron] broom), ( [ sarônis] an old hollow oak)
*Polytonic|σκοῖδος [ skoidos] administrator,secretary,quaestor (Elimeia-late 4th-mid. 3rd c. BC) [Elimeia,skoidou [] [] -- Skoidia Roman-era Naxian hapax [] ] PIE *skei- 'to cut, split' cf. Greek [ schizo] 'to split', [ schedos] 'riddle', [ schediazo] improvise Lithuanian skedzu 'make thin, separate, divide',Latin scindere 'to split', Gothic skaidan, O.E. sceadan 'to divide, separate' [ [ Online Etymology Dictionary ] ] .LSJ " [ skoidion] " 'hat' dialectical for skiadion.
*Polytonic|συνοπλᾶνες "synoplânes" co-fighters (2nd/3rd c.AD) [Beroia and a Thessalonian in Philippopolis — 2nd/3rd century AD [] - [] ] (singular: Polytonic|συνοπλὰν synoplan or Polytonic|σύνοπλας synoplas) (Attic synoploi, [ synoplos] ) syn- + [ hoplon] hoplites
*Polytonic|τρακύλιον "trakylion" ((..the pathway between the two "trakylia"...rivers..mountains..)) [line 4 Mygdonia — ca. 357-350 BC Meletemata 22, Epig. App. 4 [] -- Mt. Cholomon — 294-287 BC SEG 46:738 [] ]
*Polytonic|ὑπασπισταὶ " [ hypaspistai] " (the ones under shield , + aspis) (wiki Hypaspists) (6 times in Macedon) [Eordea ~180 BC [] ,12 Amphipolis- [ SEG 49:855] B,6 Meletemata 22, Epig. App. 12 ,col II 3,8 [] )(Kassandreia- [ SEG 49:722] ,18)]
*Polytonic|Ψευδάνωρ " [ Pseudanôr] " epithet of Dionysus, (wiki Pseudanor)

Macedonian influence on Koine

The phrase of Athenaeus (3.122.a) "makedonizontas t' oida pollous tôn Attikôn dia tên epimixian " (I am also aware of many Attic authors using Macedonian because of the admixture) may refer to Macedonian vocabulary [Athenaeus.The Learned Banqueters [,M1] by S Douglas Olson] or rather speaking in forms of Koine [A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity [ 2.c] ] .Various words of Attic changed their meaning in Hellenistic period;some of them due to Macedonian influence [Remarks on the Synonyms of the New Testament [] by Johann August Heinrich Tittmann] .

*Polytonic|παρεμβολή " [ parembolê] " (Attic insertion) (Macedonian encampment,barracks) a word attested as military camp 6 times in Epigraphy and 2 times in New Testament.Phrynichus calls it "δεινῶς Μακεδονικὸν" very Macedonic.Parembole was also the name of various Hellenistic toponyms.(wiki Parembole)
*Polytonic|ῥύμη " [ rhumê] " (Attic rush,onset,flux) (Macedonian lane, alley, street) a word attested with the second meaning 3 times in Epigraphy and 2 times in New Testament.

Hesychius Glossary

"The below words of unknown date, out of the single Hesychius manuscript, are marked as Macedonian.For the words of Macedonian Amerias, see Glossary of Amerias.Terms that occur in epigraphy are transferred above."

*Polytonic|ἄβαγνα " [ abagna] " 'roses amaranta (unwithered)' (Attic Polytonic|ῥόδα "rhoda" , Aeolic Polytonic|βρόδα "broda" roses).(LSJ: [ amarantos] unfading.Amaranth flower. (Aeolic Polytonic|ἄβα " [;layout=;query=entry%3D%2346582;loc=h%28ba%2Fw aba] " 'youthful prime' + Polytonic|ἁγνός "hagnos" 'pure, chaste, unsullied) or epithet "aphagna" from [ aphagnizo] 'purify' [Les anciens Macedoniens. Etude linguistique et historique by J. N. Kalleris] .If "abagnon" is the proper name for "rhodon" rose, then it is cognate to Persian "bāġ" , 'garden' , Gothic "bagms" 'tree' and Greek [ bakanon] 'cabbage-seed'.Finally, a Phrygian borrowing is highly possible if we think of the famous Gardens of Midas , where roses grow of themselves (see Herodotus 8.138.2 , Athenaeus 15.683)
*Polytonic|ἀβαρκνᾷ " [ abarknai] " polytonic|κομᾷ † τὲ Μακεδόνες Text Corrupted ( [ komai] ? , polytonic|ἄβαρκνα "abarkna" hunger, famine.
*Polytonic|ἀβαρύ " [ abarú] " 'oregano' (Hes. Polytonic|ὀρίγανον "origanon") (LSJ: Polytonic|βαρύ " [ barú] " perfume used in incense, Attic Polytonic|βαρύ "barú" 'heavy') (LSJ [ amarakon] sweet Origanum Majorana)(Hes. for origanon Polytonic|ἀγριβρόξ "agribrox", Polytonic|ἄβρομον "abromon" , Polytonic|ἄρτιφος "artiphos", Polytonic|κεβλήνη "keblênê")
*Polytonic|ἀβλόη , Polytonic|ἀλογεῖ abloē , alogei Text Corrupted polytonic|†<ἀβλόη>· σπένδε Μακεδόνες [<ἀλογεῖ>· σπεῖσον Μακεδόνες] [ spendô] )
*Polytonic|ἀβροῦτες or Polytonic|ἀβροῦϜες "abroûtes" or "abroûwes" 'eyebrows' (Hes. Attic Polytonic|ὀφρῦς "ophrûs" acc. pl., Polytonic|ὀφρύες " [ ophrúes] " nom., PIE *bhru-) (Lithuanian bruvis , Persian abru) (Koine Greek [ ophrudia] , Modern Greek φρύδια frydia)
*Polytonic|ἀγκαλίς " [;query=entry%3D%23545;layout=;loc=a%29gka%5Eli%3Dnai ankalis] " Attic 'weight, burden, load' Macedonian 'sickle' (Hes. Attic Polytonic|ἄχθος "ákhthos" , Polytonic|δρέπανον "drépanon", LSJ Attic Polytonic|ἀγκαλίς "ankalís" 'bundle', or in pl. Polytonic|ἀγκάλαι "ankálai" 'arms' (body parts), Polytonic|ἄγκαλος "ánkalos" 'armful, bundle', Polytonic|ἀγκάλη "ankálē" 'the bent arm' or 'anything closely enfolding', as the arms of the sea, PIE *ank 'to bend') ( Polytonic|ἀγκυλίς " [;query=entry%3D%23583;layout=;loc=a%29gku%2Flion ankylis ] " 'barb' Oppianus.C.1.155.)
*Polytonic|ἄδδαι "addai" poles of a chariot or car,logs (Attic [ ῥυμοὶ] rhumoi) (Aeolic " [ usdoi] " ,Attic ozoi ,branches,twigs) PIE PIE|*H₂ó-sd-o- , branch
*Polytonic|ἀδῆ "adē" 'clear sky' or 'the upper air' (Hes. Polytonic|οὐρανός "ouranós" 'sky', LSJ and Pokorny Attic Polytonic|αἰθήρ "aithēr" 'ether, the upper, purer air', hence 'clear sky, heaven')
*Polytonic|ἄδισκον " [ adiskon] " potion,cocktail ( Attic [ kykeôn] )
*Polytonic|ἄδραια " [ adraia] " 'fine weather, open sky' (Hes. Attic Polytonic|αἰθρία "aithría", PIE *aidh-)
*Polytonic|Ἀέροπες "Aeropes" tribe (wind-faced) ( [ aero-] + [ opsis] ( [ aerops] opos, Boeotian name for the bird merops)
*Polytonic|ἀκόντιον "akontion" spine or backbone,anything ridged like the backbone:ridge of a hill or mountain (Attic [ rhachis] ) (Attic [ akontion] spear,javelin) (Aeolic akontion part of troops)
*Polytonic|ἀκρέα " [ akrea] " girl ( Attic Polytonic|κόρη korê , Ionic kourê ,Doric/Aeolic kora ,Arcadian korwa , Laconian kyrsanis ( Polytonic|Ἀκρέα , epithet of Aphrodite in Cyprus,instead of Akraia , on the heights ).
*Polytonic|ἀκρουνοί " [ akrounoi] " 'boundary stones' nom. pl. (Hes. Polytonic|ὃροι "hóroi", LSJ Attic Polytonic|ἄκρος "ákros" 'at the end or extremity', from Polytonic|ἀκή "akē" 'point, edge', PIE *ak 'summit, point' or 'sharp')
*Polytonic|ἀλίη " [;query=entry%3D%234191;layout=;loc=a%28li%2Fzwos alíē] " 'boar or boarfish' (Attic kapros) (PIE *ol-/*el- "red, brown" (in animal and tree names) [ [ Online Etymology Dictionary ] ] (Homeric [ ellos] fawn , Attic "elaphos" deer ," [;query=entry%3D%234337;layout=;loc=a%29lkh%2F1 alkê] " elk)
*Polytonic|ἄλιζα " [ aliza] " (also "alixa") 'White Poplar' (Attic Polytonic|λεύκη "leúkē" , Thessalian "alphinia", LSJ: [ Polytonic|ἄλυζα , aluza] globularia alypum) (Pokorny Attic Polytonic|ἐλάτη "elátē" 'fir, spruce', PIE *ol-, *el- , P.Gmc. and Span. "aliso" 'alder')
*Polytonic|ἄξος " [ axos] " 'timber' (Hes. Attic Polytonic|ὓλη" [ hulê] ") (Cretan Doric [ ausos] Attic alsos grove little forest. (PIE "*os-" ash tree(OE."æsc" ash tree),(Greek."οξυά oxya",Albanian "ah",beech),(Armenian. "haci" ash tree)
*Polytonic|ἀορτής " [ aortês] ", 'swordsman' (Hes. ξιφιστής; Homer [ Polytonic|ἄορ] "áor" 'sword'; Attic [ Polytonic|ἀορτήρ] "aortēr" 'swordstrap', modern Greek Polytonic|αορτήρ "aortír" 'riflestrap'; hence aorta) (According to Suidas: Many now say the knapsack polytonic|ἀβερτὴ [ abertê] instead of [ aortê] . Both the object and the word [are] Macedonian.
*Polytonic|Ἀράντιδες Αrantides Erinyes ( in dative [ polytonic|ἀράντισιν] polytonic|ἐρινύσι)(Arae [ [ ARAE : Greek goddesses or spirits of curses ; mythology : ARAI ] ] name for Erinyes, [;query=entry%3D%2314708;layout=;loc=a%29ra_ro%2Ftws arasimos] accursed , [ araomai] invoke,curse,pray or [ rhantizô] sprinkle,purify.
*Polytonic|ἄργελλα "argella" 'bathing hut'. Cimmerian Polytonic|ἄργιλλα or "argila" 'subterranean dwelling' (Ephorus in Strb. 5.4.5) PIE *"areg-"; borrowed into Balkan Latin and gave Romanian "argea" (pl. "argele"), "wooden hut", dialectal (Banat) "arghela" "stud farm") ; cf. Sanskrit "argalā" 'latch, bolt', Old English "reced" "building, house", Albanian "argësh" "harrow, crude bridge of crossbars, crude raft supported by skin bladders"
*Polytonic|ἀργιόπους " [ argiopous] " 'eagle' (LSJ Attic Polytonic|ἀργίπους "argípous" 'swift- or white-footed', PIE *"hrg'i-pods" < PIE *arg + PIE *ped)
*Polytonic|Ἄρητος "Arētos" epithet or alternative of Herakles (Ares-like)
*Polytonic|ἀρκόν " [ arkon] " 'leisure, idleness' (LSJ Attic Polytonic|ἀργός "argós" 'lazy, idle' nom. sing., Polytonic|ἀργόν acc.)
*Polytonic|ἀρφύς " [ arhphys] " (Attic [ ἱμάς] himas strap,rope),( [ ἁρπεδών] harpedôn cord, yarn; ἁρπεδόνα Rhodes, Lindos II 2.37).
*Polytonic|ἄσπιλος " [ aspilos] " 'torrent' (Hes. Polytonic|χείμαῤῥος "kheímarrhos", Attic Polytonic|ἄσπιλος "áspilos" 'without stain, spotless, pure')
*Polytonic|βαβρήν " [ babrên] " lees of olive-oil ( LSJ: Polytonic|βάβρηκες babrêkes gums, or food in the teeth, Polytonic|βαβύας babuas mud )
*Polytonic|βαθάρα " [ bathara] " pukliê (Macedonian), purlos (Athamanian) (unattested; maybe food, [ atharê] porridge , [ pyros] wheat)
*Polytonic|βίῤῥοξ " [ birrhox] " dense,thick ( LSJ: [ βειρόν beiron] )
* Polytonic|γάρκα " [ garka] " rod ( Attic [ charax] ) ( EM: [ garkon] axle-pin ) ( LSJ: [ garrha] rod )
*Polytonic|γόλα "gola" or [ goda] bowels,intestines ( Homeric [ cholades] ) PIE: ghel-ond-, ghol-n•d- stomach; bowels [Pokorny [] ]
*Polytonic|γοτάν " [ gotan] " 'pig' acc. sing. ( PIE *"gwou-" 'cattle', ( Attic Polytonic|βοτόν "botón" ' beast', in plural Polytonic|βοτά "botá" 'grazing animals' ) ( Laconian [ grôna] sow female pig, and pl. grônades ) ( LSJ: [ goi , goi] , to imitate the sound of pigs ) ( [ goita] sheep or pig )
*Polytonic|γυλλάς " [ gyllas] " kind of glass ( [ gyalas] a Megarian cup)
*Polytonic|γῶψ " [ gôps] " pl. gopes macherel ( Attic koloios ) ( LSJ: [ skôps] a fish ) (Modern Greek gopa bogue fish pl. gopes)
*Polytonic|δαίτας "daitas" caterer waiter ( Attic [ daitros]
*Polytonic|δάνος " [ danos] " 'death', (Hes. Attic "thánatos" Polytonic|θάνατος 'death', from root Polytonic|θαν- "than-") ,PIE *dhenh2- 'to leave, polytonic|δανoτής "danotês" (disaster,pain) Sophocles Lacaenae fr.338 [Poetae scenici graeci, accedunt perditarum fabularum fragmenta [] ]
*Polytonic|δανῶν "danōn" 'murderer' (Attic polytonic|θανών thanōn dead ,past participle)
*Polytonic|δάρυλλος " [ darullos] " 'oak' (Hes. Attic Polytonic|δρῦς "drûs", PIE *doru-)
*Polytonic|δρῆες "drêes" or Polytonic|δρῆγες " [ drêges] " small birds ( Attic strouthoi ) (Elean [ δειρήτης deirêtês] , strouthos, Nicander.Fr.123.)( LSJ: [ διγῆρες digêres] strouthoi , [ δρίξ drix] strouthos)
*Polytonic|δώραξ " [ dôrax] " spleen , [ splên] (Attic θώραξ [ thôrax] chest,corslet
*Polytonic|ἐπιδειπνίς " [ epideipnis] " Macedonian dessert
*Polytonic|Ζειρηνίς "Zeirênis" epithet or alternative for Aphrodite ( [ Seirênis] Siren-like)
*Polytonic|Ἠμαθία " [ Êmathia] " ex-name of Macedonia,region of Emathia from mythological Emathus (Homeric [ amathos] [ êmathoessa] , river-sandy land , PIE *samadh [Pokorny Query madh [] ] . Generally the coastal Lower Macedonia in contrast to mountainous Upper Macedonia.For "meadow land" ("mē-2, m-e-t-" to reap) ,see Pokorny [Pokorny's dictionary [] ] .
*Polytonic|Θαῦλος "Thaulos" epithet or alternative of Ares ( Polytonic|Θαύλια "Thaulia" 'festival in Doric Tarentum , Polytonic|θαυλίζειν "thaulizein" 'to celebrate like Dorians' , Thessalian Polytonic|Ζεὺς Θαύλιος "Zeus Thaulios", the only attested in epigraphy 10 times, Athenian Polytonic|Ζεὺς Θαύλων "Zeus Thaulôn", Athenian family Polytonic|Θαυλωνίδαι "Thaulônidai"
*Polytonic|Θούριδες " [ Thourides] " Nymphs Muses (Homeric [ thouros] rushing, impetuous.
*Polytonic|ἰζέλα " [ izela] " wish, good luck (Attic agathêi tychêi) (Doric [ bale] , [ abale] ,Arcadian [ zele] ) ( Cretan [ delton] agathon ) [(Izela) Die Makedonen, Ihre Sprache und Ihr Volkstum [] by Otto Hoffmann] or Thracian [ zelas] wine.
*Polytonic|ἴλαξ "ílax" 'the holm-oak, evergreen or scarlet oak' (Hes. Attic Polytonic|πρῖνος "prînos", Latin "ilex")
*Polytonic|ἰν δέᾳ " [ in dea] " midday ( Attic [ endia] , mesêmbria) (Arcadian also "in" instead of Attic "en")
*Polytonic|κἄγχαρμον [ kancharmon] having the lance up Polytonic|τὸ τὴν λόγχην ἄνω ἔχον (Hes. polytonic|ἄγχαρμον " [;query=entry%3D%23998;layout=;loc=a%29gxa%2Fzw ancharmon] " polytonic|ἀνωφερῆ τὴν αἰχμήν <ἔχων> Ibyc? Stes?) having upwards the point of a spear)(Polytonic|κἄ , Crasis) [ kai] and,together,simultaneously + [;query=entry%3D%2310924;layout=;loc=a%29%2Fnwga anô] up ( [;query=entry%3D%2310990;layout=;loc=a%29nw%2Fxu%5Eros anôchmon] hortatory password)
*Polytonic|κάραβος " [ karabos] "
**Macedonian 'gate, door' (Cf. [ karphos] any small dry body,piece of wood (Hes. Attic 'meat roasted over coals'; Attic "karabos" 'stag-beetle'; 'crayfish'; 'light ship'; hence modern Greek Polytonic|καράβι "karávi")
**'the worms in dry wood' (Attic 'stag-beetle, horned beetle; crayfish')
**'a sea creature' (Attic 'crayfish, prickly crustacean; stag-beetle')
*Polytonic|καρπαία " [ karpaia] " Thessalo-Macedonian mimic military dance (see also Carpaea) Homeric [ karpalimos] swift (for foot) eager,ravenous.
*Polytonic|κίκεῤῥοι "kí [k] erroi" 'pale ones (?)' (Hes. Attic Polytonic|ὦχροι "ōkhroi", PIE *k̂ik̂er- 'pea') (LSJ: [ kikeros] land crocodile)
*Polytonic|κομμάραι "kommarai" or komarai crawfishes (Attic karides)(LSJ: [ kammaros] a kind of lobster, Epicharmus.60, Sophron.26, Rhinthon.18:-- also kammaris , idos Galen.6.735.) ( [ komaris] a fish Epicharmus.47.)
*Polytonic|κόμβοι " [ komboi] " 'molars' (Attic Polytonic|γομφίοι "gomphioi", dim. of Polytonic|γόμφος " [ gomphos] " 'a large, wedge-shaped bolt or nail; any bond or fastening', PIE *gombh-)
*Polytonic|κυνοῦπες " [ kynoupes] " or kynoutos bear (Hesychius kynoupeus, knoupeus ,knôpeus)( [ kunôpês] dog-faced) ( [ knôps] beast esp. serpent instead of kinôpeton , blind acc. Zonar (from [ knephas] dark)(if "kynoutos" ( [ knôdês] [ knôdalon] beast)
*Polytonic|λακεδάμα " [ lakedáma] " polytonic|ὕδωρ ἁλμυρὸν ἄλικι ἐπικεχυμένον salty water with [;query=entry%3D%234234;layout=;loc=a%28%2Fli%5Enos alix] , rice-wheat or fish-sauce.(Cf. [ skorodalmê] 'sauce or pickle composed of brine and garlic'). According to Albrecht von Blumenthal, "-ama" corresponds to Attic Polytonic|ἁλμυρός "halmurós" 'salty'; Cretan Doric [ hauma] for Attic halmē; "laked-" is cognate to Proto-Germanic *lauka [ [ Online Etymology Dictionary ] ] leek ,possibly related is Polytonic|Λακεδαίμων "Laked-aímōn", the name of the Spartan land.
*Polytonic|λείβηθρον "leíbēthron" 'stream' (Hes. Attic Polytonic|ῥεῖθρον "rheîthron", also Polytonic|λιβάδιον "libádion", 'a small stream', dim. of Polytonic|λιβάς "libás"; PIE *lei, 'to flow'); typical Greek productive suffix Polytonic|-θρον ("-thron") (Macedonian toponym , Pierian Leibethra place/tomb of Orpheus)
*Polytonic|ματτύης " [ mattuês] " kind of bird ( Polytonic|ματτύη "mattuê" a meat-dessert of Macedonian or Thessalian origin) (verb "mattuazo" to prepare the "mattue") (Athenaeus) [Deipnosophists 14.663-4 (pp.1059-1062) [] ]
*Polytonic|παραός " [ paraos] " eagle or kind of eagle (Attic aetos , Pamphylian aibetos) (PIE *por- 'going, passage' + *awi- 'bird') (Greek para- 'beside' + Hes. [ aos] wind) (It may exist as food in Lopado...pterygon)
*Polytonic|περιπέτεια "peripeteia" or Polytonic|περίτια " [ peritia] " Macedonian festival in month Peritios. (Hesychius text polytonic|περί [πε] τ [ε] ια )
*Polytonic|ῥάματα " [ rhamata] " bunch of grapes (Ionic rhagmata,rhages Koine rhôgmata,rhôges , [ rhax rhôx] )
*Polytonic|ῥοῦτο " [ rhouto] " this (neut.) (Attic polytonic|τοῦτο [ touto] )
*Polytonic|ταγόναγα "tagonaga" Macedonian institution,administration ( Thessalian polytonic|ταγὸς [ tagos] commander +polytonic|ἄγω [;query=entry%3D%231084;layout=;loc=a%29gwgai%3Dos agô] lead)

Other Sources

*Polytonic|αἰγίποψ " [ aigipops] " eagle (EM 28.19) ( goat-eater [ aix ,aigos] + [ pepsis] digestion) (Cf.eagle [ chelônophagos] turtle-eater)
*Polytonic|ἀνακροταλίζω " [;query=entry%3D%236811;layout=;loc=a%29nakri%2Ftws anakrotalizô] " lift up and strike together,applaud vehemently (Attic Polytonic|ἀνακροτέω anakroteô) Hippolochus' letter. Athenaeus.4.129c Polytonic|ἀνεκροταλίσαμεν τὸν νυμφίον [Alexandre le Grand dans Athénée de Naucratis (livre IV) [] ] we applauded the bridegroom
*polytonic|ἀργυρὰσπιδες " [ argyraspides] " (wiki Argyraspides) [ chrysaspides] and [ chalkaspides] (golden and bronze-shielded)
*polytonic|ἀσθέταιροι "asthetairoi" (wiki Asthetairoi) ( [ ast] - of the towns,of quality)
*polytonic|ἄσθιπποι "asthippoi" elite cavalry
*polytonic|βάζω " [ bazô] " speak, say ( Attic in poetic use only ) (Cf. [ phaskô] phô) Eustathius citing Heracleides Od. pp.375-376,1654,19-20 (Poetic [ baxis] oracular saying , voice)
*polytonic|βύκτας "buktas" wind (EM 179,3 by Didymus s.v. Aphrodite) ,comparing [ phusaô] blow) (Attic anemos wind) (Homeric polytonic|βύκτης " [ buktês] " swelling, blustering, for wind , buktaôn anemôn Od.10.20 ) (buktês "hurricane", Lycophron.738,756)
*Polytonic|δράμις " [ dramis] " a Macedonian bread (Thessalian bread " [ daratos] ")(Athamanian bread "dramix".(Athenaeus) [Athenaeus Deipnosophists [,M1 3.114b.] ] .
*Polytonic|καυσία " [ kausia] " felt hat used by Macedonians, forming part of the regalia of the kings.
*Polytonic|κισσύβιον " [ kissybion] " wooden cup Marsyas(Aeolic kissybion skyphos) Athenaeus XI 477a
*Polytonic|κλινότροχον "klinótrokhon", according to Theophrastus a sort of maple in Stageira, Pokorny Attic Polytonic|γλεῖνον "gleînon"), LSJ: Polytonic|γλῖνος "glînos" or Polytonic|γλεῖνος "gleînos", Cretan maple, Acer creticum', Thphr.HP3.3.1, 3.11.2.
*Polytonic|κοῖος " [ koios] " number (Athenaeus [Deipnosophists [ 10.455e.] ] when talking about Koios, the Titan of intelligence; "and the Macedonians use koios as synonymous with [ arithmos] " (LSJ: [ koeô] mark, perceive, hear [ koiazô] pledge , Hes. compose s.v. polytonic|κοίασον , σύνθες) (Laocoön, "thyoskoos" observer of sacrifices, "akouô" hear) (All from PIE root *keu [Pokorny [] ,Gerhard Köbler [] ] to notice, observe, feel; to hear.
*Polytonic|κοριναῖος " [ korinaios] " bastard (Attic nothos ,skotios) Marsyas.24J.( [ κύρνος kyrnos] by Photius) (Laconian parthenios)
*polytonic|πεζέταιροι " [ pezetairoi] " (wiki Pezhetairoi) (Attic [ polytonic|πεζοί] , [ polytonic|πεζομάχοι] ) (Aeolic [ polytonic|πέσδοι] )
*Polytonic|Πύδνα "Púdna",Pydna toponym (Pokorny [Pokorny,Pudna [] ] Attic Polytonic|πυθμήν "puthmēn" 'bottom, sole, base of a vessel'; PIE *bhudhnā; Attic [ Polytonic|πύνδαξ] "pýndax" 'bottom of vessel') (Cretan,"Pytna" [Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft [] ] "Hierapytna",Sacred Pytna [The Dorians in Archaeology by Theodore CressySkeat [] ] .
*Polytonic|σίγυνος " [ sigynos] " spear ( Cypriotic sigynon ) ( Illyrian [ sibyne] ) ( Origin : Illyrian acc. to Fest.p.453 L., citing Ennius) ( Cyprian acc. to Herodotus and Aristotle [Poetics (Aristotle)-XXI [] ] Il. cc., Scythian acc. to Sch.Par.A.R.4.320 (cf. 111)
*Polytonic|σφύραινα " [ sphuraina] ", hammer-fish sphyraena (Strattis,Makedones (fr. 28) [] -(Attic.κέστρα, [ kestra] ) (cestra, needle-fish (modern Greek fish σφυρίδα,sfyrida)
*Polytonic|ὐετής " [ uetês] " of the same year Marsyas ( Attic autoetês , Poetic oietês )
*polytonic|χάρων " [ charôn] lion (Attic/Poetic fierce, for lion,eagle instead of [ charopos] , [ charops] bright-eyed) (Charon (mythology))


"A number of Hesychius words are listed orphan; some of them have been proposed as Macedonian" [Otto Hoffmann ,Page 270 (bottom) [] ]

*Polytonic|ἀγέρδα " [ agerda] " wild pear-tree ( Attic Polytonic|ἄχερδος " [ acherdos] ".
*Polytonic|ἀδαλός "adalos" charcoal dust (Attic Polytonic|αἴθαλος aithalos , Polytonic|ἄσβολος asbolos)
*Polytonic|ἄδδεε "addee" imp. hurry up Polytonic|ἐπείγου ( Attic "thee" of [ theô] run )
*Polytonic|ἄδις " [ adis] " 'hearth' (Hes. Polytonic|ἐσχάρα "eskhára", LSJ Attic Polytonic|αἶθος "aîthos" 'fire, burning heat')
*Polytonic|αἰδῶσσα "aidôssa" ( Attic [ aithousa] portico, corridor ,verandah, a loggia leading from aulê "yard" to prodomos)
*Polytonic|βάσκιοι " [ baskioi] " 'fasces' (Hes. Attic Polytonic|δεσμοὶ φρῡγάνων "desmoì phrūgánōn", Pokorny Polytonic|βασκευταί "baskeutaí", Attic Polytonic|φασκίδες "phaskídes", Attic Polytonic|φάσκωλος "pháskōlos" 'leather sack', PIE *"bhasko-")
*Polytonic|βίξ " [ bix] " sphinx (Boeotian phix) , (Attic [ sphinx] )
*Polytonic|δαλάγχα " [ dalancha] " sea (Attic thalatta) (Ionic thalassa)
*Polytonic|δεδάλαι "dedalai" package, bundle (Attic dethla, desmai)
*Polytonic|ἐσκόροδος "eskorodos" tenon ( Attic tormos Polytonic|σκόρθος " [ skorthos] " tornos slice,lathe)
*Polytonic|Εὐδαλαγῖνες "Eudalagines" Graces Χάριτες (Attic Polytonic|Εὐθαλγῖνες Euthalgines)
*Polytonic|κάναδοι " [ kanadoi] " 'jaws' nom. pl. (Attic Polytonic|γνάθοι "gnathoi", PIE *genu, 'jaw') (Laconian Polytonic|καναδόκα "kanadoka" notch (V) of an arrow Polytonic|χηλὴ ὀϊστοῦ)
*Polytonic|λαίβα " [ laiba] " shield ( Doric Polytonic|λαία "laia" , Polytonic|λαῖφα "laipha" ) ( Attic aspis )
*Polytonic|λάλαβις " [ lalabis] " storm (Attic lailaps)
*Polytonic|ὁμοδάλιον " [ homodalion] " isoetes plant (" [ θάλλω thallô ] " bloom)
*Polytonic|ῥουβοτός " [ rhoubotos] " potion ( Attic rhophema ) "rhopheo" suck,absorb " [ rhoibdeô] " suck with noise.

Political controversy

Though no scholar connects Ancient Macedonian to the Slavic Modern Macedonian language, the classification of the language has come to have political overtones in the Macedonia naming dispute and the Macedonian language naming dispute.

See also

*Ancient Greek dialects
*Proto-Greek language
*Ancient Greece
*Phrygian language
*Thracian language


Further reading

* [,M1 Die Makedonen: Ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum by Otto Hoffmann]
* Babiniotis, G. "Ancient Macedonian: The Place of Macedonian among the Greek Dialects", "Macedonian Hellenism", edited by A.M. Tamis. Melbourne, 1990, pp. 241–250.
* Brixhe C., Panayotou A. (1994) "Le Macédonien" in Bader, F. (ed.) "Langues indo-européennes", Paris:CNRS éditions, 1994, pp 205–220. ISBN 227105043-X
* Chadwick, J. "The Prehistory of the Greek Language". Cambridge, 1963.
* Hammond, Nicholas G.L. "Literary Evidence for Macedonian Speech", "Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte", Vol. 43, No. 2. (1994), pp. 131–142.
* Katičić, Radoslav. "Ancient Languages of the Balkans". The Hague; Paris: Mouton, 1976.
* Neroznak, V. "Paleo-Balkan languages". Moscow, 1978.
* Rhomiopoulou, Katerina. "An Outline of Macedonian History and Art". Greek Ministry of Culture and Science, 1980.

External links

* [ The Linguist List: Family tree of Hellenic languages]
* [ Encyclopedia Britannica: "Greek language" (1911 edition)]
* [ Jona Lendering, "Ancient Macedonia" web page on]
* [ Greek Inscriptions from ancient Macedonia (Epigraphical Database)]
* [ J.M.R. Cormack Macedonian Collection_Center for Epigraphical Studies]
* [ Heinrich Tischner on Hesychius' words]

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