- Political views on the Macedonian language
The existence and distinctiveness of the
Macedonian languageis disputed among the politicians, linguists and common people from Republic of Macedoniaand neighboring countries. Macedonian dialects are indeed a part of dialectal continuumwhich stretches from Croatian, Bosnian and Serbian Shtokavian dialectthrough Torlakian on the northwest, to western and eastern Bulgarian dialects on the East, and the Macedonian language, like Bulgarian, Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian, is a standardized form of (some of) these dialects.
According to the Macedonian view, now prevalent and official in the books in Republic of Macedonia, Macedonian was the first official language of the Slavs, thanks to the
St. Cyriland St. Methodius's introduction of Slavic literacy language through the Glagoliticscript, that was based on Southern Macedonian dialect from the neighbourhood of Thessaloniki, the home of the two saints.ref|Britannica Later on, Macedonia fell under the rule of Bulgarians, and the Byzantines regarded all Slavic Macedonians as Bulgarians. According to a minority view, supported in the Republic of Macedonia, Samuil's realm in the early Middle Ageswas allegedly the first Macedonian Slavic state.Fact|date=February 2007 However, Krste Misirkov, who allegedly set the principles of the Macedonian literary language in the late 19th century, stated: "We speak a Bulgarian language and we believed with Bulgaria is our strong power."ref|Misirkov
The assimilation of Macedonians was almost finished in Bulgaria, and the Greek government expelled hundreds of thousandsFact|date=September 2008 of Slavs from Macedonia, who settled finally in Vardar Macedonia under Yugoslav control, where in 1945, the local language became official, according to the decision made in 1944. Approximately 8-10% of the present inhabitants of the Republic of Macedonia are the descendants of the Aegean Macedonian refugees.Fact|date=February 2007
Although Bulgaria was the first country to recognize the independence of the Republic of Macedonia, it has refused to recognize the existence of a separate Macedonian ethnic and a separate Macedonian language. This view is shared by most Bulgarian academics and by the majority of the Bulgarian public ref|Mahon1. More particularly, official Bulgaria holds the view that Macedonian is one of three “norms” of the language, the other two being standard Bulgarian and the language of the
According to the Bulgarian view, the dialects spoken in Macedonia (along with those in northern Greece and parts of Albania and Serbia) are Bulgarian. The shared features of these dialects are cited as proof of that.ref|unity Bulgarian scholars also claim that the overwhelming majority of the Macedonian population had no conscience of a Macedonian language separate from Bulgarian before 1945. Russian scholars cite the early references to the language in Slavic literature from the middle of 10th century to the end of 19th century as "bulgarski" or "bolgarski" as proof of that claim.ref|Strukova1 (Please see the main article for facsimiles of those early texts.) From that, the conclusion is drawn that modern standard Macedonian is not a language separate from Bulgarian either but just another written "norm" based on a set of Bulgarian dialects. See
dialectand dialect continuumto assess the validity of these arguments. Bulgarian linguists, as well as Otto Kronsteiner, an Austrian linguist, assert that the Macedonian linguists who codified the new language did everything possible to create differences from literary Bulgarian and bring it closer to Serbian. ref|Kronsteinerref|Kochev. They are also said to have resorted to falsifications and deliberate misinterpretations of history and documents in order to further the opinion that there was a consciousness of a separate Macedonian ethnicity before 1944.ref|KC1 In the Government of Bulgaria officially recognised [ [http://www.aimpress.ch/dyn/trae/archive/data/199902/90222-005-trae-sof.htm 1999/02/22 23:50 Bulgaria Recognises Macedonian Language ] ] the Macedonian Languagewhich has proved beneficial to both countries. This recognition was unpopular with many members of the opposition and many Bulgarian scholars.
Serbiaofficially recognises the Macedonian Language as separate language to Bulgarian. In the 2002 census c.26,000 people declared themselves as Macedonians. [ [http://www.statserb.sr.gov.yu/zip/esn31.pdf SN31 ] ]
From the Greek point of view, there can be only one meaning for the term Macedonia, and that is in reference to
Ancient Macedoniaand the Macedonia in Greece.ref|Danforth It follows that this denial extends to the use of Macedonian in talking about the Macedonian language. ref|Floudas. Greeks also do not recognize the name of Macedonia, but FYROM. The reason and the long term goal of this country is to claim Greek lands and to finally reach it to the sea.
Books have been published in Greece which purport to expose the "artificial character" ref|Roudometof of the Macedonian language. Certain Greeks believe that the language which is sometimes referred to as Macedonian spoken in Northern Greece is a mixture of Slavic and Greek [http://www.uoc.es/euromosaic/web/document/macedoni/fr/i1/i1.html] ("see
Slavic language (Greece)").
Italian linguist Vittore Pisani stated: "The Macedonian language is actually an artefact produced for primarily political reasons". ref|Pisani
# [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9056967?query=church%20slavonic%20macedonian&ct= Encyclopædia Britannica - Old Church Slavonic language]
# Mahon, M. (1998) "The Macedonian question in Bulgaria" in "
Nations and Nationalism". Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 389-407.
# "Единството на българския език в миналото и днес", "Български език", XXVIII, 1978.
# Струкова, К. П. "Общественно-политическое развитие Македонии в 50-70-е гг XIX века", Российская Академия наук, Москва 2004, стр. 85-136. ISBN 5-7576-0163-9
# [http://www.promacedonia.org/en/kronsteiner/ik_3_eng.html Otto Kronsteiner, "The Fathering of the Macedonian Literary Language"]
# [http://www.promacedonia.org/ik/ik_2.html Ив. Кочев и Ив. Александров, "ДОКУМЕНТИ ЗА СЪЧИНЯВАНЕТО НА МАКЕДОНСКИЯ КНИЖОВЕН ЕЗИК"] bg icon
# Коста Църнушанов, "Македонизмът и съпротивата на Македония срещу него", Унив. изд. "Св. Климент Охридски", София, 1992
# Vitković,G. "Glasnik Srpskog učenog društva" (Serbian Academy Herald"),67,1887, pp.128; pp.131
# Danforth, L. (1997) The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World (Princeton : Princeton University Press) ISBN 0-691-04356-6
# Floudas, D. "Pardon? A Conflict for a Name? FYROM'S Dispute With Greece Revisited" (available online [http://www.intersticeconsulting.com/documents/FYROM.pdf here] )
# Roudometof, V. (1996) "Nationalism and Identity Politics in the Balkans: Greece and the Macedonian Question" in "Journal of Modern Greek Studies" Vol. 14, pp. 253-302.
# Pisani, V. "Il Macedonico, Paideia, Rivista Letteraria di informazione bibliografica", vol. 12, p. 250, 1957
# Misirkov, K. "On the Macedonian Matters", Sofia 1903
* [http://www.promacedonia.org/en/kronsteiner/ik_3_eng.html Otto Kronsteiner, "The Fathering of the Macedonian Literary Language"]
* [http://www.promacedonia.org/en/other/clarke.html James F. Clarke, "Macedonia from S. S. Cyril and Methodius to Horace Lunt and Blazhe Koneski: Language and Nationality"]
* [http://www.promacedonia.org/statii/mp_1991_1_tsyrnushanov.html Коста Църнушанов, "Сърбизиране на македонския казионен "литeратурен език"" (част I)] bg icon
* [http://www.promacedonia.org/statii/mp_1991_2_tsyrnushanov.html Коста Църнушанов, "Сърбизиране на македонския казионен "литeратурен език"" (част II)] bg icon
* [http://www.promacedonia.org/ik/ik_2.html Ив. Кочев и Ив. Александров, "ДОКУМЕНТИ ЗА СЪЧИНЯВАНЕТО НА МАКЕДОНСКИЯ КНИЖОВЕН ЕЗИК"] bg icon
* [http://www.promacedonia.org/is_ran/is_ran_4.html И. И. Калиганов, "Размышления о македонском "срезе" палеоболгаристики"] ru icon
* [http://www.kroraina.com/knigi/as3/seli_3.htm А.М.Селищев, "Македонские говоры"] ru icon
* [http://www.promacedonia.org/la/index.html Любомир Андрейчин, "Из историята на нашето езиково строителство"] bg icon
*Стојан Киселиновски [http://220.127.116.11/?pBroj=1339&stID=2147477536 "Кодификација на македонскиот литературен јазик"] , Дневник, 1339, сабота, 18 март 2006. mk icon
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