Classification and external resources
ICD-10 B66.1
ICD-9 121.1
DiseasesDB 29302
MeSH D003003

Clonorchiasis is an infectious disease caused by the Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Clonorchiasis is a known risk factor for the development of cholangiocarcinoma, a neoplasm of the biliary system.

Differential symptoms of parasite infection by raw fish: Clonorchis sinensis (a trematode/fluke), Anisakis (a nematode/roundworm) and Diphyllobothrium a (cestode/tapeworm),[1] all have gastrointestinal, but otherwise distinct, symptoms.[2][3][4][5]

Symptoms of opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini and by Opisthorchis felineus are indistinguishable from clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis,[6] so the disease by these three parasites should be referred as clonorchiasis.[6]


Clonorchiasis sinensis is a trematode (fluke) which is part of the phylum Platyhelminthes. It is a hermaphroditic fluke that requires two intermediate hosts. The parasitic worm is as long as 10 to 25mm and lives in the bile ducts of the liver. The eggs of the worms are passed through fecal matter which are then ingested by mollusks. One becomes infected by eating undercooked, smoked, pickled or salted freshwater fish. Freshwater fish are a second intermediate host for the parasitic worm. They become infected when the larvae (cercaria) of the worm penetrates the flesh of the fish. The water snail is the first intermediate host in which a miracidium (an embryonated egg discharged in stool) goes through its developmental stages of (sporocyst, rediae and cercariae). Clonorchiasis is endemic in the Far East, especially in Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Southern China. Clonorchiasis has been reported in non endemic areas (including the United States). In such cases, the infection is found in Asian immigrants, or following ingestion of imported, undercooked or pickled freshwater fish containing metacercariae.[7]


  1. ^ WaiSays: About Consuming Raw Fish Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  2. ^ For Chlonorchiasis: Public Health Agency of Canada - Clonorchis sinensis - Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  3. ^ For Anisakiasis: WrongDiagnosis: Symptoms of Anisakiasis Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  4. ^ For Diphyllobothrium: MedlinePlus > Diphyllobothriasis Updated by: Arnold L. Lentnek, MD. Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  5. ^ For symptoms of diphyllobothrium due to vitamin B12-deficiency University of Maryland Medical Center > Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  6. ^ a b King1 S. & Scholz T. (2001). "Trematodes of the family Opisthorchiidae: a minireview". Korean Journal of Parasitology 39(3): 209–221. doi:10.3347/kjp.2001.39.3.209, PMC PMC2721069.
  7. ^

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