Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'

Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
रामधारी सिंह 'दिनकर'
Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Born September 23, 1908(1908-09-23)
Simariya village, Begusarai district, Bihar
Died April 24, 1974(1974-04-24) (aged 65)
Begusarai district, Bihar
Occupation Poet, Freedom Fighter, Member of Parliament, Essayist, Literary critic, Journalist, Satirist, Academician
Notable award(s) 1959:Sahitya Akademi Award
1959: Padma Bhushan
1972: Bharatiya Jnanpith

Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' (रामधारी सिंह 'दिनकर') (September 23, 1908 – April 24, 1974) was an Indian Hindi poet, essayist and academic,[1][2] who is considered as one of the most important modern Hindi poets. He remerged as a poet of rebellion as a consequence of his nationalist poetry written in the days before Indian independence. His poetry exuded veer rasa, and he has been hailed as a Rashtrakavi ("National poet") on account of his inspiring patriotic compositions.[3] As a mark of respect for him, his portrait was unveiled in the Central Hall of Parliament of India by the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh on his centenary year, 2008.[4][5]

Dinkar initially supported the revolutionary movement during the Indian independence struggle, but later became a Gandhian.He was close to prominent nationalists of the time such as Rajendra Prasad, Anugrah Narayan Sinha and Braj Kishore Prasad. However, he used to call himself a 'Bad Gandhian' because he supported the feelings of indignation and revenge among the youth.[6] In Kurukshetra, he accepted that war is destructive but argued that it is necessary for the protection of freedom.

Dinkar was three times elected to Rajya Sabha, and he was the member of this house from April 3, 1952 CE to January 26, 1964 CE,[6] and was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1959.[6]

During The Emergency, Jayaprakash Narayan had attracted a gathering of one lakh people at the Ramlila Grounds and recited Rashtrakavi Dinkar's poetry: Singhasan Khaali Karo Ke Janata Aaati Hai.[7]



He was born to a poor Bhumihar Brahmin[8] family in Simariya village, in the Begusarai district of Bihar. As a student, his favorite subjects were history, politics and philosophy. He studied Hindi, Sanskrit, Maithili, Bengali, Urdu and English literature. Dinkar was greatly influenced by Iqbal, Rabindranath Tagore, Keats and Milton. He translated works of Rabindranath Tagore from Bangla to Hindi.


His works are mostly of 'Veer Rasa', or the 'brave mode', although Urvashi is an exception to this. Some of his greatest works are Rashmirathi and Parashuram ki Prateeksha. He is hailed as the greatest Hindi poet of 'Veer Rasa' since Bhushan.[6]

Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi wrote that he was very popular among people whose mother-tongue was not Hindi and he was a symbol of love for one's own mother-tongue.[9] Harivansh Rai Bachchan wrote that for his proper respect he should get four Gyanpith Awards - for poetry, prose, languages and for his service to Hindi.[9] Rambriksh Benipuri wrote that Dinkar is giving voice to the revolutionary movement in the country.[9] Namvar Singh wrote that he was really the sun of his age.[9]

Hindi writer Rajendra Yadav, whose novel 'Sara Akash' also carried a few lines of Dinkar's poetry, has said of him He was always very inspiring to read. His poetry was about reawakening. He often delved into Hindu mythology and referred to heroes of epics such as Karna.[10] He was a poet of anti-imperialism and nationalism, says well-known Hindi writer Kashinath Singh.[10]

He also wrote social and political satires[11] aimed at socio-economic inequalities and exploitation of the underprivileged.[11]

A progressive and humanist poet, he chose to approach history and reality directly and his verse combined oratorical vigour with a declamatory diction.[12] The theme of Urvashi revolves round love, passion, and relationship of man and woman on a spiritual plane, distinct from their earthly relationship.

His Kurukshetra is a narrative poem based on the Santi Parva of the Mahabharata.[13] It was written at a time when the memories of the Second World War were fresh in the mind of the poet.[13] Krishna Ki Chaetavani is another poem composed on events that led to the Kurukshetra war in the Mahabharata. His Samdheni is a collection of poems reflecting the poet's social concern transcending the boundaries of the nation.[13]

In his Sanskiti ke Chaar Adhyay he said that despite various cultures, languages and topography, India stands united, because "however different we may be, our thoughts are one and the same".[14]

Awards and honours

He received awards from Kashi Nagri Pracharini Sabha, Uttar Pradesh Government and also an award by the Government of India for his epic-poem Kurukshetra.[6] He got the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1959 for his work Sanskriti ke Char Adhyay.[15] He was also a recipient of Padma Bhushan in 1959 by the Government of India. He was awarded the LLD degree by Bhagalpur University. He was felicitated as Vidyavachaspati by Gurukul Mahavidyalaya.[6] He was felicitated as Sahitya-Chudamaniby Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Udaipur on 8 November 1968.[6] Dinkar was awarded the Jnanpith Award in 1972 for Urvashi.[16] He also became a nominated member of the Rajya Sabha, in 1952.[2]

Posthumous Recognitions

On September 30, 1987, to mark his 79th birth anniversary tributes were paid to him by the then President of India, Shankar Dayal Sharma.[17]

In 1999, Dinkar was one of the Hindi writers featured on a set of commemorative postal stamps released by Government of India to celebrate the "Linguistic Harmony of India." marking the 50th anniversary since the Indian Union adopted Hindi as its official language.[18]

The government released a book on Dinkar's birth centenary authored by Khagendra Thakur.[19]

At the same time a statue of him was unveiled in Patna at the Dinkar Chowk,[20] and a two-day national seminar was organised in Calicut University.[21]

The Bihar government has declared that a Hindi University to come up at Begusarai named after him. The New University will be named as Rashtra Kavi Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Hindi University.

Major poetic works

Dinkar's first published poetical work was Vijay Sandesh (1928). His other works are

  • Pranbhang (1929)
  • Renuka (1935)
  • Hunkar (epic poem) (1938)
  • Rasavanti (1939)
  • Dvandvageet (1940)
  • Kurukshetra (1946)
  • Dhoop Chhah (1946)
  • Saamdheni (1947)
  • Baapu (1947)
  • Itihas ke Aansoo (1951)
  • Dhup aur Dhuan (1951)
  • Mirch ka Mazaa (1951)
  • Rashmirathi (1952)
  • Dilli (1954)
  • Neem ke Patte (1954)
  • Suraj ka Byaah (1955)
  • Neel Kusum (1954)
  • Chakravaal (1956)
  • Kavishri (1957)
  • Seepee aur Shankh (1957)
  • Naye Subhaashit (1957)
  • Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
  • Urvashi (1961)
  • Parashuram ki Pratiksha (1963)
  • Koylaa aur Kavitva (1964)
  • Mritti Tilak (1964)
  • Atmaa ki Ankhe (1964)
  • Haare ko Harinaam (1970)


  • Lokpriya Kavi Dinkar (1960)
  • Dinkar ki Suktiyan (1964)
  • Dinkar ke Geet (1973)
  • Sanchayita (1973)
  • Rashmilok (1974)
  • Urvashi tatha anya shringarik kavitayen (1974)
  • Amrit Manthan, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Bhagn Vina, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Sapnon ka Dhuan, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Samanantar, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Rashmimala, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.

Major prose works

Dinkar’s major analytical and other prose works are:

  • Mitti ki Or (1946)
  • Chittaur ka Saakaa (1948)
  • Ardhanaarishwar (1952)
  • Reti ki Phool (1954)
  • Hamaari Saanskritik Ekta (1954)
  • Bhaarat ki Saanskritik Kahaani (1955)
  • Raashtrabhaasha aur Raashtriya Ekta (1955)
  • Ujli Aag (1956)
  • Sanskriti ke Chaar Adhyaay (1956)
  • Kaavya ki Bhumikaa (1958)
  • Pant, Prasad aur Maithilisharan (1958)
  • Venu Van (1958)
  • Dharma, Naitikataa aur Vigyan (1959)
  • Vat-Peepal (1961)
  • Lokdev Nehru (1965)
  • Shuddh Kavitaa ki Khoj (1966)
  • Saahityamukhi (1968)
  • He Ram! (1968)
  • Samsmaran aur Shraddhaanjaliyan (1970)
  • Meri Yatrayen (1971)
  • Bhaaratiya Ekta (1971)
  • Dinkar ki Daayri (1973)
  • Chetana ki Shilaa (1973)
  • Vivah ki Musibaten (1973) and
  • Aadhunik Bodh (1973).

Literary criticism

  • Sahitya aur Samaj, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Chintan ke Aayam, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Kavi aur Kavita, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Sanskriti Bhasha aur Rashtra, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Kavita aur Shuddh Kavita, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.


  • Sri Aurobindo: Meri Drishti Mein, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Pandit Nehru aur anya mahapurush, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
  • Smarnanjali, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.


Translations into English and other languages

  • Dinkar's Urvashi: a saga of human love and Vedanta. Trans. by Krishna Kumar Vidyarthi. (New Delhi: Siddharth Publications, 1994. 165 p.)
  • Reflections on men and things (essays). (Ajmer: Krishna Brothers, 1968. 80 p.)
  • Kurukshetra. Trans. by R.K. Kapur. London: n.p., 1967.
  • [Rasmirathi] Sun charioteer. Trans. by R.D. Dunda, D. Nelson and P. Staneslow. (Minnesota: Nagari Press, 1981.)
  • Voices of the Himalaya: poems. Trans. by the author, Kamala Ratnam, V.K. Gokak and others. (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1966. vi, 70 p.)
  • Himalayas Xotros Poems (Spanish), Collection of thirty poems, Publisher - University of Conceyeion, Chile.
  • Sining Potos [Blue Lotus] (Russian), Collection of sixty poems, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Russia.
  • Kurukshetra: an aftermath of war, a new search for peace from the classical thought : light radiates through dialogue; translated by Winand M. Callewaert, P. Adeswara Rao; Heritage Publication Division, 1995.
  • Ramdhari Singh Dinkar, Reflections on men and things, Krishna Bros., 1968.

Biographies and works on Dinkar

  • Manmath Nath Gupta, Apane samaya ka surya Dinkar, Alekha Prakasana (1981).
  • Khagendra Thakur, Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkarr’: Vyaktitva aur Krititva, Publications Division, 2008 Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
  • Vijendra Narayan Singh, Bharatiya Sahitya ke Nirmata: Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar', Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 2005, ISBN 81-260-2142-X.
  • Kumar Vimal, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Rachna - Sanchayan, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 2008, ISBN 978-81-260-2627-2.
  • Shivsagar Mishra, Dinkar: ek sahaj Purush.
  • Dr. Shambhu Nath, Dhupchhanhi Dinkar, Bharatiya Jnanpith.
  • Dr. Shambhu Nath, Dinkar ka rachna sansar.
  • Shiv Balak Rai, Dinkar, Universal Press, Shiv Charan Lal Road, Allahabad.
  • Shivchandra Sharma, Dinkar aur unki kavya kritiyan, Janwasi Press, Kolkata.
  • Murlidhar Srivastava, Dinkar ki Kavyasadhana, Shri Ajanta Press, Patna.
  • Kameshwar Sharma, Digbhramit Rashtrakavi, Rashtriya Prakashan Mandal, Patna.
  • S.Kapil, Dinkar Aur Unki Kavya Kritiyan, Ibha Prakashan, Munger.
  • Kantimohan Sharma, Kurukshetra - Mimansa, Sahitya Prakashan Mandal, Karol Bagh, New Delhi.
  • Nemichandra Jain Bhavuk, Dinkar ki Kavyasadhana, Antah Prantiya Kumar Parishad, Jodhpur.
  • Dr. Satyakam Verma, Jankavi Dinkar, Bharatiya Prakashan, Model Town, Delhi.
  • Dr. Savitri Sinha, Yugcharan Dinkar, National Publishing House, Delhi.
  • Vijendra Narayan Singh, Dinkar: Ek Punarmulyankan, Parimal Prakashan, Allapur, Allahabad.
  • Vijendra Narayan Singh, Urvashi: Uplabdhi Aur Sima, Parimal Prakashan, Allapur, Allahabad.
  • Gopalkrishna Kaul and Hariprasad Shastri, Dinkar: Srishti aur Drishti, Vatayan Prakashan, Gaziabad.
  • Dr. Savitri Sinha, Kavi Dinkar, Radhakrishna Prakashan, Delhi.
  • Murlidhar Srivastava, Yugkavi Dinkar, Bihar Granth Kutir, Patna.
  • Ramashankar Tiwari, Dinkar ki Urvashi, Chaukhambha Vidya Bhavan, Varanasi.
  • Vachandev Kumar, Urvashi: Vichar Aur Vishleshan, Bihar Granth Kutir, Patna.
  • Jai Singh 'Nirad', Adhunikta ke hashiye me Urvashi.
  • Jai Singh 'Nirad', Dinkar ke kavya main parampara aur adhunikta.
  • Jagdish Chaturvedi, Dinkar: vyaktitva aur krititva.
  • Dr. Rama Rani Singh, Dinkar Sahitya main vyaktitva ki abhivyakti.
  • Gopal Rai, Rashtrakavi Dinkar.


  1. ^ Biography and Works www.anubhuti-hindi.org.
  2. ^ a b Sahitya Akademi Award Citation
  3. ^ "Special Postage Stamps on Linguistic Harmony of India". Latest PIB Releases. Press Information Bureau of the Government of India. September 1999. http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/l0999/r140999.html. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  4. ^ "PM to unveil portraits of Dinkar, Kunwar Singh". The Hindu. 2008-12-22. http://www.hindu.com/2008/12/22/stories/2008122253850400.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  5. ^ Aditi Tandon (2008-12-22). "Probe sought into Guru Ram Singh’s death". The Tribune. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2008/20081223/nation.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Vijendra Narayan, Singh (2005). Bharatiya Sahitya ke Nirmata: Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-2142-X.. 
  7. ^ Harish Khare (2001-05-16). "Obligations of a lameduck". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/2001/05/16/stories/05162523.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  8. ^ "Indra R Sharma: Bihar Hardly Cares Its Great Sons". http://www.bihartimes.com/articles/indra/greatsons.html. 
  9. ^ a b c d 'Dinkar', Ramdhari Singh (2008). Chintan ke Aayam. Lokbharti Prakashan. 
  10. ^ a b Avijit Ghosh (2008-09-24). "100 years on, poet Dinkar remains popular as ever". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/100_years_on_poet_Dinkar_remains_popular_as_ever/articleshow/3519918.cms. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  11. ^ a b Lal, Mohan (1992). Encyclpopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 820. ISBN 978-8126012213. 
  12. ^ George (ed.), K.M. (1992). Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 9788172013240. 
  13. ^ a b c Das, Sisir Kumar (1995). A History of Indian literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 908. ISBN 978-8172017989. 
  14. ^ Misha Sharma (2007-09-09). "A mine of resources waiting to be tapped". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2007090950011400.htm&date=2007/09/09/&prd=op&. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  15. ^ Sahitya Akademi Awards 1955-2007 Sahitya Akademi Award Official website.
  16. ^ "Jnanpith Laureates Official listings". Jnanpith Website. http://jnanpith.net/laureates/index.html. 
  17. ^ Chand, Attar (1992). President Shankar Dayal Sharma, the scholar and the statesman. Anmol Publications. pp. 371. ISBN 978-8170416784. 
  18. ^ "Special Postage Stamps on Linguistic Harmony of India". Latest PIB Releases. Press Information Bureau of the Government of India. September 1999. http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/l0999/r140999.html. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  19. ^ "Shri Dasmunsi releases book on birth centenary of poet ‘Dinkar’". Latest PIB Releases. Press Information Bureau of the Government of India. September 2008. http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=43076. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  20. ^ "Poet Dinkar remembered". The Times of India. 2008-09-24. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Patna/Poet_Dinkar_remembered/articleshow/3519896.cms. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  21. ^ "Seminar inaugurated". The Hindu. 2009-02-03. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2009020351880300.htm&date=2009/02/03/&prd=th&. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 

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