- Indian independence movement
The term "Indian independence movement" is diffuse, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both
Nonviolentand Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial administrations in South Asia. The initial resistance to the movement can be traced back to the very beginnings of Colonial Expansion in Karnataka by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the British East India Companyin Bengal, in the middle and late 1700s. The first organised militant movement was in Bengal, that later took political stage in the form of mainstream movement from the latter part of the 1800s was increasingly led by the leaders of the then newly formed Indian National Congresswith prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic rights to appear for civil services examinations and more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. They used moderate methods of prayer, petition and the press(3p's). The beginning of the early 1900s saw a more radical approach towards political independence proposed by leaders such as the Lal Bal Paland Sri Aurobindo. Militant nationalism also emerged in the first decades, culminating in the failed Indo-German Pact and Ghadar Conspiracy during the World War I. The end of the freedom struggle saw the Congress adopt the policies of nonviolence led by Mahatma Gandhi. Other leaders, such as Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, later came to adopt a military approach to the movement. The World War IIperiod saw the peak of the movements like INAmovement led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bosefrom East Asia and Quit India movement.
India remained a
Dominionof The Crownuntil 26 January 1950, when it adopted its Constitution to proclaim itself a Republic. Pakistanproclaimed itself a Republicin 1956 but faced a number of internal power struggles that has seen suspensions of democracy. In 1971, the Pakistani Civil Warculminating in the 1971 War saw the splintering-off of East Pakistaninto the nation of Bangladesh.
The independence movement also served as a major catalyst for similar movements in other parts of the world, leading to the eventual disintegration and dismantling of the British Empire and its replacement with the
Commonwealth of Nations. Gandhi's philosophy of nonviolent resistanceinspired the American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)led by Martin Luther King, Jr., the quest for democracy in Myanmarled by Aung San Suu Kyiand the African National Congress's struggle against apartheidin South Africaled by Nelson Mandela. However not all these leaders adhered to Gandhi's strict principle of nonviolenceand nonresistance.
European traders came to Indian shores with the arrival of the Portuguese explorer
Vasco da Gamain 1498 at the port of Calicut in search of the lucrative spicetrade. After the 1757 Battle of Plassey, during which the British army under Robert Clivedefeated the Nawab of Bengal, the British East India Companyestablished itself. This is widely seen as the beginning of the British Rajin India. The Company gained administrative rights over Bengal, Bihar, and Orissain 1765 after the Battle of Buxar. They then annexed Punjab in 1849 after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singhin 1839 and the First Anglo-Sikh War(1845–46) and then the Second Anglo-Sikh War(1848–49).
The British parliament enacted a series of laws to handle the administration of the newly-conquered provinces, including the
Regulating Actof 1773, the India Act of 1784, and the Charter Act of 1813; all enhanced the British government's rule. In 1835 English was made the medium of instruction. Western-educated Hindu elites sought to rid Hinduismof controversial social practices, including the "varna" (caste) system, child marriage, and "sati". Literary and debating societies initiated in Bombay and Madras became forums for open political discourse. The educational attainment and skillful use of the press by these early reformers created the growing possibility for effecting broad reforms within colonial India, all without compromising larger Indian social values and religious practices.
Even while these modernising trends influenced Indian society, Indians increasingly despised British rule. The memoirs of Henry Ouvry of the
9th Lancersrecord many "a good thrashing" to careless servants.Fact|date=June 2007 A spice merchant, Frank Brown, wrote to his nephew that stories of maltreatment of servants had not been exaggerated and that he knew people who kept orderlies "purposely to thrash them".Fact|date=June 2007 As the British increasingly dominated the continent, they grew increasingly abusive of local customs by, for example, staging parties in mosques, dancing to the music of regimental bands on the terrace of the Taj Mahal, using whips to force their way through crowded bazaars (as recounted by General Henry Blake), and mistreating sepoys. In the years after the annexation of Punjab in 1849, several mutinies among sepoys broke out; these were put down by force.
Regional movements prior to 1857
Seealso|Sannyasi Rebellion|Conspiracy Of The Pintos and
Polygar WarsSeveral regional movements against foreign rule were staged in various parts of pre-1857 India. However, they were not united and were easily controlled by the foreign rulers. Examples include the rebellion of Abbakka Raniin Karnatakafrom 1555 to 1570 against the Portuguese, Sannyasi Rebellionin Bengalin the 1770s,cite journal
author = Lorenzen, D.N.
title = "Warrior Ascetics in Indian History".
journal = Journal of the American Oriental Society.
year = 1978
volume = 98
issue = 1
pages = 617–75
doi = 10.2307/600151] the 1787 ethnic revolt against Portuguese control of
Goaknown as the Conspiracy Of The Pintos,cite web
url = http://www.abbefaria.com/Biography2.htm
title = Abbe Faria
accessdate = 2007-02-19
first = Dom
publisher = V.X.V. Foundation ] the revolt of
Titumirin Bengal in 1830's and uprisings by South Indian local chieftains like Veerapandya Kattabommanagainst British rule.cite web
url = http://www.tamilnation.org/heritage/kattabomman.htm
title = Veerapandiya Kattabomman
accessdate = 2007-02-20
work = tamilnation.org
publisher = Tamil National Foundation,] Other movements included the Santal Rebellion and the resistance offered to the British by
Titumirin Bengal,cite journal
author = Biswas, A.K
title = Santhal Rebellion: - A study of little known facts of their life and culture
journal = Bulletin of Bihar Tribal Welfare Research Institute Ranchi
year = 1995
month = December
volume = V
pages = 13–24
url= ] cite web
url = http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/T_0183.htm
title = Titu Mir
accessdate = 2007-02-18
last = Khan
first = Muazzam Hussain
publisher = Asiatic Society of Bangladesh] the
Kittur Rebellionled by Rani Chennamma in Karnataka, Polygar Warsin Tamil Nadu, Kutch Rebellionin Saurashtra.cite web
url = http://iref.homestead.com/1857.html
title = The Revolt of 1857
accessdate = 2007-02-19
work = Freedom Struggle
publisher = India Relief & Education Fund (IREF)]
The Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a period of uprising in the northern and central
Indiaagainst British rule in 1857–58. The rebellion was the result of decades of ethnic and cultural differences between Indian soldiers and their British officers. The indifference of the British towards Indian rulers like the Mughalsand ex- Peshwas and the annexationof Oudhwere political factors triggering dissent amongst Indians. Dalhousie’s policy of annexation, the doctrine of lapseor escheat, and the projected removal of the descendants of the Great Mughal from their ancestral palace to the Qutb, near Delhi also angered some people. The specific reason that triggered the rebellion was the rumoured use of cow and pig fat in .557 calibre Pattern 1853Enfield (P/53) rifle cartridges. Soldiers had to break the cartridges with their teeth before loading them into their rifles. So if there was cow and pig fat, it would be offensive to Hindu and Muslim soldiers, respectively. In February 1857, sepoys (Indian soldiers in the British army) refused to use their new cartridges. The British claimed to have replaced the cartridges with new ones and tried to make sepoys make their own grease from beeswaxand vegetable oils, but the rumour persisted.
In March 1857,
Mangal Pandey, a soldier of the 34th Native Infantry in Barrackpore, attacked his British sergeant and wounded an adjutant. General Hearsay, who said Pandey was in some kind of "religious frenzy," ordered a jemadarto arrest him but the jemadar refused. Mangal Pandey was hanged on 7 April along with the jemadar. The whole regiment was dismissed as a collective punishment. On 10 May, when the 11th and 20th Cavalry assembled, they broke rank and turned on their commanding officers. They then liberated the 3rd Regiment, and on 11 May the sepoys reached Delhi and were joined by other Indians. The Red Fort, the residence of the last Mughal emperor Bahadur, was attacked and captured by the sepoys. They demanded that he reclaim his throne. He was reluctant at first, but eventually agreed to the demands and became the leader of the rebellion.
Soon, the revolt spread throughout northern India. Revolts broke out in places like
Meerut, Jhansi, Kanpur, Lucknowetc. The British were slow to respond, but eventually responded with brute force. British moved regiments from the Crimean Warand diverted European regiments headed for Chinato India. The British fought the main army of the rebels near Delhi in Badl-ke-Serai and drove them back to Delhi before laying siege on the city. The siege of Delhilasted roughly from 1 July to 31 August. After a week of street fighting, the British retook the city. The last significant battle was fought in Gwalioron 20 June 1858. It was during this battle that Rani Lakshmi Baiwas killed. Sporadic fighting continued until 1859 but most of the rebels were subdued. Some notable leaders were Ahmed Ullah, an advisor of the ex-King of Oudh; Nana Sahib; his nephew Rao Sahib and his retainers, Tantia Topiand Azimullah Khan; the Rani of Jhansi; Kunwar Singh; the Rajputchief of Jagadishpurin Bihar; Firuz Saha, a relative of the Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah and Pran Sukh Yadavwho along with Rao Tula Ramof Rewarifought with Britishers at Nasibpur, Haryana.
The war of 1857 was a major turning point in the history of modern India. The British abolished the British East India Company and replaced it with direct rule under the British crown. A Viceroy was appointed to represent the Crown. In proclaiming the new direct-rule policy to "the Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India," Queen Victoria promised equal treatment under British law, but Indian mistrust of British rule had become a legacy of the 1857 rebellion.
The British embarked on a program in India of reform and political restructuring, trying to integrate Indian higher castes and rulers into the government. They stopped land grabs, decreed religious tolerance and admitted Indians into the civil service, albeit mainly as subordinates. They also increased the number of British soldiers in relation to native ones and allowed only British soldiers to handle artillery. Bahadur Shah was exiled to Rangoon,
Burmawhere he died in 1862, finally bringing the Mughal dynasty to an end. In 1877, Queen Victoria took the title of Empress of India.
Rise of organized movements
The decades following the Sepoy Rebellion were a period of growing political awareness, manifestation of Indian public opinion and emergence of Indian leadership at national and provincial levels.
Dadabhai Naorojiformed East India Association in 1867, and Surendranath Banerjeefounded Indian National Associationin 1876. Inspired by a suggestion made by A.O. Hume, a retired British civil servant, seventy-three Indian delegates met in Bombay in 1885 and founded the Indian National Congress. They were mostly members of the upwardly mobile and successful western-educated provincial elites, engaged in professions such as law, teaching, and journalism. At its inception, the Congress had no well-defined ideology and commanded few of the resources essential to a political organization. It functioned more as a debating society that met annually to express its loyalty to the British Raj and passed numerous resolutions on less controversial issues such as civil rights or opportunities in government, especially the civil service. These resolutions were submitted to the Viceroy's government and occasionally to the British Parliament, but the Congress's early gains were meagre. Despite its claim to represent all India, the Congress voiced the interests of urban elites; the number of participants from other economic backgrounds remained negligible.
The influences of socio-religious groups such as "
Arya Samaj" (started by Swami Dayanand Saraswati) and " Brahmo Samaj" (founded, among others, by Raja Ram Mohan Roy) became evident in pioneering reform of Indian society. The inculcation of religious reform and social pride was fundamental to the rise of a public movement for complete nationhood. The work of men like Swami Vivekananda, Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Sri Aurobindo, Subramanya Bharathy, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Rabindranath Tagoreand Dadabhai Naorojispread the passion for rejuvenation and freedom.
By 1900, although the Congress had emerged as an all-India political organization, its achievement was undermined by its singular failure to attract
Muslims, who felt that their representation in government service was inadequate. Attacks by Hindu reformers against religious conversion, cow slaughter, and the preservation of Urdu in Arabic script deepened their concerns of minority status and denial of rights if the Congress alone were to represent the people of India. Sir Syed Ahmed Khanlaunched a movement for Muslim regeneration that culminated in the founding in 1875 of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh (renamed Aligarh Muslim University in 1921). Its objective was to educate wealthy students by emphasizing the compatibility of Islamwith modern western knowledge. The diversity among India's Muslims, however, made it impossible to bring about uniform cultural and intellectual regeneration.
Rise of Indian nationalism
The first spurts of nationalistic sentiment that rose amongst Congress members were when the desire to be represented in the bodies of government, to have a say, a vote in the lawmaking and issues of administration of India. Congressmen saw themselves as loyalists, but wanted an active role in governing their own country, albeit as part of the Empire. This trend was personified by
Dadabhai Naoroji, who went as far as contesting, successfully, an election to the British House of Commons, becoming its first Indian member. Bal Gangadhar Tilakwas the first Indian nationalist to embrace " Swaraj" as the destiny of the nation. Tilak deeply opposed the British education system that ignored and defamed India's culture, history and values. He resented the denial of freedom of expression for nationalists, and the lack of any voice or role for ordinary Indians in the affairs of their nation. For these reasons, he considered Swarajas the natural and only solution. His popular sentence "Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it" became the source of inspiration for Indians.
In 1907, the Congress was split into two. Tilak advocated what was deemed as "extremism". He wanted a direct assault by the people upon the British Raj, and the abandonment of all things British. He was backed by rising public leaders like
Bipin Chandra Paland Lala Lajpat Rai, who held the same point of view. Under them, India's three great states - Maharashtra, Bengaland Punjab shaped the demand of the people and India's nationalism. Gokhale criticized Tilak for encouraging acts of violence and disorder. But the Congress of 1906 did not have public membership, and thus Tilak and his supporters were forced to leave the party.
But with Tilak's arrest, all hopes for an Indian offensive were stalled. The Congress lost credit with the people, A Muslim deputation met with the Viceroy, Minto (1905–10), seeking concessions from the impending constitutional reforms, including special considerations in government service and electorates. The British recognised some of Muslim League's petitions by increasing the number of elective offices reserved for Muslims in the
Government of India Act 1909. The Muslim League insisted on its separateness from the Hindu-dominated Congress, as the voice of a "nation within a nation."
Partition of Bengal
In 1905, Curzon, the Viceroy and Governor-General (1899–1905), ordered the partition of the province of Bengal for improvements in administrative efficiency in that huge and populous region, where the Bengali Hindu intelligentsia exerted considerable influence on local and national politics. The partition outraged Bengalis. Not only had the government failed to consult Indian public opinion, but the action appeared to reflect the British resolve to
divide and rule. Widespread agitation ensued in the streets and in the press, and the Congress advocated boycotting British products under the banner of " swadeshi". People showed unity by tying Rakhion each other's wrists and observing "Arandhan" (not cooking any food).
During the partition of Bengal new methods of struggle were adopted. These led to swadeshi and boycott movements. The Congress-led boycott of British goods was so successful that it unleashed anti-British forces to an extent unknown since the Sepoy Rebellion. A cycle of violence and repression ensued in some parts of the country (see
Alipore bomb case). The British tried to mitigate the situation by announcing a series of constitutional reforms in 1909 and by appointing a few moderates to the imperial and provincial councils. In what the British saw as an additional goodwill gesture, in 1911 King-Emperor George V visited India for a "durbar" (a traditional court held for subjects to express fealty to their ruler), during which he announced the reversal of the partition of Bengal and the transfer of the capital from Calcutta to a newly planned city to be built immediately south of Delhi, which later became New Delhi. However, ceremony of transfer on 23 December 1912 was marked by the attempt to assassinate the then Viceroy, Lord Hardinge, in what came to be known as the Delhi-Lahore conspiracy.
World War I
World War Ibegan with an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom from within the mainstream political leadership, contrary to initial British fears of an Indian revolt. India contributed massively to the British war effort by providing men and resources. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian government and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. However, Bengaland Punjab remained hotbeds of anti colonial activities. Terrorism in Bengal, increasingly closely linked with the unrests in Punjab, was significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration.Harvnb|Gupta|1997|p=12] [Harvnb|Popplewell|1995|p=201] Also from the beginning of the war, expatriate Indian population, notably from United States, Canada, and Germany, headed by the Berlin Committeeand the Ghadar Party, attempted to trigger insurrections in India on the lines of the 1857 uprisingwith Irish Republican, German and Turkish help in a massive conspiracy that has since come to be called the Hindu German conspiracyHarvnb|Strachan|2001|p=798] Harvnb|Hoover|1985|p=252] Harvnb|Brown|1948|p=300] This conspiracy also attempted to rally Afghanistan against British India.Harvnb|Strachan|2001|p=788] A number of failed attempts were made at mutiny, of which the February mutiny plan and the Singapore mutiny remains most notable. This movement was suppressed by means of a massive international counter-intelligence operation and draconian political acts (including the Defence of India act 1915) that lasted nearly ten years.Harvnb|Hopkirk|2001|p=41] [Harvnb|Popplewell|1995|p=234]
In the aftermath of the
WW I, high casualty rates, soaring inflation compounded by heavy taxation, a widespread influenzaepidemic, and the disruption of trade during the war escalated human suffering in India. The Indian soldiers smuggled arms into India to overthrow the British rule. The prewar nationalist movement revived as moderate and extremist groups within the Congress submerged their differences in order to stand as a unified front. In 1916, the Congress succeeded in forging the Lucknow Pact, a temporary alliance with the Muslim League over the issues of devolution of political power and the future of Islam in the region.
The British themselves adopted a "carrot and stick" approach in recognition of India's support during the war and in response to renewed nationalist demands. In August 1917, Edwin Montagu, the secretary of state for India, made the historic announcement in Parliament that the British policy for India was "increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire." The means of achieving the proposed measure were later enshrined in the
Government of India Act 1919, which introduced the principle of a dual mode of administration, or diarchy, in which both elected Indian legislators and appointed British officials shared power. The act also expanded the central and provincial legislatures and widened the franchise considerably. Diarchy set in motion certain real changes at the provincial level: a number of non-controversial or "transferred" portfolios, such as agriculture, local government, health, education, and public works, were handed over to Indians, while more sensitive matters such as finance, taxation, and maintaining law and order were retained by the provincial British administrators.
Gandhi arrives in India
Mahatma Gandhihad been a prominent leader of the anti- Apartheidmovement in South Africa, and had been a vocal opponent of basic discrimination and abusive labour treatment as well as suppressive police control such as the Rowlatt Acts. During these protests, Gandhi had perfected the concept of " satyagraha", which had been inspired by the philosophy of Baba Ram Singh(famous for leading the KukaMovement in the Punjab in 1872). The end of the protests in South Africa saw oppressive legislation repealed and the release of political prisoners by General Jan Smuts, head of the South African Government of the time.
Gandhi, a stranger to India and its politics after twenty years, had initially entered the fray not with calls for a nation-state, but in support of the unified commerce-oriented territory that the Congress Party had been asking for. Gandhi believed that the industrial development and educational development that the Europeans had brought with them were required to alleviate many of India's problems.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a veteran Congressman and Indian leader, became Gandhi's mentor. Gandhi's ideas and strategies of non-violent civil disobedienceinitially appeared impractical to some Indians and Congressmen. In Gandhi's own words, "civil disobedience is civil breach of unmoral statutory enactments." It had to be carried out non-violently by withdrawing cooperation with the corrupt state. Gandhi's ability to inspire millions of common people became clear when he used satyagrahaduring the anti-Rowlatt Act protests in Punjab.
Gandhi’s vision would soon bring millions of regular Indians into the movement, transforming it from an elitist struggle to a national one. The nationalist cause was expanded to include the interests and industries that formed the economy of common Indians. For example, in
Champaran, Bihar, the Congress Party championed the plight of desperately poor sharecroppers and landless farmers who were being forced to pay oppressive taxes and grow cash crops at the expense of the subsistence crops which formed their food supply. The profits from the crops they grew were insufficient to provide for their sustenance".
The Rowlatt Act and its aftermath
The positive impact of reform was seriously undermined in 1919 by the
Rowlatt Act, named after the recommendations made the previous year to the Imperial Legislative Councilby the Rowlatt Commission, which had been appointed to investigate what was termed the "seditious conspiracy" and the German and Bolshevikinvolvement in the millitant movements in India.Harvnb|Tinker|1968|p=92] Harvnb|Lovett|1920|p=94, 187-191] Harvnb|Sarkar|1921|p=137] The Rowlatt Act, also known as the Black Act, vested the Viceroy's government with extraordinary powers to quell sedition by silencing the press, detaining the political activists without trial, and arresting any individuals suspected of sedition or treason without a warrant. In protest, a nationwide cessation of work (" hartal") was called, marking the beginning of widespread, although not nationwide, popular discontent.The agitation unleashed by the acts culminated on 13 April 1919, in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre(also known as the Amritsar Massacre) in Amritsar, Punjab. The British military commander, Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, blocked the main entrance, and ordered his soldiers to fire into an unarmed and unsuspecting crowd of some 5,000 men, women and children. They had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh, a walled in courtyard in defiance of the ban. A total of 1,651 rounds were fired, killing 379 people (as according to an official British commission; Indian estimates ranged as high as 1,499 [Ackerman, Peter, and Duvall, Jack, "A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict" p. 74.] ) and wounding 1,137 in the episode, which dispelled wartime hopes of home rule and goodwill in a frenzy of post-war reaction.
The Non-cooperation movements
It can be argued that the independence movement, even towards the end of First World War, was far removed from the masses of India, focusing essentially on a unified commerce-oriented territory and hardly a call for a united nation. That came in the 1930s with the entry of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi into Indian Politics in 1915.
The first Non cooperation movement
The first satyagraha movement urged the use of
Khadiand Indian material as alternatives to those shipped from Britain. It also urged people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts; resign from government employment; refuse to pay taxes; and forsake British titles and honours. Although this came too late to influence the framing of the new Government of India Act of 1919, the movement enjoyed widespread popular support, and the resulting unparalleled magnitude of disorder presented a serious challenges to foreign rule. However, Gandhi called off the movement following the Chauri Chauraincident, which saw the death of twenty-two policemen at the hands of an angry mob.
In 1920, the Congress was reorganized and given a new constitution, whose goal was "Swaraj" (independence) Fact|date=February 2007. Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee, and a hierarchy of committees was established and made responsible for discipline and control over a hitherto amorphous and diffuse movement. The party was transformed from an elite organization to one of mass national appeal and participation.
Gandhi was sentenced in 1922 to six years of prison, but was released after serving two. On his release from prison, he set up the
Sabarmati Ashramin Ahmedabad, on the banks of river Sabarmati, established the newspaper "Young India", and inaugurated a series of reforms aimed at the socially disadvantaged within Hindu society - the rural poor, and the untouchables.
This era saw the emergence of new generation of Indians from within the Congress Party, including
C. Rajagopalachari, Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Subhash Chandra Boseand others- who would later on come to form the prominent voices of the Indian independence movement, whether keeping with Gandhian Values, or diverging from it.
The Indian political spectrum was further broadened in the mid-1920s by the emergence of both moderate and militant parties, such as the
Swaraj Party, Hindu Mahasabha, Communist Party of Indiaand the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Regional political organizations also continued to represent the interests of non- Brahmins in Madras, Mahars in Maharashtra, and Sikhs in Punjab. However, brahmins like Mahakavi Subramanya Bharathi, Vanchinathan and Neelakanda Brahmachari played a major role from Tamil Nadu in both freedom struggle and fighting for equality for all castes and communities.
Following the rejection of the recommendations of the
Simon Commissionby Indians, an all-party conference was held at Bombayin May 1928. This was meant to instil a sense of resistance among people. The conference appointed a drafting committee under Motilal Nehruto draw up a constitution for India. The Calcuttasession of the Indian National Congress asked the British government to accord dominion status to India by December 1929, or a countrywide civil disobedience movement would be launched. By 1929, however, in the midst rising political discontent and increasingly violent regional movements, the call for complete independence from Britain began to find increasing grounds within the Congress leadership. Under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehruat its historic Lahoresession in December 1929, The Indian National Congressadopted a resolution calling for complete independence from the British. It authorised the Working Committee to launch a civil disobedience movement throughout the country. It was decided that 26 January 1930 should be observed all over India as the " Purna Swaraj" (total independence) Day. Many Indian political parties and Indian revolutionaries of a wide spectrum united to observe the day with honour and pride.
alt March and Civil Disobedience
Gandhi emerged from his long seclusion by undertaking his most famous campaign, a march of about 400 kilometres from his commune in
Ahmedabadto Dandi, on the coast of Gujaratbetween 12 March and 6 April 1930. The march is usually known as the "Dandi March" or the "Salt Satyagraha". At Dandi, in protest against British taxes on salt, he and thousands of followers broke the law by making their own salt from seawater.
In April 1930 there were violent police-crowd clashes in
Calcutta. Approximately over 100,000 people were imprisoned in the course of the Civil disobedience movement (1930-31), while in Peshawarunarmed demonstrators were fired upon in the Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre. The latter event catapulted the then newly formed Khudai Khidmatgarmovement (founder Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the "Frontier Gandhi") onto the National scene. While Gandhi was in jail, the first Round Table Conferencewas held in London in November 1930, without representation from the Indian National Congress. The ban upon the Congress was removed because of economic hardships caused by the satyagraha. Gandhi, along with other members of the Congress Working Committee, was released from prison in January 1931.
In March 1931, the
Gandhi-Irwin Pactwas signed, and the government agreed to set all political prisoners free (Although, some of the key revolutionaries were not set free and the death sentence for Bhagat Singh and his two comrades was not taken back which further intensified the agitation against Congress not only outside it but with in the Congress it self). In return, Gandhi agreed to discontinue the civil disobedience movement and participate as the sole representative of the Congress in the second Round Table Conference, which was held in London in September 1931. However, the conference ended in failure in December 1931. Gandhi returned to India and decided to resume the civil disobedience movement in January 1932.
For the next few years, the Congress and the government were locked in conflict and negotiations until what became the
Government of India Actof 1935 could be hammered out. By then, the rift between the Congress and the Muslim League had become unbridgeable as each pointed the finger at the other acrimoniously. The Muslim League disputed the claim of the Congress to represent all people of India, while the Congress disputed the Muslim League's claim to voice the aspirations of all Muslims.
Elections and the Lahore resolution
Government of India Act 1935, the voluminous and final constitutional effort at governing British India, articulated three major goals: establishing a loose federal structure, achieving provincial autonomy, and safeguarding minority interests through separate electorates. The federal provisions, intended to unite princely states and British India at the centre, were not implemented because of ambiguities in safeguarding the existing privileges of princes. In February 1937, however, provincial autonomy became a reality when elections were held; the Congress emerged as the dominant party with a clear majority in five provinces and held an upper hand in two, while the Muslim League performed poorly.
In 1939, the Viceroy Linlithgow declared India's entrance into
World War IIwithout consulting provincial governments. In protest, the Congress asked all of its elected representatives to resign from the government. Jinnah, the president of the Muslim League, persuaded participants at the annual Muslim League session at Lahorein 1940 to adopt what later came to be known as the Lahore Resolution, demanding the division of India into two separate sovereign states, one Muslim, the other Hindu; sometimes referred to as Two Nation Theory. Although the idea of Pakistanhad been introduced as early as 1930, very few had responded to it. However, the volatile political climate and hostilities between the Hindus and Muslims transformed the idea of Pakistan into a stronger demand.
thumb|100px|Smiling_Udham leaving the Caxton Hall after his arrest
Apart from a few stray incidents, the armed rebellion against the British rulers was not organized before the beginning of the 20th century. The Indian revolutionary underground began gathering momentum through the first decade of 1900s, with groups arising in
Maharastra, Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and the then Madras Presidencyincluding what is now called South India. More groups were scattered around India. Particularly notable movements arose in Bengal, especially around the Partition of Bengalin 1905, and in Punjab.Harvnb|Fraser|1977|p=257] In the former case, it was the educated, intelligent anddedicated youth of the urban Middle Class" Bhadralok" community that came to form the "Classic" Indian revolutionary, while the latter had an immense support base in the rural and Military society of the Punjab. Organisations like Jugantarand Anushilan Samitihad emerged in the 1900s. The revolutionary philosophies and movement made their presence felt during the 1905 Partition of Bengal. Arguably, the initial steps to organize the revolutionaries were taken by Aurobindo Ghosh, his brother Barin Ghosh, Bhupendranath Dattaetc. when they formed the Jugantarparty in April 1906. [ Banglapedia[http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/J_0130.htm article] by Mohammad Shah] Jugantarwas created as an inner circle of the Anushilan Samitiwhich was already present in Bengalmainly as a revolutionary society in the guise of a fitness club.
The Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar opened several branches throughout
Bengaland other parts of Indiaand recruited young men and women to participate in the revolutionary activities. Several murders and looting were done, with many revolutionaries being captured and imprisoned. The Jugantarparty leaders like Barin Ghosh and Bagha Jatininitiated making of explosives. Amongst a number of notable events of political terrorism were the Alipore bomb case, the Muzaffarpur killing tried several activists and many were sentenced to deportation for life, while Khudiram Bosewas hanged. The founding of the India Houseand the The Indian Sociologistunder Shyamji Krishna Varmain Londonin 1905 took the radical movement to Britain itself. On 1 July 1909, Madan Lal Dhingra, an Indian student closely identified with India House in London shot dead William Hutt Curzon Wylie, a British M.P. in London. 1912 saw the Delhi-Lahore Conspiracyplanned under Rash Behari Bose, an erstwhile Jugantarmember, to assassinate the then Viceroy of India Charles Hardinge. The conspiracy culminated in an attempt to Bomb the Viceregal procession on 23 December 1912, on the occasion of transferring the Imperial Capital tfrom Calcuttato Delhi. In the aftermath of this event, concentrated police and intelligence efforts were made by the British Indian police to destroy the Bengali and Punabi revolutionary underground, which came under intense pressure for sometime. Rash Behari successfully evaded capture for nearly three years. However, by the time that WW Iopened in Europe, the revolutionary movement in Bengal (and Punjab) had revived and was strong enough to nearly paralyse the local administration. [Harvnb|Gupta|1997|p=12] [Harvnb|Popplewell|1995|p=201] During the First World War, the revolutionaries planned to import arms and ammunitions from Germanyand stage an armed revolution against the British. ["Rowlatt Report" (§109–110); "First Spark of Revolution" by A.C. Guha, pp. 424–34.]
Ghadar Partyoperated from abroad and cooperated with the revolutionaries in India. This party was instrumental in helping revolutionaries inside India catch hold of foreign arms.
After the First World War, the revolutionary activities began to slowly wane as it suffered major setbacks due to the arrest of prominent leaders. In the 1920s, some revolutionary activists began to reorganize.
Hindustan Socialist Republican Associationwas formed under the leadership of Chandrasekhar Azad. Bhagat Singhand Batukeshwar Duttthrew a bomb inside the Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929 protesting against the passage of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes Bill. Following the trial (Central Assembly Bomb Case), Bhagat Singh, Sukhdevand Rajguruwere hanged in 1931. Allama Mashriqifounded Khaksar Tehreek in order to direct particularly the Muslims towards the independence movement. [Khaksar Tehrik Ki Jiddo Juhad Volume 1. Author Khaksar Sher Zaman] Surya Sen, along with other activists, raided the Chittagongarmoury on 18 April 1930 to capture arms and ammunition and to destroy government communication system to establish a local governance. Pritilata Waddedarled an attack on a European club in Chittagongin 1932, while Bina Dasattempted to assassinate Stanley Jackson, the Governor of Bengalinside the convocation hall of Calcutta University. Following the Chittagong armoury raidcase, Surya Senwas hanged and several others were deported for life to the Cellular Jailin Andaman. The Bengal Volunteersstarted operating in 1928. On 8 December 1930, the Benoy-Badal-Dinesh trio of the party entered the secretariat Writers' Buildingin Kolkataand murdered Col. N. S. Simpson, the Inspector General of Prisons.
On 13 March 1940,
Udham Singhshot Michael O'Dwyer, generally held responsible for the Amritsar Massacre, in London. However, as the political scenario changed in the late 1930s — with the mainstream leaders considering several options offered by the British and with religious politics coming into play — revolutionary activities gradually declined. Many past revolutionaries joined mainstream politics by joining Congress and other parties, especially communist ones, while many of the activists were kept under hold in different jails across the country.
The climax: War, Quit India, INA and Post-war revolts
Indians throughout the country were divided over
World War II, as Linlithgow, without consulting the Indian representatives had unilaterally declared India a belligerent on the side of the allies. In opposition to Linlithgow's action, the entire Congress leadership resigned from the local government councils. However, many wanted to support the British war effort, and indeed the British Indian Army was one of the largest volunteer forces during the war.Fact|date=February 2007 Especially during the Battle of Britain, Gandhi resisted calls for massive civil disobedience movements that came from within as well as outside his party, stating he did not seek India's freedom out of the ashes of a destroyed Britain. However, like the changing fortunes of the war itself, the movement for freedom saw the rise of two movements that formed the climax of the 100-year struggle for independence.
The first of these, the
Azad Hindmovement led by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, saw its inception early in the war and sought help from the Axis Powers. The second saw its inception in August 1942 led by Gandhi and began following failure of the Cripps' missionto reach a consensus with the Indian political leadership over the transfer of power after the war.
The Indian National Army
The arbitrary entry of India into the war was strongly opposed by
Subhash Chandra Bose, who had been elected President of the Congress twice, in 1937 and 1939. After lobbying against participation in the war, he resigned from Congress in 1939 and started a new party, the All India Forward Bloc. When war broke out, the Raj had put him under house arrest in Calcutta in 1940. However, at the time the war was at its bloodiest in Europe and Asia, he escaped and made his way through Afghanistanto Germany to seek Axis help to raise an army to fight the shackles of the Raj. Here, he raised with Rommel's Indian POWs what came to be known as the Free India Legion. This came to be the conceptualisation in embryonic form of Bose's dream of raising a liberation Army to fight the Raj. However, the turn of tides in the Battlefields of Europe saw Bose make his way ultimately to Japanese South Asia where he formed what came to be known as the Azad Hind Governmentas the Provisional Free Indian Government in exile, and organized the Indian National Armywith Indian POWs and Indian expatriatesat South-East Asia, with the help of the Japanese. Its aim was to reach India as a fighting force that would build on public resentment to inspire revolts among Indian soldiers to defeat the Raj.
The INA was to see action against the allies, including the British Indian Army, in the forests of in Arakan,
Burmaand Assam, laying siege on Imphal and Kohima with the Japanese 15th Army. During the war, the Andaman and Nicobarislands were captured by the Japanese and handed over by them to the INA; Bose renamed them "Shahid" (Martyr) and "Swaraj" (Independence).
The INA would ultimately fail, owing to disrupted logistics, poor arms and supplies from the Japanese, and lack of support and training. [http://mondediplo.com/2005/05/13wwiiasia] The supposed death of Bose is seen as culmination of the entire Azad Hind Movement. Following the surrender of Japan, the troops of the INA were brought to India and a number of them charged with treason. However, Bose's audacious actions and radical initiative had by this time captured the public imagination and also turned the inclination of the native soldiers of the British Indian Forces from one of loyalty to the crown to support for the soldiers that the Raj deemed as collaborators. [ Edwardes, Michael, "The Last Years of British India, Cleveland, World Pub. Co., 1964, p. 93".
The Government of India had hoped, by prosecuting members of the INA, to reinforce the morale of the Indian army. It succeeded only in creating unease, in making the soldiers feel slightly ashamed that they themselves had supported the British. If Bose and his men had been on the right side — and all India now confirmed that they were — then Indians in the Indian army must have been on the wrong side. It slowly dawned upon the Government of India that the backbone of the British rule, the Indian army, might now no longer be trustworthy. The ghost of Subhas Bose, like Hamlet’s father, walked the battlements of the Red Fort (where the INA soldiers were being tried), and his suddenly amplified figure overawed the conference that was to lead to independence.] ["Encyclopedia Britannica". [http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-9311795 Indian National army] . After returning to India the veterans of the INA posed a difficult problem for the British government. The British feared that a public trial for treason on the part of the INA members might embolden anti-British sentiment and erupt into widespread protest and violence. URL Accessed on 19 Aug 06.]
After the war, the stories of the
Azad Hindmovement and its army that came into public limelight during the trials of soldiers of the INA in 1945 were seen as so inflammatory that, fearing mass revolts and uprisings — not just in India, but across its empire — the British Government forbade the BBCfrom broadcasting their story. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3684288.stm Mutinies] (last section).] Newspapers reported the summary execution of INA soldiers held at Red Fort. [ [http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/specials/Netaji/images/nov_2_45.gifMany I.N.A. men already executed] , Lucknow". The Hindustan Times, 2 November 1945. URL Accessed 11-Aug-06.] During and after the trial, mutinies broke out in the British Indian Armed forces, most notably in the Royal Indian Navy which found public support throughout India, from Karachito Bombayand from Vizagto Calcutta. [Legacy and assessment of the effects of the mutiny.] [Consequences of the I.N.A. Trials] [ [http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060212/spectrum/main2.htm Tribune India] , accessed on 17-Jul-2006 ] Many historians have argued that it was the INA and the mutinies it inspired among the British Indian Armed forces that were the true driving force behind India's final independence. [ [http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060212/spectrum/main2.htm "RIN mutiny gave a jolt to the British"] by Dhanjaya Bhat, "The Tribune", 12 February 2006, retrieved 17 July 2006] [Majumdar, R.C., Three Phases of India's Struggle for Freedom, Bombay, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1967, pp. 58–59.] [R.C. Majumdar. History of the Freedom Movement in India. ISBN 0-8364-2376-3, reprint. Calcutta, Firma KLM, 1997, vol. III.]
The Quit India Movement "(Bharat Chhodo Andolan)" or the "August Movement" was a
civil disobediencemovement in Indialaunched in August 1942 in response to Gandhi's call for immediate independence of India and against sending Indians to the World War II.
At the outbreak of war, the Congress Party had during the Wardha meeting of the working-committee in September 1939, passed a resolution conditionally supporting the fight against fascism, [cite web|url=http://www.aicc.org.in/the_congress_and_the_freedom_movement.htm#the|title=The Congress and The Freedom Movement|accessdate=2007-09-24|publisher =Indian National Congress] but were rebuffed when they asked for independence in return. In March 1942, faced with an increasingly dissatisfied sub-continent only reluctantly participating in the war, and deteriorations in the war situation in
Europeand South East Asia, and with growing dissatisfactions among Indian troops- especially in Europe- and among the civilian population in the sub-continent, the British government sent a delegation to India under Stafford Cripps, in what came to be known as the Cripps' Mission. The purpose of the mission was to negotiate with the Indian National Congressa deal to obtain total co-operation during the war, in return of progressive devolution and distribution of power from the crown and the Viceroyto elected Indian legislature. However, the talks failed, having failed to address the key demand of a timeframe towards self-government, and of definition of the powers to be relinquished, essentially portraying an offer of limited dominion-status that was wholly unacceptable to the Indian movement.Culture and Combat in the Colonies. The Indian Army in the Second World War. Tarak Barkawi. J Contemp History. 41(2), 325–355.pp:332] To force the Raj to meet its demands and to obtain definitive word on total independence, the Congress took the decision to launch the Quit India Movement.
The aim of the movement was to bring the British Government to the negotiating table by holding the Allied War Effort hostage. The call for determined but
passive resistancethat signified the certitude that Gandhi foresaw for the movement is best described by his call to "Do or Die", issued on 8 August at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Bombay, since re-named "August Kranti Maidan" (August Revolution Ground). However, almost the entire Congress leadership, and not merely at the national level, was put into confinement less than twenty-four hours after Gandhi's speech, and the greater number of the Congress khiland were to spend the rest of the war in jail.
On 8 August 1942, the Quit India resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee (AICC). The draft proposed that if the British did not accede to the demands, a massive Civil Disobedience would be launched. However, it was an extremely controversial decision. At Gowalia Tank,
Mumbai, Gandhi urged Indians to follow a non-violent civil disobedience. Gandhi told the masses to act as an independent nation and not to follow the orders of the British. The British, already alarmed by the advance of the Japanese army to the India–Burma border, responded the next day by imprisoning Gandhi at the Aga Khan Palacein Pune. The Congress Party's Working Committee, or national leadership was arrested all together and imprisoned at the Ahmednagar Fort. They also banned the party altogether. Large-scale protests and demonstrations were held all over the country. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called. The movement also saw widespread acts of sabotage, Indian under-ground organisation carried out bomb attacks on allied supply convoys, government buildings were set on fire, electricity lines were disconnected and transport and communication lines were severed. The Congress had lesser success in rallying other political forces, including the Muslim Leagueunder a single mast and movement. It did however, obtain passive support from a substantial Muslim population at the peak of the movement.
The British swiftly responded by mass detentions. A total over 100,000 arrests were made nationwide, mass fines were levied, bombs were airdroppedFact|date=February 2007 and demonstrators were subjected to public flogging.
The movement soon became a leaderless act of defiance, with a number of acts that deviated from Gandhi's principle of non-violence. In large parts of the country, the local underground organisations took over the movement. However, by 1943, "Quit India" had petered out.
The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny (the RIN Mutiny or the Bombay Mutiny) encompasses a total strike and subsequent
mutinyby the Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy on board ship and shore establishments at Bombay(Mumbai) harbour on 18 February 1946. From the initial flashpoint in Bombay, the mutinyspread and found support through India, from Karachito Calcuttaand ultimately came to involve 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors.
The RIN Mutiny started as a strike by ratings of the Royal Indian Navy on the 18th February in protest against general conditions. The immediate issues of the mutiny were conditions and food, but there were more fundamental matters such as
racistbehaviour by British officers of the Royal Navypersonnel towards Indian sailors, and disciplinary measures being taken against anyone demonstrating pro-nationalist sympathies. By dusk on 19 February, a Naval Central Strike committee was elected. Leading Signalman M.S Khan and Petty Officer Telegraphist Madan Singh were unanimously elected President and Vice-President respectively.. [Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. By O.P Ralhan pp1011 ISBN 8174888659 ] The strike found immense support among the Indian population already in grips with the stories of the Indian National Army. The actions of the mutineers were supported by demonstrations which included a one-day general strike in Bombay. The strike spread to other cities, and was joined by the Air Forceand local police forces. Naval officers and men began calling themselves the Indian National Navy and offered left-handed salutes to British officers. At some places, NCOs in the British Indian Armyignored and defied orders from British superiors. In Madrasand Pune, the British garrisons had to face revolts within the ranks of the British Indian Army. Widespread rioting took place from Karachito Calcutta. Famously the ships hoisted three flags tied together — those of the Congress, Muslim League, and the Red Flag of the Communist Party of India(CPI), signifying the unity and demarginalisation of communalissues among the mutineers.
Independence, 1947 to 1950
On 3 June 1947, Viscount
Louis Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced the partitioning of the British Indian Empire into a secular India and a Muslim Pakistan. On 14 August 1947, Pakistan was declared a separate nation from them. At midnight, on 15 August 1947, India became an independent nation. Violent clashes between Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs followed. Prime Minister Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patelinvited Mountbatten to continue as Governor General of India. He was replaced in June 1948 by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. Patel took on the responsibility of unifying 565 princely states, steering efforts by his “iron fist in a velvet glove” policies, exemplified by the use of military force to integrate Junagadh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Hyderabad state( Operation Polo) into India.
The Constituent Assembly completed the work of drafting the constitution on 26 November 1949; on 26 January 1950 the
Republic of Indiawas officially proclaimed. The Constituent Assembly elected Dr. Rajendra Prasadas the first President of India, taking over from Governor General Rajgopalachari. Subsequently, a free and sovereign India absorbed three other territories: Goa(from Portuguese control in 1961), Pondicherry(which the French ceded in 1953–1954 ) and Sikkimwhich was absorbed in 1975. In 1952, India held its first general elections, with a voter turnout exceeding 62%.
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