- Victor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow
Infobox Governor General | name=The Marquess of Linlithgow
KG, KT, GCSI, GCIE, OBE, PC
Viceroy of India
18 April, 1936
1 October 1943
monarch1=Edward VIII, George VI
Stanley Baldwin, Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill
predecessor1=1st Marquess of Willingdon
Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell
24 September, 1887
South Queensferry, Linlithgowshire
5 January, 1952
South Queensferry, Linlithgowshire
spouse=Doreen Maud Milner (
Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow KG, KT, GCSI, GCIE, OBE, PC (
24 September 1887- 5 January 1952) was a British statesman who served as Governor-General and Viceroy of Indiafrom 1936 to 1943.
Early Life and Family
Hope was born at Hopetoun House,
South Queensferry, Linlithgowshire( West Lothian), on 24 September 1887. He was the elder son of John Adrian Louis Hope, seventh earl of Hopetoun, afterwards John Hope, 1st Marquess of Linlithgow, first governor-general of Australiaand his mother, Hersey Everleigh-de-Moleyns ( 31 March 1867- 3 April 1937)), daughter of the fourth Baron Ventry. [Viceroy at Bay: Lord Linlithgow in India, 1936-43, by John Glendevon]
He was educated at
Eton Collegeand in 1908 succeeded his father as second marquess. On 19 April 1911he married Doreen Maud Milner (1886-1965), who herself was the younger daughter of Sir Frederick Milner. [Viceroy at Bay: Lord Linlithgow in India, 1936-43, by John Glendevon] They had two sons and three daughters;
*Charles William Frederick (
7 April 1912-1987); succeeded his father as Marquess
*John Adrian Louis (
7 April 1912-1996); became a Conservative statesman and was made 1st Baron Glendevon
*Lady Anne Adeline (b.
27 January 1914)
*Lady Joan Isabella (b.
21 September 1915)
*Lady Doreen Hersey Winifred (b.
17 June 1920)
Lucinda Greenbecame a famous equestrian.
Linlithgow served as an officer on the Western Front during the
First World War, ending the war with the rank of Colonel. He commanded of a battalion of the Royal Scots. He was mentioned in dispatches and made an Officer of the British Empire, OBE.
He then served in various minor roles in the Conservative governments of the 1920s and 30s. From 1922 till 1924 he served as the civil lord of the
Admiralty, becoming chairman of the Unionist PartyOrganization in 1924 for two years. He also served as President of the Navy Leaguefrom 1924 until 1931. He served as chairman of the Medical Research Council and of the governing body of the Imperial College of Science and Technology. Linlithgow was also chairman of the committee on the distribution and prices of agricultural produce and president of the Edinburgh and East of Scotland College of Agricultureuntil 1933. In the late 1920s he was Chairman of the Royal Commissionon Agriculture in Indiaand in the 1930s of the select committee on Indian constitutional reform. He declined governorship of Madrasbefore eventually becoming Viceroy of India[Viceroy at Bay: Lord Linlithgow in India, 1936-43, by John Glendevon]
On the 18th April, 1936, he succeeded Lord Willingdon as Viceroy of India. Linlithgow implemented the plans for local self-government embodied in the
Government of India Actof 1935, which led to government led by the Congress Partyin 5 of the 11 provinces, but the recalcitrance of the princes prevented the full establishment of Indian self government.Fact|date=May 2007
With the outbreak of the
Second World War, Linlithgow's appeal for unity led to the resignation of the Congress ministries. Disputes between the British administration and Congress ultimately led to massive Indian civil disobedience in the Quit India movementin 1942. Linlithgow suppressed the disturbances and arrested the Congress leaders.Fact|date=May 2007
He is partly blamed for the
Bengal famine of 1943[Bengal Tiger and British Lion: An Account of the Bengal Famine of 1943 (Paperback)by Richard Stevenson]
It was during this period that, while attending Christmas morning service at the Cathedral of the Redemption in Delhi with his large family, whose surname was Hope, he had to sit through a sermon delivered by the verbose
Bishop of Calcutta( Foss Westcott) and Metropolitan of Indiaattacking his attitude to Congress and Home Rule; the peroration of the sermon led to uncontrollable laughter in church as the bishop gestured at the viceregal pew and said "...and all we have left is an array of blasted Hopes." [ [http://www.eswsc.com/Presidents/President1933.htm The Edinburgh Sir Walter Scott Club - The Most Hon. The Marquess of Linlithgow, KT, GCIE, OBE ] ]
Upon Hope's retirement in 1943, his seven year tenure as viceroy had been the longest in the history of the Raj. He was considered by his obituarists to have been one of the most skillful colonial officers to have held the highest office. A sincere
Presbyterian, he served as lord high commissioner to the Church of Scotlandin 1944 and 1945. He died in 1952.
* [http://www.houseofdavid.ca/Ind_uni.htm#Independence Bibliography]
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