- The Hindu
type = Daily
September 20, 1878
price on weekdays = Rs.2.50 (
price on sundays = Rs.4.50 (India)
owners = Kasturi & Sons Ltd.
publisher = N. Ram
political = Left-leaning
website = [http://www.hindu.com The Hindu]
"The Hindu" is a single-edition English-language
Indian newspaper. With a circulation of 1.17 million copies, "The Hindu" has its largest base of circulation in South India, especially Tamil Nadu. Begun in 1878, it was founded on the principles of fairness and justice. Headquartered at Chennai(formerly called Madras), "The Hindu" was published weekly when it was launched and started publishing daily in 1889.
"The Hindu" became, in 1995, the first Indian newspaper to offer an online edition.cite web | author=N. Murali | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2003091301020800.htm&date=2003/09/13/&prd=th125& | title=Core values and high quality standards | work=The Hindu | date=
2003-09-13| accessdate=2006-04-20] . The Hindu is the most circulated periodical in India with a circulation of 1,102,783 copies, according to the Registrar of Newspapers for India (The Sunday Times of India is second with a circulation of 1,038,954 copies).
"The Hindu" is published from 12 locations -
Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kochi, Madurai, Mangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Tiruchirapalli, Vijayawadaand Visakhapatnam. According to Indian Readership Survey 2007, Round 1, "The Hindu" has a readership of 2.2 million. [cite news | url= http://www.newswatch.in/news-analyses/markets-companies/7038.html | title= Print starts fading out | work=Newwatch.in | date= 2007-03-23| accessdate=2007-05-26]
The first issue of "The Hindu" was published on
September 20, 1878, by a group of six young men, led by G. Subramania Aiyer, a radical social reformer and school teacher from Thiruvaiyyar near Thanjavur. Aiyer, then 23, along with his 21-year-old fellow-tutor and friend at Pachaiyappa's College, M. Veeraraghavachariar of Chingleput, and four law students, T.T. Rangachariar, P.V. Rangachariar, D. Kesava Rao Pant and N. Subba Rao Pantulu were members of the TriplicaneLiterary Society. The British-controlled English language local newspapers had been campaigning against the appointment of the first Indian, T. Muthuswami Iyer, to the Bench of the Madras High Courtin 1878. "The Triplicane Six," in an attempt to counter the dominant attitudes in the English language press started "The Hindu" on one British rupee and twelve annas of borrowed money. Aiyer was the editor and Veeraraghavachariar the Managing Director. The first editorial declared, " [the] Press does not only give expression to public opinion, but also modifies and moulds it."
Three of the students soon left the paper and took up careers in law, while Pantulu continued to write for "The Hindu" . The founders of the newspaper maintained a neutral stance regarding British rule, and occasionally, as in an editorial of
1894, held that British rule had been beneficial to Indian people. "However, it was equally convinced that the Anglo-Indian Press should be challenged, despotic bureaucrats condemned, and the abuse of power exposed," writes historian S. Muthiah.cite web| author=S. Muthiah | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2003091300770200.htm&date=2003/09/13/&prd=th125& | title=Willing to strike and not reluctant to wound | date= 2003-09-13| accessdate=2006-04-25]
Initially printing 80 copies a week at the Srinidhi Press in Mint Street, Black Town, "The Hindu" was published every Wednesday evening as an eight-page paper, each a quarter of today's page size and sold for four annas (1/4 Rupee). After a month of printing from the Srinidhi Press, the newspaper switched to the Scottish Press, also in Black Town. The earliest available issue of the paper is dated
June 21, 1881. In 1881, it moved to Ragoonada Row's 'The Hindu Press' of Mylapore, with the intention of making it tri-weekly. This plan did not materialize until it moved to the Empress of India Press, where, starting on October 1, 1883, is was published on every Monday, Wednesday and Friday evening; it continued maintaining the same size as before.
The offices moved to rented premises at 100 Mount Road on
December 3, 1883. The newspaper started printing at its own press there, christened "The National Press," which was established on borrowed capital as public subscriptions were not forthcoming. The building itself became "The Hindu"'s in 1892, after the Maharaja of Vizianagaram, Ananda Gajapathi Raju, gave The National Press a loan both for the building and to carry out needed expansion.
Its assertive editorials earned "The Hindu" the nickname, the Maha Vishnu of Mount Road. "From the new address, 100 Mount Road, which to remain "The Hindu"
'shome till 1939, there issued a quarto-size paper with a front-page full of advertisements - a practice that came to an end only in 1958when it followed the lead of its idol, the pre-Thomson "Times" - and three back pages also at the service of the advertiser. In between, there were more views than news."After 1887, when the annual session of Indian National Congress was held in Madras, the paper's coverage of national news increased significantly, and led to the paper becoming an evening daily starting April 1, 1889.
The partnership between Veeraraghavachariar and Subramania Aiyer was dissolved in October 1898. Aiyer quit the paper and Veeraraghavachariar became the sole owner and appointed C. Karunakara Menon as editor. However, The Hindu's adventurousness began to decline in the 1900s and so did its circulation, which was down to 800 copies when the sole proprietor decided to sell out. The purchaser was The Hindu's Legal Adviser from 1895, S. Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, a politically ambitious lawyer who had migrated from a Kumbakonam village to practise in Coimbatore and from thence to Madras. Kasturi Ranga Iyengar's ancestors had served the courts of Vijayanagar and Mahratta Tanjore. He traded law, in which his success was middling but his interest minimal, for journalism, pursuing his penchant for politics honed in Coimbatore and by his association with the `Egmore Group' led by C. Sankaran Nair and Dr T.M. Nair.
In late 1980s when its ownership passed into the hands of the family's younger members, a changeFact|date=February 2007 in political leaning was observed. Worldpress.org lists the Hindu as a left-leaning independent newspaper. [ [http://www.worldpress.org/newspapers/ASIA/India.cfm Worldpress.org] , the directory of online Indian newspapers and magazines lists "The Hindu" as "Left-leaning, independent", and its biweekly sister publication "Frontline" as "Independent biweekly".] This political polarization is supposed to have taken place since N. Ram took over as editor-in-chief. Joint Managing Director N. Murali said in July 2003, "It is true that our readers have been complaining that some of our reports are partial and lack objectivity. But it also depends on reader beliefs."cite web | author=Venkatachari Jagannathan | url=http://www.domain-b.com/companies/companies_k/kasturi_sons/20030701_change_of_guard.htm | title=Change of guard | date=
2003-06-01| accessdate=2006-04-20] N. Ram was appointed on June 27, 2003as its editor-in-chief with a mandate to "improve the structures and other mechanisms to uphold and strengthen quality and objectivity in news reports and opinion pieces", authorised to "restructure the editorial framework and functions in line with the competitive environment". [cite web | url=http://www.prdomain.com/feature/feature_details.asp?id=119&area=J&typ=A | title=The job of a reporter is to write news, not to comment | date= 2005-11-11| accessdate=2006-04-20 An interview with N. Ram, editor-in-chief of "The Hindu"] On September 3and 23, 2003, the reader's letters column carried responses from readers saying the editorial was biased. [cite news | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/2003/09/03/stories/2003090302701002.htm | title=Opinion - Letters to the Editor | date= 2003-09-03| accessdate=2006-04-20] [cite web | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/2003/09/23/stories/2003092300861002.htm | title=Opinion - Letters to the Editor | date= 2003-09-23| accessdate=2006-04-20] An editorial in August 2003 observed that the newspaper was affected by the ' editorialising as news reporting' virus, and expressed a determination to buck the trend, restore the professionally sound lines of demarcation, and strengthen objectivity and factualityin its coverage. [cite news | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/2003/08/27/stories/2003082700621000.htm | title=The Hindu | work=The Hindu | date= 2003-08-27| accessdate=2006-04-20]
1987-'88 "The Hindu"'s coverage of the Bofors arms deal scandal, a series of document-backed exclusives set the terms of the national political discourse on this subject. The Bofors scandal broke in April 1987 with Swedish Radio alleging that bribes had been paid to top Indian political leaders, officials and Army officers in return for the Swedish arms manufacturing company winning a hefty contract with the Government of India for the purchase of 155mm howitzers. During a six-month period the newspaper published scores of copies of original papers that documented the secret payments, amounting to $50 million, into Swiss bank accounts, the agreements behind the payments, communications relating to the payments and the crisis response, and other material. The investigation was led by part-time correspondent of "The Hindu", Chitra Subramaniamreporting from Geneva, and was supported by Ram in Chennai. The scandal was a major embarrassment to the party in power at the centre, the Indian National Congress, and its leader Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. The paper's editorial accused the Prime Minister of being party to massive fraud and cover up.cite news | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/th125/stories/2003091300830500.htm | title=Developing a paper for a new reader | work=The Hindu | date= 2003-09-13| accessdate=2006-04-20 See paragraph #30]
1991, Deputy Editor N. Ravi, Ram's younger brother replaced G. Kasturi as Editor. Nirmala Lakshman, Kasturi Srinivasan's granddaughter, became Joint Editor of "The Hindu" and her sister, Malini Parthasarathy, Executive Editor. In 2003, the Jayalalitha Government of the state of Tamil Nadu, of which Chennai is the capital, filed cases against thepaper for "breach of privilege" of the state legislative body. The move was widely perceived as a government's assault on freedom of the press. However, "The Hindu" emerged unscathed from the ordeal, scoring both political and legal victories, as it instantly commanded the support of the journalistic community throughout the country, as well as the national government's political leadership. [cite web | author=Onkar Singh | url=http://inhome.rediff.com/news/2003/nov/08hindu.htm | title=Journalists protest TN assembly's arrest of scribes | date= 2003-11-08| accessdate=2006-04-20]
The younger generation of "The Hindu"'s editors have also contributed much to its commercial success. They built a modern
infrastructurefor news-gathering, printing and distribution. On the look of the newspaper, editor-in-chief Ram writes, "The Hindu has been through many evolutionary changes in layout and design, for instance, moving news to the front page that used to be an ad kingdom; adopting modular layout and make-up; using large photographs; introducing colour; transforming the format of the editorial page to make it a purely 'views' page; avoiding carry-over of news stories from one page to another; and introducing boxes, panels, highlights, and briefs." Major layout changes appeared starting cite news |url= http://www.thehindu.com/2005/04/14/stories/2005041406580100.htm |title= Introducing our new look newspaper |work=The Hindu |date= 2005-04-14 |accessdate= 2008-08-20 |author= N. Ram ]
The Hindu, like many other Indian publishing houses, is family-run. It was headed by G. Kasturi from
1965to 1991, N. Ravi from 1991 to 2003, and by his brother, N. Ram, since June 27th 2003. Other family members, including Nirmala Lakshman, Malini Parthasarathy, Nalini Krishnan, N Murali, K Balaji, K Venugopal and Ramesh Rangarajan are directors of The Hindu and its parent company, Kasturi and Sons. S Rangarajan, former managing director and chairman since April 2006, died on 8 February 2007.
The Times", London chose it as one of the world's ten best newspapers in 1965. Discussing each of its choices in separate articles, "The Times" wrote:cquote|"The Hindu" takes the general seriousness to lengths of severity... "The Hindu" which is published in Madras, is the only newspaper which in spite of being published only in a provincial capital is regularly and attentively read in Delhi. It is read not only as a distant and authoritative voice on national affairs but as an expression of the most liberal - and least provincial - southern attitudes... Its Delhi Bureau gives it outstanding political and economic dispatches and it carries regular and frequent reports from all state capitals, so giving more news from states, other than its own, than most newspapers in India... It might fairly be described as a national voice with a southern accent. The Hindu can claim to be the most respected paper in India.
In 1968, the American Newspaper Publishers' Association awarded "The Hindu" its World Press Achievement Award. An extract from the citation readscquote|Throughout nearly a century of its publication "The Hindu" has exerted wide influence not only in Madras but throughout India. Conservative in both tone and appearance, it has wide appeal to the English-speaking segment of the population and wide readership among government officials and business leaders... "The Hindu" has provided its readers a broad and balanced news coverage, enterprising reporting and a sober and thoughtful comment... [It] has provided its country a model of journalistic excellence... [It] has fought for a greater measure of humanity for India and its people... [and] has not confined itself to a narrow chauvinism. Its Correspondents stationed in the major capitals of the world furnish The Hindu world-wide news coverage... For its championing of reason over emotion, for its dedication to principle even in the face of criticism and popular disapproval, for its confidence in the future, it has earned the respect of its community, its country, and the world.
The Hindu has many firsts in India to its credit, [cite news |url= http://www.hinduonnet.com/th125/stories/2003091300071000.htm |title= Guided by a vision of tomorrow |publisher= The Hindu |date= 2003-09-13 |accessdate= 2008-08-20] which include the following
1940- First to introduce colour
1963- First to own fleet of aircraft for distribution
1969- First to adopt facsimile system of page transmission
1980- First to use computer aided photo composing
1986- First to use satellite for facsimile transmission
1994- First to adopt wholly computerized integration of text and graphics in page make-up and remote imaging
1995- First newspaper to go on Internet
1999- Becomes India national news paper
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* [http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=20031010005512800.htm&date=fl2020/&prd=fline& 125 years of The Hindu]
*cite web | author=N. Ram | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2003091300500100.htm&date=2003/09/13/&prd=th125& | title=Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow | work=The Hindu | date=
* Looking Back: The history of "The Hindu" as told by historian S. Muthiah.
** cite web | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2003091300770200.htm&date=2003/09/13/&prd=th125& | title=Willing to strike and not reluctant to wound | date=
** cite web | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2003091300800200.htm&date=2003/09/13/&prd=th125& | title=Making news the family business | date=
** cite web | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2003091300810200.htm&date=2003/09/13/&prd=th125& | title=A clarion call against the Raj | date=
** cite web | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2003091300820400.htm&date=2003/09/13/&prd=th125& | title=Treading softly - but modernizing apace | date=
** cite web | url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2003091300830500.htm&date=2003/09/13/&prd=th125& | title=Developing a paper for the new reader | date=
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