- Soyuz TM-30
Soyuz TM-30/Mir EO-28 Mission insignia
Mission statistics Mission name Soyuz TM-30/Mir EO-28 Crew size 2 Call sign Енисе́й (Yenisei) Launch pad Gagarin's Start, Baikonur Cosmodrome Launch date April 4, 2000
Spacewalk begin May 12, 2000
Spacewalk end May 12, 2000
Landing June 16, 2000
~45 km SE of Arkalyk
Mission duration 72 days 19 hours 42 minutes Number of orbits 1,145 Apogee 384 km (239 mi) Perigee 358 km (222 mi) Orbital period 91.97 minutes Orbital inclination 51.69° Related missions Previous mission Subsequent mission Soyuz TM-29 Soyuz TM-31
Soyuz TM-30 (Russian: Союз ТМ-30, Union TM-30), also known as Mir EO-28, was a Soyuz mission, the 39th and final human spaceflight to the Mir space station. The crew of the mission was sent by MirCorp, a privately funded company, to reactivate and repair the station. The crew also resupplied the station and boosted the station to an orbit with a low point (perigee) of 360 and a high point (apogee) of 378 kilometers (223 and 235 miles, respectively). The boost in the station's orbit, which was done by utilizing the engines of the Progress M1-1 and M1-2 spacecraft, made transit between Mir and the International Space Station impossible, as desired by NASA. The mission was the first privately funded mission to a space station.
The mission was part of an effort by MirCorp to refurbish and privatize the aging Mir space station, which was nearing the end of its operational life. Further commercially funded missions beyond Soyuz TM-30 were originally planned to continue the restoration efforts of the then 14-year-old space station, but insufficient funding and investment ultimately led to the de-orbit of the station in early 2001.
Position Crew Commander Sergei Zalyotin
Flight Engineer Aleksandr Kaleri
Soyuz TM-30 was the first spaceflight for flight commander Zalyotin, who became a cosmonaut in 1990 and completed his general training two years later in 1992. TM-30 was the third visit to space made by flight engineer Kaleri, who became a cosmonaut in 1984 and completed general training in 1986. He served as flight engineer aboard the Soyuz TM-14 and TM-24 missions to Mir in 1992 and 1996-7, respectively.
Position Crew Commander Salizhan Sharipov Flight Engineer Pavel Vinogradov
While Soyuz TM-30 was in orbit, a second privately funded mission was being planned to continue the restoration efforts aboard Mir. The crew assigned to this mission, although never flown, was reported to have been the backup crew for TM-30, cosmonauts Salizhan Sharipov and Pavel Vinogradov.
Soyuz TM-30 was intended by MirCorp to be the first in a series of missions to refurbish the 14-year-old Mir space station for commercial use. Although the mission was scheduled to last approximately two months, commander Sergei Zalyotin said before the flight that if additional funds became available the mission could be extended until August, when another crew would replace them. The other possible scenario, which occurred in reality, was again to leave the station uninhabited, as had been done several months before the mission. Towards the end of Soyuz TM-30 plans were formed to send another privately funded mission to continue with MirCorp's maintenance efforts; cosmonauts Salizhan Sharipov and Pavel Vinogradov were tentatively assigned as the crew.
Soyuz TM-30 launched at 5:01:29 UT on April 4, 2000. Docking occurred on April 6 at 6:31:24 UT. Although the Soyuz docking system is automated under normal conditions, the final few meters of the approach to the station were executed in manual mode. The decision to switch to manual mode came after the cosmonauts noticed a small deviation in the spacecraft's approach to the targeted docking port. At about 9:32 UT on the day of docking, the crew prepared to open the hatches between the Soyuz spacecraft and the station. After entering the station the crew stabilized the atmosphere inside Mir and undertook routine maintenance work.
On April 25, an unmanned Progress resupply mission, Progress M1-2, launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome to the station to deliver supplies to the crew. Progress M1-2 docked with Mir on April 27. On April 26, the Progress M1-1 spacecraft, which had been docked since February and was used by the Russian Federal Space Agency to boost the station to a higher orbit, undocked and de-orbited over the Pacific Ocean east of New Zealand.
The mission's only Extra-Vehicular Activity, or spacewalk, took place on May 12. The primary objectives of the spacewalk were to repair damage to Mir's exterior components and record panoramas of the station's hull in order for experts on Earth to analyze the effects of space on the station itself. The cosmonauts inspected a malfunctioning solar array on the Kvant-1 module of the station. They discovered that a burnt-through wire connecting the array with its steering system was preventing its proper rotation. The array was subsequently deemed a loss.
On June 15, 2000, the TM-30 spacecraft undocked from the station at about 21:24 UT. The de-orbit burn occurred at about 23:52 UT and landing followed at about 00:44 UT on June 16, about 45 kilometers (28 mi) southeast of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan.
Soyuz TM-30 was the first privately funded manned space expedition but several other firsts were also achieved, including the first privately funded extra-vehicular activity, and the first privately funded unmanned resupply mission to a space station, utilizing the Progress-M1 spacecraft. Soyuz TM-30 also managed to delay the de-orbit of Mir, which was originally scheduled to occur some time in 2000, but ultimately occurred in March 2001.
- ^ a b c d e "Mir EO-28". Astronautix. http://web.archive.org/web/20080724062945/http://www.astronautix.com/flights/mireo28.htm. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- ^ a b c d "MirCorp Mission". MirCorp. http://www.mircorp.org/mission.html. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- ^ a b c d "New mission planned for Mir as current one wraps up". CNN. 12 June 2000. http://articles.cnn.com/2000-06-12/tech/mir.mission_1_mir-space-station-mircorp-mir-program?_s=PM:TECH. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- ^ a b "Missions to Mir in 2000". Russianspaceweb. http://www.russianspaceweb.com/mir_2000.html. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
- ^ "Cosmonaut Bio: Sergei Zalyotin". NASA. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/zaletin.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- ^ "Cosmonaut Bio: Alexander Kaleri". NASA. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/kaleri-ay.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- ^ "Soyuz TM-30". Human Spaceflights. Spacefacts. http://www.spacefacts.de/mission/english/soyuz-tm30.htm. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- ^ "Space Crew poised for return to Mir on Tuesday". CNN. 3 April 2000. http://articles.cnn.com/2000-04-03/tech/russia.mir.01_1_alexander-kaleri-mircorp-baikonur-cosmodrome?_s=PM:TECH. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- ^ "MIR: Expedition 28 (EO-28)". Resident Crews of the MIR. Spacefacts. http://www.spacefacts.de/mir/english/mir-28.htm. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- ^ "Future of Mir in doubt after cosmonauts return home". CNN. 16 June 2000. http://articles.cnn.com/2000-06-16/tech/mir.folo_1_mir-space-station-alexander-kaleri-mircorp?_s=PM:TECH. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
Soyuz programme Soyuz 7K-OK (1967–1971) Soyuz 7K-OKS (1971) Soyuz 7K-T (1973–1981) Soyuz 7K-TM (1974–1976) Soyuz-T (1976–1986) Soyuz-TM (1986–2003) Soyuz-TMA (2003–2012) Soyuz-TMA-M (2010–) CurrentTMA-02M · TMA-22 PlannedTMA-03M · TMA-04M · TMA-05M · TMA-06M · TMA-07M · TMA-08M · TMA-09M · TMA-10M · TMA-11M · TMA-12M · TMA-13M UnmannedKosmos 133 · Kosmos 140 · Kosmos 186 · Kosmos 188 · Kosmos 212 · Kosmos 213 · Kosmos 238 · Soyuz 2 · Kosmos 379 · Kosmos 396 · Kosmos 398 · Kosmos 434 · Kosmos 496 · Kosmos 573 · Kosmos 613 · Kosmos 638 · Kosmos 656 · Kosmos 670 · Kosmos 672 · Kosmos 772 · Soyuz 20 · Kosmos 869 · Kosmos 1001 · Kosmos 1074 · Soyuz T-1 · Soyuz TM-1 Human spaceflights to MirSoyuz T-15 · Soyuz TM-2 · Soyuz TM-3 · Soyuz TM-4 · Soyuz TM-5 · Soyuz TM-6 · Soyuz TM-7 · Soyuz TM-8 · Soyuz TM-9 · Soyuz TM-10 · Soyuz TM-11 · Soyuz TM-12 · Soyuz TM-13 · Soyuz TM-14 · Soyuz TM-15 · Soyuz TM-16 · Soyuz TM-17 · Soyuz TM-18 · Soyuz TM-19 · Soyuz TM-20 · STS-63 · Soyuz TM-21 · STS-71 · Soyuz TM-22 · STS-74 · Soyuz TM-23 · STS-76 · Soyuz TM-24 · STS-79 · STS-81 · Soyuz TM-25 · STS-84 · Soyuz TM-26 · STS-86 · STS-89 · Soyuz TM-27 · STS-91 · Soyuz TM-28 · Soyuz TM-29 · Soyuz TM-30 ← 1999 · Orbital launches in 2000 · 2001 →USA-148 | Galaxy 10R | Feng Huo 1 | JAWSAT · FalconSAT-1 · ASUSat-1 · OCSE · OPAL (STENSAT · MEMS 1A · MEMS 1B · MASAT · Thelma · Louise) | Progress M1-1 | Kosmos 2369 | Hispasat 1C | Globalstar 60 · Globalstar 62 · Globlastar 63 · Globalstar 64 | Gruzovoy Maket · IRDT-1 | ASTRO-E | STS-99 | Garuda 1 | Superbird-B2 | Ekspress A2 | MTI | ICO F1 | Dumsat | INSAT-3B · AsiaStar | IMAGE | Soyuz TM-30 | SESAT 1 | Galaxy 4R | Progress M1-2 | GOES 11 | Kosmos 2370 | USA-149 | USA-150 | SimSat 1 · SimSat 2 | STS-101 | Eutelsat W4 | Gorizont #45L | TSX-5 | Ekspress A3 | Feng Yun 2B · Nadezhda 6 · Tsinghua 1 · SNAP-1 | TDRS-8 | Sirius FM-1 | Kosmos 2371 | Zvezda | EchoStar VI | CHAMP · MITA · Rubin-1 | USA-151 | Samba · Salsa | Sindri (MEMS 2A · MEMS 2B) | PAS-9 | Progress M1-3 | Rumba · Tango | Brazilsat B4 · Nilesat 102 | USA-152 | DM-F3 | Globus #16L | Zi Yuan 2 | Sirius FM-2 | Eutelsat W1 | STS-106 | Astra 2B | GE-7 | NOAA-16 | Kosmos 2372 | Megsat 1 · Unisat 1 · Saudisat 1A · Saudisat 1B · Tiungsat 1 | Kosmos 2373 | GE-1A | N-Sat 110 | HETE-2 | STS-92 (ITS Z1 · PMA-3) | Kosmos 2374 · Kosmos 2375 · Kosmos 2376 | Progress M-43 | USA-153 | Thuraya 1 | GE-6 | Europe*Star 1 | Beidou 1A | Soyuz TM-31 | USA-154 | PAS-1R · AMSAT-P3D · STRV 1C · STRV 1D | Progress M1-4 | QuickBird-1 | EO-1 · SAC-C · Munin | Anik F1 | Sirius FM-3 | STS-97 (ITS P6) | Eros 1A | USA-155 | Astra 2D · GE-8 · LDREX | Beidou 1B | Gonets-D1 #7 · Gonets-D1 #8 · Gonets-D1 #9 · Strela-3 #125 · Strela-3 #126 · Strela-3 #127 Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.
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