Trypanosomiasis Classification and external resources ICD-10 B56-B57 ICD-9 086.5-086 MeSH D014352
Trypanosomiasis or trypanosomosis is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma. Approximately 500,000 men, women and children in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa suffer from human African trypanosomiasis which is caused by either Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The other human form of trypanosomiasis, called Chagas disease, causes 21,000 deaths per year  mainly in Latin America.
- See main article: Human trypanosomiasis
- Human African trypanosomiasis, transmitted by the tsetse fly infected with Trypanosoma brucei, see African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
- Human American trypanosomiasis, transmitted by the assassin bug infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, see Chagas disease
Diagnosing African trypanosomiasis requires the documentation of T.brucei in blood smears, lymph node aspirates, or CSF. Presentation of the disease outside the endemic areas, especially in Western Europe, may present a diagnostic problem to the treating physician
American trypanosomiasis is currently treated with a variety of antifungal agents, including benznidazole and nifurtimox. Melarsoprol is another drug which is used for the treatment of T. b. gambiensie.
- Nagana, or Animal African trypanosomiasis, also called 'Souma' or 'Soumaya' in Sudan.
- Mal de caderas (of central South America)
- Murrina de caderas (of Panama; Derrengadera de caderas)
- Cachexial fevers (various)
- Gambian horse sickness (of central Africa)
- Baleri (of Sudan)
- Kaodzera (Rhodesian trypanosomiasis)
- Tahaga (a disease of camels in Algeria)
- Galziekte, galzietzke (bilious fever of cattle; gall sickness of South Africa)
- Peste-boba (of Venezuela; Derrengadera)
Clinical signs and diagnosis
Cattle may show enlarged lymph nodes and internal organs. Haemolytic anaemia is a characteristic sign. Systemic disease and reproductive failure are common, and cattle appear to waste away.
Horses with dourine show signs of ventral and genital oedema and urticaria.
Infected dogs and cats may show severe systemic signs.
Treatment and prevention
The use of trypanotolerant breeds for livestock farming should be considered if the disease is widespread.
Fly control is another option but is difficult to implement.
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- Manson, Patrick, Sir, G.C.M.G. (1914). Tropical diseases (5th ed.). London.
- Daniels, C. W. (1914). Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. New York.
- Miles, Michael W.; Ian Maudlin; Holmes, Peter (2004). The Trypanosomiases. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-475-X.
- ^ Maya JD, Cassels BK, Iturriaga-Vásquez P, et al. (2007). "Mode of action of natural and synthetic drugs against Trypanosoma cruzi and their interaction with the mammalian host". Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part a Mol. Integr. Physiol. 146 (4): 601–20. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.03.004. PMID 16626984. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1095-6433(06)00173-5.
- ^ Pepin J (2007). "Combination therapy for sleeping sickness: a wake-up call". J. Infect. Dis. 195 (3): 311–3. doi:10.1086/510540. PMID 17205466.
- ^ Vingerhoets LMA, Bauer MP, Hamminga AE, Verweij JJ, Visser LG (2011). "Treatment and follow-up using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction in East African sleeping sickness: a case report". Grand Rounds 11: 12–15. doi:10.1102/1470-5206.2011.0003. http://www.grandrounds-e-med.com/articles/gr110003.htm.
- Animal Trypanosomosis reviewed and published by Wikivet, accessed 08/10/2011.
Infectious diseases – Parasitic disease: protozoan infection: Excavata (A06–A07, B55–B57, 007, 085–086) DiscicristataTrypanosomatidaTrypanosomiasisSchizopyrenida TrichozoaTrichomonadida This veterinary medicine–related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.