For the artist, see Qigong (artist).
Qigong Traditional Chinese 氣功 Simplified Chinese 气功 Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin qìgōng - Wade–Giles chi-kung - IPA [tɕʰɨ̂kʊ́ŋ] Min - Hokkien POJ khì-kong Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping hei3 gung1 - IPA [hei.gʊ́ŋ]
Qigong or chi kung (气功 or 氣功) (pronounced "chee-gong") is a practice of aligning breath, movement, and awareness for exercise, healing, and meditation. With roots in Chinese medicine, martial arts, and philosophy, qigong is traditionally viewed as a practice to balance qi (chi) or intrinsic life energy. Typically a qigong practice involves rhythmic breathing, coordinated with slow stylized repetition of fluid movement, and a calm mindful state. Qigong is now practiced throughout China and worldwide, and is considered by some to be exercise, and by others to be a type of alternative medicine or meditative practice. From a philosophical perspective qigong is believed to help develop human potential, to increase access to higher realms of awareness, and to awaken one to one's true nature.
- 1 What is qigong?
- 2 Application
- 3 Theory
- 4 Health benefits
- 5 Shifting views of qigong
- 6 See also
- 7 References
What is qigong?
EtymologyMain article: Qi
Qigong or chi kung are English words for two Chinese characters: qì (氣) and gōng (功).
Qi (or chi) is usually translated as life energy, lifeforce, or energy flow, and definitions often involve breath, air, gas, or relationship between matter, energy, and spirit. Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts. Gong (or kung) is often translated as work or practice, and definitions include skill, mastery, merit, achievement, service, result, or accomplishment. (see online Chinese language tools)
The two words are combined to describe systems to cultivate and balance life energy, especially for health.
HistoryMain article: Qigong history
With roots in ancient Chinese culture dating back more than 5,000 years, a wide variety of qigong forms have developed within different segments of Chinese society: in traditional Chinese medicine for preventive and curative functions, in Confucianism to promote longevity and improve moral character, in Taoism and Buddhism as part of meditative practice, and in Chinese martial arts to enhance fighting abilities.
In the 1940s and the 1950s, the Chinese government tried to integrate disparate qigong approaches into one coherent system, with the intention of establishing a firm scientific basis for qigong practice and as part of the political philosophy of the Cultural Revolution. This attempt is considered by some sinologists as the start of the modern or scientific interpretation of qigong.
Through the forces of migration of the Chinese diaspora, tourism in China, and globalization, the practice of qigong has spread from the Chinese community to the world. Today, millions of people around the world practice qigong and believe in the benefits of qigong to varying degrees. Similar to its historical origin, those interested in qigong come from diverse backgrounds and practice it for different reasons, including for exercise, preventive medicine, self-healing, self-cultivation, meditation, and martial arts training.
Qigong is not just a set of breathing exercises, but rather comprises a large variety of physical and mental training methods based on Chinese philosophy. While implementation details vary, all qigong forms can be characterized as a mix of four types of training: dynamic, static, meditative, and activities requiring external aids.
- Dynamic training involves fluid movement, usually carefully choreographed, coordinated with breath and awareness. Examples include the slow stylized movements of T'ai chi ch'uan, Baguazhang, and Xing yi. Other examples include graceful movement that mimics the motion of animals in Five Animals, White Crane,, and Wild Goose (Dayan) Qigong..
- Static training involves holding postures for sustained periods of time. In some cases this bears resemblance to the practice of Yoga and its continuation in the Buddhist tradition. For example Yiquan, a Chinese martial art derived from xingyiquan, emphasizes static stance training. In another example, the healing form Eight Pieces of Brocade (Baduanjin qigong) is based on a series of static postures.
- Meditative training utilizes breath awareness, visualization, mantra, and focus on philosophical concepts such as qi circulation. For example, in the Confucius scholar tradition meditation is focused on humanity and virtue, with the aim of self-enlightenment. In various Buddhist traditions, the aim is to still the mind, either through outward focus, for example on a place, or through inward focus on the breath, a mantra, a koan, emptiness, or the idea of the eternal. In Taoist and traditional Chinese medicine traditions, the meditative focus is on balancing qi flow in meridian pathways.
- Use of external agents: Many systems of qigong training include the use of external agents such as ingestion of herbs, massage, physical manipulation, or interaction with other living organisms. For example, specialized food and drinks are used in some medical and Taoist forms, whereas massage and body manipulation are sometimes used in martial arts forms. In some medical systems a qigong master uses non-contact treatment, purportedly guiding qi through his or her own body into the body of another person.
T'ai chi ch'uan vs qigongMain article: T'ai chi ch'uan
T'ai chi ch'uan (tàijíquán, 太极拳), or simply tai chi, is often translated as "supreme boxing" or "supreme balancing", and is a popular system of internal (Nèijiā 內家) martial arts focused on spiritual, mental, and qi-related aspects of practice and characterized by complex stylized movements. The Chinese character 极 , jí or chi, means "final" or "extreme", in contrast with 氣, qì or chi, which means "life energy". While some scholars and practitioners consider tai chi to be a type of qigong, the two are more commonly distinguished as separate but closely related practices, with qigong playing an important role in training for tai chi, and with many tai chi movements performed as part of qigong practice.
Tai chi is performed slowly for health, meditiation, and martial arts training, and quickly for self defense. Practice consists of a sequence of movements that emphasize fluid motion, an erect spine, abdominal breathing, natural range of motion over the center of gravity, calm focus, and attention to philosophy and aesthetics. Tai chi can be practiced individually or as "pushing hands" with a partner.
People practice qigong for many different reasons, including for exercise and recreation, prevention and self-healing, meditation and self-cultivation, and training for martial arts.
Alternative medical systems Acupuncture · Anthroposophic medicine · Ayurveda · Chiropractic · Herbalism · Homeopathy · Naturopathy · Qigong · Siddha medicine · Traditional medicine
(Chinese · Mongolian · Tibetan) · Unani
NCCAM classifications Whole medical systems · Mind-body interventions · Biologically based therapies · Manipulative therapy · Energy therapies See also Alternative medicine · Glossary · People
As a form of gentle exercise, qigong is composed of movements that are typically repeated, strengthening and stretching the body, increasing fluid movement (blood, synovial, and lymph), enhancing balance and proprioception, and building awareness of how the body moves through space. In recent years a large number of books and videos have been published that focus primarily on qigong as exercise and associated health benefits.
As a healing art, qigong practitioners focus on prevention and self-healing, traditionally viewed as balancing the body's energy meridians and enhancing the intrinsic capacity of the body to heal. Qigong has been used extensively in China as part of traditional Chinese medicine, and is included in the curriculum of Chinese Universities. Throughout the world qigong is now recognized as a form of complementary and alternative medicine , with positive effects on diverse ailments. 
In 2003, the Chinese Health Qigong Association, a member of the All-China Sports Federation, officially recognized four health qigong exercises:
- Muscle-Tendon Change Classic (Yì Jīn Jīng 易筋经),
- Five Animals (Wu Qin Xi 五禽戲),
- Six Healing Sounds (Liu Zi Jue 六字訣),
- Eight Pieces of Brocade (Ba Duan Jin 段锦气功),
Meditation and self-cultivation
Qigong is practiced for meditation and self-cultivation as part of various philosophical and spiritual traditions. As meditation, qigong is a means to still the mind and enter a state of consciousness that brings serenity, clarity, and bliss. Many practitioners find qigong, with its gentle focused movement, to be more accessible than seated meditation.
Qigong for self-cultivation can be classified in terms of traditional Chinese philosophy:
- Confucianism: Qigong provides a means to become a Junzi (君子) through awareness of morality.
- Taoism: Qigong provides a way to achieve longevity and spiritual enlightenment.
- Buddhism: Qigong is part of a spiritual path that leads to spiritual enlightenment or Buddhahood.
Martial arts training
The practice of qigong is an important component in Chinese martial arts. Focus on qi is considered to be a source of power as well as the foundation of the internal style of martial arts (Neijia). T'ai chi ch'uan, Xing yi, and Baguazhang are representative of the types of Chinese martial arts that rely on the concept of qi as the foundation.  Extraordinary feats of martial arts prowess, such as the ability to withstand heavy strikes (Iron Shirt, 鐵衫)  and the ability to break hard objects (Iron Palm, 铁掌)   are abilities attributed to qigong training.
Traditional viewMain article: Qi
Traditionally, the central focus of qigong practice is to cultivate and balance qi as it affects mind (心), body (身), and spirit (靈). In Chinese philosophy, the concept of qi as a form of pervasive life energy includes original qi that a person has at birth, and qi a person acquires from air, water, food, sunlight, and interaction with the environment. A person is believed to become ill or die when qi becomes diminished or unbalanced. Health is believed to be returned by rebuilding qi, eliminating qi blockages, and correcting qi imbalances.Main article: Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine focuses on tracing and correcting underlying disharmony, in terms of deficiency and excess, complementary and opposing forces of yin and yang, and balanced flow of qi. Qi is believed to travel through the body along twelve main meridians, with numerous smaller branches and tributaries. The main meridians correspond to twelve main organs (Zàng fǔ). Qi is balanced in terms of yin and yang in the context of the traditional system of Five Elements (Wu xing 五行). These traditional concepts do not translate readily to modern science and medicine.
Whether viewed from the perspective of exercise, health, philosophy, or martial arts training, several main principles emerge concerning the practice of qigong:
- Intential movement: careful, flowing balanced style
- Rhythmic breathing: slow, deep, coordinated with fluid movement
- Awareness: calm, focused medititative state
- Visualization: of qi flow, philosophical tenets, aesthetics
- Softness: soft gaze, expressionless face
- Solid Stance: firm footing, erect spine
- Relaxation: relaxed muscles, slightly bent joints
- Balance and Counterbalance: motion over the center of gravity
- Equinimity: more fluid, more relaxed
- Tranquility: empty mind, high awareness
- Stillness: smaller and smaller movements, eventually to complete stillness
The most advanced practice is generally considered to be with little or no motion.
Similar to the subject of efficacy of Traditional Chinese medicine, the chasm between the Eastern tradition of qi and the Western scientific viewpoints is not insurmountable if the analysis is limited to the effect of qigong practice on biological processes without demanding a material interpretation of qi. There is convincing argument to view the concept of qi as a metaphor for biological processes.
The basis of qigong can also be explained in terms of contemporary views of health, science, meditation, and exercise, and using medical concepts such as stress management,   biofeedback,  and neurology. 
Claims and medical research
Qigong has been purported to enhance health and well-being with many benefits, including improving cardiovascular function, healing specific acute diseases, and increasing longevity. Many of these claims are supported only by anecdotal evidence and traditional lore. Research examing health benefits of qigong is increasing but still only a limited number of studies that meet accepted medical and scientific standards of randomized controlled trials (RCT). In a 2010 comprehensive review of qigong and tai chi, a literature search of peer-reviewed journals in medical databases for the period of 1993-2007 found a total of seventy-seven RCT studies that examined the benefits of qigong and Tai chi practice. The effects of those exercises can be broadly grouped into nine categories:
- bone density
- cardiopulmonary effects
- falls and related risk factors
- immmune function
- patient reported outcomes
- physical function
- psychological symptoms
- quality of life
The review concluded that qigong practice played a positive role in each category. While many of these studies showed positive benefits of qigong practice, various showed similar effects with exercise. This suggests that qigong may be effective primarily as gentle physical exercise, however studies have not typically been designed to control for other reasons for benefit (e.g., meditation, breathing, balance training, skill of instructor, and difference in forms).
Various claims have been made that qigong can benefit or exacerbate mental health conditions, including claims of improved mood, decreased stress reaction, and decreased anxiety and depression. Most medical studies have only examined psychological factors as secondary goals, however some studies have shown significant benefits such as decrease in cortisol.</ref> There are also claims that in some cases the practice of qigong can result in a mental condiltion known as known as Zou huo ru mo (走火入魔) or "qigong deviation" (氣功偏差), characterized by the perception of the practitioner that there is an uncontrolled flow of qi in the body.Main article: Zou huo ru mo (medicine)
There is little controversy concerning the benefit of qigong when the definition of qigong is limited to a series of physical movements and a set of relaxation exercises. Conflict have arisen when the claims made by proponents of qigong border on the supernatural.
Some researchers have labeled the subject matter of qigong as a pseudoscience. In addition, some claim that the origin and nature of qigong practice has led to misconceptions and misuses, including psychiatric problems and the formation of cults
Skepticism towards qigong is also applied to the field of Traditional Chinese medicine, and extended to the broader subject of alternative medicine. The basic problem is that the information available from those fields does not fit scientific acceptability or medical interpretation.    Skeptics contend that most of the benefits derived from Alternative medicine are, at best, derived from a placebo effect. 
The main arguments from the view of skeptics against the correlation between qigong practices and health-related results are:
- The existence of qi, or any form of vitalism, has not been independently verified in a experimental setting. Such a concept is not recognized in the biological sciences.
- Demonstrations in martial arts such as breaking hard objects with strikes can be fully explained using physics, without reference to the concept of qi.
- Reported claims of supernatural abilities appear to be tricks more suited to magic shows than to any genuine scientific discipline.
- Personal benefits for some qigong masters might have provided them with an incentive to exaggerate their claims 
Shifting views of qigong
Traditionally, qigong training has been esoteric and secretive, with knowledge passed from master to student. Over the centuries, the exchange of ideas between various elements within Chinese society has created a more unified overview of qigong practice even though each segment maintains its own detailed interpretations and methods. In China, the emphasis has shifted increasingly on health benefits, traditional medicine, and scientific perspective, with decreasing emphasis on traditional aspects of qigong practice, though with notable exceptions.
In contrast, while most practitioners worldwide also focus on health benefits, many have also accepted the philosophical elements of qigong practice and pay homage to its rich past. The traditional philosophical, medical, and martial arts origins are recognized and used as justification for the effectiveness of qigong.
- Asahi Health
- Empty Force
- Falun Gong
- Hua Tuo
- Internal alchemy
- Jing (TCM)
- Mind-body problem
- Mindfulness (Buddhism)
- Silk reeling
- Sima Nan
- Tao Yin
- Taoist Sexual Practices
- World Tai Chi and Qigong Day
- Zhong Gong
- ^ a b c Cohen, K. S. (1999). The Way of Qigong: The Art and Science of Chinese Energy Healing. Random House of Canada. ISBN 0345421094.
- ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming (1987). Chi Kung: health & martial arts. Yang's Martial Arts Association. ISBN 0940871009.
- ^ a b c Frantzis, Bruce Kumar (2008). The Chi Revolution: Harnessing the Healing Power of Your Life Force. Blue Snake Books. ISBN 1583941932.
- ^ a b c Garripoli, Garri (1999). Qigong: Essence of the Healing Dance. HCI. ISBN 1558746749.
- ^ a b c d e Liang, Shou-Yu; Wen-Ching Wu, Denise Breiter-Wu (1997). Qigong Empowerment: A Guide to Medical, Taoist, Buddhist, and Wushu Energy Cultivation. Way of the Dragon Pub. ISBN 1889659029.
- ^ Qigong is the international phonetic pronunciation of the Chinese "气功" or "氣功".
- ^ Chi kung is the Wade-Giles romanization of the Chinese "气功" or "氣功".
- ^ Ho, Peng Yoke (Oct 2000). Li, Qi, and Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilization in China. Dover Publications. ISBN 0486414450.
- ^ a b c Yang, Jwing-Ming. (1989). The root of Chinese Chi kung: the secrets of Chi kung training. Yang's Martial Arts Association. ISBN 0940871076.
- ^ a b Holland, Alex (2000). Voices of Qi: An Introductory Guide to Traditional Chinese Medicine. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1556433263.
- ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming (1998). Qigong for health and martial arts: exercises and meditation. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 1886969574.
- ^ YeYoung, Bing. "Origins of Qi Gong". YeYoung Culture Studies: Sacramento, CA (http://literati-tradition.com). http://literati-tradition.com/qi_gong_origins.html. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- ^ Despeux, C. (1997). Le qigong, une expression de la modernité Chinoise. In J. Gernet & M. Kalinowski (eds.), En suivant la Voie Royale: Mélanges en homage à Léon Vandermeersch. École Française d'Extrême-Orient. pp. 267–281.
- ^ a b Chen, Nancy N. (2003). Breathing Spaces: Qigong, Psychiatry, and Healing in China. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231128045.
- ^ Lam Kam-Chuen, Master; Lam, Kam Chuen (1991). The way of energy: mastering the Chinese art of internal strength with chi kung exercise. New York: Simon Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-73645-3.
- ^ a b Yang, Jwing-Ming (1998). The Essence of Taiji Qigong, Second Edition : The Internal Foundation of Taijiquan (Martial Arts-Qigong). YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-63-6.
- ^ Fick, Franklin (2005). Five Animal Frolics Qi Gong: Crane and Bear Exercises. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4116-2776-5.
- ^ Clark, Angus (2003). Secrets of Qigong (Secrets of). Evergreen. ISBN 978-3-8228-0967-9.
- ^ Zhang, Hong-Chao (2000). Wild Goose Qigong: Natural Movement for Healthy Living. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-78-0.
- ^ Connor, Danny; Tse, Michael (1992). Qigong: Chinese movement meditation for health. York Beach, Me.: S. Weiser. ISBN 978-0-87728-758-2.
- ^ Diepersloot, Ja (2000). The Tao of Yiquan: The Method of Awareness in the Martial Arts. Center For Healing & The Arts. ISBN 0964997614.
- ^ Dumoulin, Heinrich; Heisig, James W.; McRae, John M.; Knitter, Paul F. (2005). Zen Buddhism: a history. Bloomington, Ind.: World Wisdom. ISBN 978-0-941532-89-1.
- ^ Dong, Paul; Raffill, Thomas. Empty Force: The Power of Chi for Self-Defense and Energy Healing. Blue Snake Books/Frog, Ltd.. ISBN 978-1-58394-134-8.
- ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming; Jwing-Ming, Yang. Eight Simple Qigong Exercises for Health: The Eight Pieces of Brocade. 2007: YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-52-0.
- ^ Lu, Kuan Yü (1969). The secrets of Chinese meditation: self-cultivation by mind control as taught in the Ch'an, Mahāyāna and Taoist schools in China. S. Weiser.
- ^ Xu, Xiangcai (2000). Qigong for Treating Common Ailments. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-70-4.
- ^ Wong, Kiew Kit. 2002. The Complete Book of Tai Chi Chuan: A Comprehensive Guide to the Principles and Practice. North Clarendon, VT: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3440-7
- ^ YeYoung, Bing. "Tai Chi (Taiji quan)". YeYoung Culture Studies: Sacramento, CA (http://literati-tradition.com). http://literati-tradition.com/taiji_intro.html. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- ^ Douglas Wengell, Nathen Gabriel (2008). Educational Opportunities in Integrative Medicine. The Hunter Press. p. 34. ISBN 9780977655243. http://books.google.com/?id=BNR1KGJXX9cC&pg=PA34.
- ^ a b Goldstein, Michael J. (1999). Alternative Health Care. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-56639-678-3.
- ^ Kligler, Benjamin; Roberta A. Lee (2004). Integrative medicine: principles for practice. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 007140239X.
- ^ Goldberg, Burton; Larry Trivieri, John W. Anderson (2002). Alternative medicine: the definitive guide. Celestial Arts. ISBN 1587611414.
- ^ Davis, Carol (2008). Complementary Therapies in Rehabilitation: Evidence for Efficacy in Therapy, Prevention, and Wellness. SLACK Incorporated. ISBN 1556428669.
- ^ a b c d Jahnke, R.; Larkey, L.; Rogers, C.; Etnier, J; Lin, F. (2010). "A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi". American Journal of Health Promotion 24 (6): e1-e25.
- ^ "Chinese Health QiGong Association" (in Eng). Beijing. http://jsqg.sport.org.cn/en/index.html. Retrieved 2005-10-20.
- ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming (2000). Qigong, The Secret of Youth. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-84-1.
- ^ Chia, Mantak; Chia, Maneewan (1988). Bone marrow nei kung: Taoist way to improve your health by rejuvenating your bone marrow and blood. Huntington, N.Y.: Healing Tao Books. ISBN 978-0-935621-17-4.
- ^ Wushu Association, Chinese (2008). Wu Qin Xi: Five Animals Qigong Exercises (Chinese Health Qigong). Singing Dragon. ISBN 978-1-84819-007-8.
- ^ Wushu Association, Chinese. Liu Zi Jue: Six Sounds Approach to Qigong Breathing Exercises (Chinese Health Qigong). Singing Dragon. ISBN 978-1-84819-006-1.
- ^ Wushu Association, Chinese (2008). Ba Duan Jin: Eight-section Qigong Exercises (Chinese Health Qigong). Singing Dragon. ISBN 978-1-84819-005-4.
- ^ Hook, Mary, Van; Hugen, Beryl; Aguilar, Marian Angela (2001). Spirituality within religious traditions in social work practice. Australia: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning. ISBN 978-0-534-58419-1.
- ^ Richey, Jeffrey Edward (2008). Teaching Confucianism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-531160-0.
- ^ Luk, C.; Chen Chao, Pi; Lu, Kʻuan Yü (1984). Taoist yoga: alchemy and immortality: a translation, with introduction and notes, of The secrets of cultivating nature and eternal life (Hsin ming fa chueh ming chih). York Beach, Me.: Samuel Weiser. ISBN 978-0-87728-067-5.
- ^ Bucknell, Roderick S.; Stuart-Fox, Martin (1993). The twilight language: explorations in Buddhist meditation and symbolism. London: Curzon Press. ISBN 978-0-7007-0234-3.
- ^ Li, Lu; Yun, Zhang (2006). The Combat Techniques of Tai Ji, Xing Yi, and Ba Gua : Principles and Practices of Internal Martial Arts. Frog, Ltd./Blue Snake Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-145-4.
- ^ Chia, Mantak (2006). Iron Shirt Chi Kung. Destiny Books. ISBN 978-1-59477-104-0.
- ^ Lee, Ying-Arng. (1973). Iron Palm in 100 days. Wehman Bros. Inc..
- ^ Chao, H.C. (1981). Complete iron palm training for self defense. Unitrade Company.
- ^ Frantzis, Bruce Kumar (1995). Opening the Energy Gates of Your Body (The Tao of Energy Enhancement). North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-164-7.
- ^ Liu, JeeLoo. An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy: From Ancient Philosophy to Chinese Buddhism. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-2949-7.
- ^ Li, Chenyang (1999). The Tao encounters the West: explorations in comparative philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-4135-0.
- ^ Milburn, Michael A. (2001). The future of healing: exploring the parallels of Eastern and Western medicine. Freedom, Calif.: Crossing Press. ISBN 978-1-58091-065-1.
- ^ Wisneski, Leonard A.; Anderson, Lucy (2009). The Scientific Basis of Integrative Medicine, Second Edition. CRC. ISBN 978-1-4200-8290-6.
- ^ Adamson, Eve (2001). The Everything Stress Management Book: Practical Ways to Relax, Be Healthy, and Maintain Your Sanity (Everything Series). Adams Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1-58062-578-4.
- ^ Chen, Kevin (2007). "Qigong Therapy for Stress Management". In Barlow, David; Lehrer, Paul M.; Woolfolk, Robert L.. = Principles and Practice of Stress Management, Third Edition. The Guilford Press. pp. 428–448. ISBN 978-1-59385-000-5
- ^ Swingle, Paul G. (2008). Biofeedback for the brain: how neurotherapy effectively treats depression, ADHD, autism, and more. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-4287-1.
- ^ Mauskop, Alexander; Abrams-Brill, Marietta (1997). The headache alternative: a neurologist's guide to drug-free relief. New York, N.Y.: Dell Pub.. ISBN 978-0-440-50820-5.
- ^ Oken, Barry (2004). Complementary therapies in neurology: an evidence-based approach. Boca Raton: Parthenon Pub. Group. ISBN 978-1-84214-200-4.
- ^ Robinson, Bruce H. (2007). Biomedicine: A Textbook for Practitioners of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. Blue Poppy Press. ISBN 978-1-891845-38-3.
- ^ Chen, Nancy N. (2003). "Chapter 4. Qiqong Deviation or Psychosis". Breathing spaces: qigong, psychiatry, and healing in China. Columbia University Press. pp. 77–107. ISBN 0231128045. http://books.google.ca/books?id=Q5-Gk8jBCUUC&lpg=PP1&dq=Breathing%20spaces%3A%20qigong%2C%20psychiatry%2C%20and%20healing%20in%20China.%20Columbia%20University%20Press&pg=PA77#v=onepageq=Breathing%20spaces:%20qigong,%20psychiatry,%20and%20healing%20in%20China.%20Columbia%20University%20Press&f=false.
- ^ Palmer, David A. (2007). "Chapter 6. Controversy and Crisis". Qigong fever: body, science, and utopia in China. Columbia University Press. pp. 158–170. ISBN 0231140665.
- ^ Ownby, David (2008). Falun Gong and the future of China. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 181–186. ISBN 978-0-19-532905-6.
- ^ a b c d Palmer, David A. (2007). Qigong fever: body, science, and utopia in China. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231140665.
- ^ Dong, Paul (2000). China's major mysteries: paranormal phenomena and the unexplained in the People's Republic. San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals. ISBN 978-0-8351-2676-2.
- ^ a b Shermer, Michael (2002). The Skeptic encyclopedia of pseudoscience, Volume 2. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576076539.
- ^ a b Wanjek, Christopher (2003). Bad medicine: misconceptions and misuses revealed, from distance healing to vitamin O. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 182–187. ISBN 047143499X.
- ^ Smith, Jonathan C.. Pseudoscience and Extraordinary Claims of the Paranormal: A Critical Thinker's Toolkit. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8122-8.
- ^ Kurtz, Paul (2001). Skeptical Odysseys: Personal Accounts by the World's Leading Paranormal Inquirers. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-884-7.
- ^ Nash, David; Pat Manfredi, Mary; Bozarth, Barbara; Howell, Susan (2001). Connecting with the New Healthcare Consumer: Defining Your Strategy. Jones Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8342-2004-1.
- ^ Carroll, Robert P. (2003). The skeptic's dictionary: a collection of strange beliefs, amusing deceptions, and dangerous delusions. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-27242-7.
- ^ Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by the American Public (2005). Complementary and alternative medicine in the United States. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-09270-8.
- ^ Dodes, John E. (January / February 1997). "The Mysterious Placebo". Skeptical Inquirer (Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) 21 (1). http://www.csicop.org/si/show/mysterious_placebo/. Retrieved 2005-10-20.
- ^ Mayr, Ernst (1997). This is biology: the science of the living world. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-88469-4.
- ^ Armenti, Angelo (1992). The Physics of sports. New York: American Institute of Physics. ISBN 978-0-88318-946-7.
- ^ Tuszynski, J. A.; Dixon, J. (2002). Biomedical applications of introductory physics. New York: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-41295-3.
- ^ Lin, Zixin (2000). Qigong: Chinese medicine or pseudoscience. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-232-6.
- ^ Mainfort, Donald (March 1999). "Sima Nan: Fighting Qigong Pseudoscience in China". Skeptical Inquirer (Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) 9 (1). http://www.csicop.org/sb/show/sima_nan_fighting_qigong_pseudoscience_in_china/. Retrieved 2005-10-20.
- ^ Beyerstein, Barry L.; Sampson, Wallace (July / August 1996). "Traditional Medicine and Pseudoscience in China: A Report of the Second CSICOP Delegation (Part 1)". Skeptical Inquirer (Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) 20 (4). http://www.csicop.org/si/show/china_conference_1/. Retrieved 2005-10-20.
- ^ Beyerstein, Barry L.; Sampson, Wallace (September / October 1996). "Traditional Medicine and Pseudoscience in China: A Report of the Second CSICOP Delegation (Part 2)". Skeptical Inquirer (Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) 20 (5). http://www.csicop.org/si/show/china_conference_2/. Retrieved 2005-10-20.
- ^ Mainfort, Donald (July / August 2000). "The New Paranatural Paradigm: Special APS Session Examines Pseudoscience". Skeptical Inquirer (Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry) 24 (4). http://www.csicop.org/si/show/new_paranatural_paradigm_special_aps_session_examines_pseudoscience. Retrieved 2005-10-20.
TCM Practices Three Treasures (Sānbǎo 三寶) Other Key TCM TopicsMeridians (Jīngluò 经络) · Organs (Zàng-fǔ 臟腑) · Yin and yang (Yīnyáng 陰陽) Yin Entities (Zàng 臟)Heart · Kidney · Pericardium · Liver · Lung · Spleen Yang Entities (Fǔ 腑)Gallbladder · Large Intestine · Small Intestine · Stomach · Triple Warmer (Sānjiaō) · Urinary Bladder Famous TCM PhysiciansHua Tuo 华陀 (141-208) · Li Shizhen 李时珍 (1518-1593) · Sun Simiao 孙思邈 (540–682) · Zhang Jiegu (ca. 1151-1234) · Zhang Zhongjing 張仲景 (150-219) Contemporary Related TopicsCategory · Portal Qigong FormsEight Pieces of Brocade (Bāduànjǐn qìgōng 段锦气功) · Five Animals (Wu Qin Xi qìgōng 五禽戲) · Muscle/Tendon Change Classic (Yijin Jing qìgōng 易筋经) · Six Healing Sounds (Liu Zi Jue qìgōng 六字訣) Qigong Masters Traditional Related TopicsAcupuncture · Chinese art · Chinese massage (Tui na 推拿) · Essence (Jing 精) · Gymnastic breathing practice (Tao yin 導引) · Meditative practice (Neidan 內丹术) · Meridian (jīngluò 经络) · Organs (Zàng-fǔ 臟腑) · Silk reeling (Chán sī jìng 纏絲勁) · Spirit (Shen 神) · Standing Meditation (Zhan zhuang 站桩) · Yin and yang (Yīnyáng 陰陽) Contemporary Related TopicsCategory · PortalCategories:
- Chinese martial arts
- Chinese words and phrases
- Traditional Chinese medicine
- Taoist philosophy
- Biofield therapies
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.