—  Municipal City  —
Korean transcription(s)
 – Hangul 목포시
 – Hanja 木浦市
 – Revised Romanization Mokpo-si
 – McCune-Reischauer Mokp'o-si
View of Mokpo from Yudalsan.

Emblem of Mokpo
Mokpo is located in South Korea
Coordinates: 34°45′32″N 126°22′48″E / 34.7589°N 126.38°E / 34.7589; 126.38Coordinates: 34°45′32″N 126°22′48″E / 34.7589°N 126.38°E / 34.7589; 126.38
Country  South Korea
Region Honam
Administrative divisions 22 dong
 – Total 47.92 km2 (18.5 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 – Total 241,679
 – Density 5,196.5/km2 (13,458.9/sq mi)
 – Dialect Jeolla

Mokpo (Mokpo-si) is a city in South Jeolla Province, South Korea, on the southwestern tip of the Korean Peninsula. Mokpo has frequent train service to Seoul and is the terminus for a number of ferry routes serving islands in the adjacent Yellow Sea. Port of Mokpo is not far from Yudal mountain, a picturesque area with numerous tourist facilities.

During the Japanese Occupation, Mokpo served as a crucial port for commercial ventures and transportation owing to its location connecting Japanese archelago and Chinese mainland. It means the port played stopover between sea routes. Great deal of islands surrounding the port also served less dangerous possibility of tsunami in terms of weather condition. As the metropolitan city during Japanese rule, the city held oriental company of Japan to have large residential areas in current historic districts. However, after independence, the city slowly lost the stepping up foothold to host major organs of governments and notably the process for working factories within the economic boom. The shortage of secondary industries base caused serious spill of population becoming middle sized city guarding Honam region.

Former president Kim Dae-jung earned full support from electorates at president election in 1997, while other political rivals are accused of having tried to underdevelop the city to decrease its population.[1] The city still went through series of platforms to grow up its ability to hold stronger status in South Jeolla province in spite of economic depression and complains of residents at original downtown. According to the city's page, the mayor Jeong Jong Dueg says it is goal of Mokpo to be home to arts of Yellow sea in brilliantly developing Northeast Asia.[2]



The term Mokpo (木浦 in Hanja) literally means the harbour with large portion of forests. The terminology initially appears at Goryeosa (History of Goryeo). Owing to this background, some historians argue that the etimology shares its root at trees within port of Mokpo around the region. Another theory indicates that the location is critically important in Yellow sea as the routes toward the land is as critical as the throat(in Hangul:목) of human.[3] The last assertion finds its ground in large production of cotton(in Hangul:목화, in Hanja:木花) in the region where the great deal of amounts were allotted by Japanese colonisits to deliver the products into Tokyo.[4]


During Mahan and Three Kingdom era

Mokpo belonged to the Mahan confederacy during the early era of Samhan, and was called Mul-ahye within the control of Baekje. However, after the crackdown of Baekje, it was amalgamated by Silla, and changed its title to Myenjoo. In 946, the name was once again changed to Mul-ryang becoming a part of the prefecture of Muan, Naju-mok, Haeyang province. At that time, the prefecture of Muan referred to a much larger area, which incorporated not only Mokpo but also current Muan and several islands of Sinan county.[5] According to the publication of the Korean broadcasting system, coastal and off-shore areas of Mokpo witnessed superior productivity of crops, owing partially to their proximity to China. Important shipping routes were also available following the Yeongsan river to Naju.[6]

Goryeo and Joseon Dynasty

Strictly speaking, the terminology of Mokpo started from Goryeo dynasty. The founder, Taejo of Goryeo was, at that time, serving as a general for posterior Goguryeo(Taebong) ruled by Gung Ye. Taebong covered central area of Korean peninsula including current Gaeseong, of which name was called Song-Ak. As a naval power, Wang Gun was commanded to attack Gyeon Hwon's Hubaekje, meaning latter Baekje aimed at original purpose of rulers to rebuild the Baekje dynasty, to occupy southern sphere, mainly Naju area.[7] The operation called on pretty successful results to cover up the region. The second empress, Jang Hwa was encountered at this moment, whose sun becomes Hyejong of Goryeo.

In 1439, 21 years after King Sejong of the Joseon Dynasty came to power, the Mokpo man-ho jin was constructed, which was designated to manage 12 islands ashore. Jin refers to the notion that military quarter would reside in for effective control over each area. During Imjin war, Commander Yi Sun shin constructed jin for naval forces in Mokpo and island of Goha for securing meals for soldiers and repairing ships incluing geobukseon and panokseon. [8]

Open the port

On 1 October 1897, Mokpo opened her port for Japan. It was 15 year later compared to opening of Incheon when she forcefully disclosed but quite swift a decision, except for Incheon and Busan. This can be described as geographical strength Mokpo holds as it is located at the middle point of Nagasaki, Fukuoka of Kyushu and Chinese mainland. For Japan, the city also had the merits because of abundant crops produced in the region of Jeolla provinces. Opening the port, the housing of Japanese people was rapidly enhanced to reach the establishment of self-governing institution.[9] Japanese people chiefly lived in current Yudal dong where the main port is just in front, while Japanese consulate stayed before the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905.

Japanese started to purchase farmlands close to Mokpo, which had been illegal to the treaty between two empires, mentioning that foreigners could only deal with business activity in registered spot. The reason why the aliens were aiming at buying the fields is said owing to the lax taxation of Joseon and completely cheap price, one tenth rate for those in Japan. The forceful open speeded up the despoil of harvest for cheaper price toward Japan. In the meantime, the price of rice in Jeolla province doubled afterwards.[10]

After the yeaf of 1905, the residence of Japanese people expanded so abundant that the location was further enlarged to Geumhwa dong where lots of cherry blossoms were grown along the street. Japanese called it Sakuramachi(さくらまち) meaning "the downtown along cherry blossom trees" in Japanese language.[11]

Upon Korea's annexation by Japan in 1910, the city was given a new name, "Mokpo-bu," with the construction of colonial institution called Oriental Development Company(동양척식주식회사, in Hanja;東洋拓殖株式會社) and received its current name, "Mokpo City",[12] a year after the nation's independence from Japan.

Under Japanese rule

See also: Korea under Japanese rule

Opening port moved up the status of Mokpo as a central half-way destination ashore islands linking in between, of which position had been concentrated for Wando.

In 1914, the construction of Honam Line was finalized to make up the railroad from Daejeon to Mokpo. On 1 April, Mokpo Bu was divided into several factions, which resulted the outcome of downtown area only remained as Mokpo, contemporary name ; Boo Nae Myun. Following no. 11 command of the Japanese Government General of Korea, Muan county was declared incorporating another myuns, Jido, Palguem, Docho, only except for Boo nae. The harbor has long been utilized for depriving crops of regional area for Tokyo.

For business activities, transportation enhanced stimuli for many people to congregate while many people gathered for work. The aims were headed to build temporary housing places near Japanese residents. According to the local records, smaller mud huts were along the narrow street where the commander barely allowed to live in.[13] Series of facilities were built including Mokpo theater of which possession was from Korean peninsula. There were only 3 theaters in possession of Korean, including Seoul's Danseongsa, Gwangju Theater in current Gwangju metropolitan city.[14]

In 1932, the size of the city became a lot larger owing to incorporation some parts from Muan, reaching 60 thousand population under the fame of 6th largest city in Korean peninsula. Indigenous products were fairly cloth, rice and salt with abundant coastal food to give much fame, following city hall's explanation on modern history.[15] The harbor played important role for supplying exploited goods toward Japan but meant the deprivation and loss of crops for Korean.

Additionally, the products of cotton were largely deprived to meet the demands of Japan. In 1918, the colonists established ginning facilities for manufacturing large deliveries in Mokpo and Iri(current Iksan in North Jeolla province).[16]

The cotton industries became concentrated in Busan for Gyeongsang area and in Mokpo for Jeolla. (syncopation) Removing the opportunities for competition has built up the monopoly of certain economic power whose center became the very ruler only to sacrifice all the industries in Joseon. Dong A Ilbo 1935.06.05 [17]

After independence

In 1949, Mokpo Bu attained the title of Mokpo si(city), continuing to expand its area until now. This major occurrence was brought about by the SOC government, altering the administrative region. In 1973 and 1987, a greater area was determined to belong to Mokpo city, including one of the most famous tourist spots, Samhakdo, which means three cranes laid above the sea. Until 1999, land reclamation was sped up to make land for a near-shore island of Samhakdo and the second stage of developing lands. The projects also covered a coastal filling process near North Harbor and building a new port in Chungmu dong.

Samhakdo was reclaimed since 1940 by connecting islands toward Mokpo, continuing the landfill construction during 1968-73. The island is divided into three major sections. In 2000, the city assured the plan to restore a naturalized island for tourism, bringing up tremendous criticism from environmental groups. However, the project stretched out for 6 years of construction to link three parts of island in close proximity with 5 bridges between small, middle islands. From 1 March 2007, the site became free to the public.[18][19]

In 1980, Gwangju Democratization Movement swept up whole close area. In Mokpo, student movement was also initiated by several people who marched with the cards saying "Freedom" along the boulevard from Mokpo Station to the second plaza. Mokpo station served as a central congregation for many groups supporting people in Gwangju.[20]

After 1990, new port(called newly built outdoor harbor) was officially working for accommodating exports, mainly KIA motors, while Daebul and Samho industrial complexes gained factories in fields. At first pace, South Jeolla province was confronted for deep concerns over investment[21] owing to lacking transportation and accommodation. In 2007, South Korean ministry of Industry and Resources designated the area for renovation cluster with that of Masan in Gyeongsangnam-do. The chief reasons were because China's huge growth became momentum for the city as connecting destination for local companies for southerneast Asian nations.

On October 1, 1997, when Mokpo had its centennial as a port city, the city announced the second opening of the port. Mokpo has become famous as the hometown of former President Kim Dae-jung, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001.[22]


The scenery of the city

Mayor of Mokpo

At the beginning of local government in 1994, the president of Munhwa broadcasting corporation Mokpo, Gwon I Dam,(in Hangul: 권이담) inaugurated the office in July 1995. Succeeding the re-seating in the office, Mr.Gwon gave full effort to clean up water problem at the city in that lack of supplies of water had been a nuisance as the city had to build up additional investment from Juam dam located at Jangheung. He also persuaded several public to achieve the movement of provincial office from Gwangju but did not reveal special solution for the issues.[23] In 2000, the mayor officially granted the aid of rice for North Korea[24] However, his political base went through earthquake owing to the conflicts of leaders of Democrats Party. The argument for fair semi-election to elect candidate led him to secede from the party, eventually giving lawsuit upon the election issue without integrity. The court rejected the claim of Mr. Gwon whose post-step became forfeited.[25]

Jeon Tae Hong, the elected had played important role in Mokpo YMCA to stratify policies for corroborating transfer of provincial office and new port and Daebul industrial complex.[26] However, his death all of sudden in 2005 called for emergent election to fill vacancy[27] The election on April 30 of 2005 elected the candidate Jeong Jong Deuk of 45.2% base with the promises of tourism promotion.[28][29] In 2005, the largest issue of the city, the construction of Mokpo bridge lost large portion of the budget by cutting off from Ministry of Strategy and Finance(the Ministry of Planning and Budget at that time) In August, the city awarded the balanced appreciation of munipicial operation of budgets.[30] The old downtown's depression and weakness became huge concern for dwellers toward Hadang in every scope of daily life. Mr. Jeong established the office of original city replanning at the same year, declaring the promotion of slogan as city of light(in Hangul : 빛의 도시, 목포).[31] Yet, the restoration of the economy was seriously asked whether the measurement was righteously chosen for the situation. To tackle the public opinion, the city decided to separately designate the streets of markets by sectioning each avenue by the character of shops, circulating population and appropriate platforms to take into account for 112 year-old commercial core. For instance, the city designated fishery market as the street of Hong-eo(stake) and existing downtown as the street of youngsters.[32]

In 2006, he continued to succeed the chairperson of the city. During his second inauguration, the city has gotten awards of civil executive premiere in 2007 [33] with the first prize of South Korea Tourism Contest, initiated by Korea tourism association, with Ulleung County in 2009.[34]

Upon his presence, it is said to give efforts forward conducting development projects and city planning around the old downtown, failing to activate and circulate critical work of economy. Additionally, the conflicts upon the support fund became huge tic-tac-toc between residences. Mokpo civil newspaper pinpointed that the city council must find out concrete and persuasive devices to draw the populations into the city and change the attitudes toward imbalanced economy.[35][36]

In 2009, non-governmental organizations based in Mokpo jointly urged the mayor to publicily disclose the information upon the consumption of budget. Until their requirement, the committee of information and technology were thoroughly made of the person elected by the mayor. Upon the lawsuit by organizations, it was proved to be in favor of suitor in that informing the budget should be reported and monitored via civil participation.[37]

Disputes upon merge

Enlargement of urban area has occurred fundamental obstacle for leading city's developement throughout most kinds of industries. The merge with Muan county was discussed after the entry of Okam, Samhyang, Daeyang area in 1973 and 1987. The residual votes was initiated in 1994, 1995 and 1998 to ask for the agreement of incorporation, of which results said dwellers of Mokpo and Sinan went for but not majority of Muan.

In fact, the background lies within the location of Mokpo. Mokpo is located at the tip of Muan peninsula, which means Muan takes majority of the expansion. The geographical boundary have longly implied volition of merge for Mokpo but no stimuli for Muan, as most of residents there do not think it will take major advantages in cycles of development. The supporting opinion for merge says that Muan and Mokpo actually shares same roots in terms of geography and equalizing plans for economic boast can be certainly enhanced under the larger population and power.

In 2004, civil groups campaigned supporting vote for amalagamating three areas of Sinan, Muan and Mokpo. In 2009, ongoing movement of administrational transformation has swept several governing bodies and the city council of Mokpo officially submitted blueprints of amalagament on September 25, 2009.[38][39] 2009 vote also fell down owing to rocketing objection from civilians, only except for Mokpo, removing the roots of probability to set up the larger municipal organ.[40]


6th largest city has lost its growing power after the independence. The causal impacts have headed toward several reasons. It can be said eastern area-oriented policy of government. The significant distinction for national development has brought about huge expansion of eastern coast city Ulsan into metropolitan city, but not distinctive policies for Honam area.

In 2007, the population of households increased from 80 thousand to 90 thousand. which indicates each per 2.7 person. The density is 5,062.6, reaching 10th highest rank of South Korea whose figure is one of the very skyrocketing among all the municipalities only except for Gyeonggi province. In 2010, Bank of Korea Mokpo told that major features still cause irresistible decline of the population of western area of South Jeolla province like extended differentiation of income, weak industrial foundation, underdeveloped educational facilities and poor welfare backup.[41]

The formation of Namak city has carried on attracting features thanks to the movement of provincial office where the portion takes half of Mokpo and Muan. Because of Muan's existence, direct growth for Mokpo is still limited.[42]

Bureaus concerned

As a middle-sized city holding regional core, the city seizes several branches and bureau office within its boundary. Regional offices of Sinan county consisting of 1,004 islands set up many of its offices in Mokpo, notably educational office near International shipping terminal. The table also includes offices under the umbrella of the autonomy.

Offices of Sinan county in Mokpo

County office of Sinan moved to Aphae island in April, 2011.[43]


Mokpo houses all kinds of organs for education; it includes 30 elementray schools, 15 schools for secondary education of middle and high school. 3 post graduate schools and universities have been in operation. There are also educational organs such as junior college and a specialized school for physically-challenged.[44]

Education in Mokpo has earlierly adapted to instruct civilians most of whom were Japanese, representing Bukgyo and Yudal elementary school. As a major center of Honam area, Japanese populations took seemingly larger number compared to those of other areas to gain earlier background for educational instructions but not distinctive organ for Koreans at that time. To meet the demands of local Japanese students at first, Bukgyo elementary school actually takes hold of its base in Mokpo Hyanggyo(educational institute for aristocracy during Joseon Dynasty), officially starting its class following the order no.145 of Gojong of Korean Empire, at the same year of opening port in 1897.[45] Yudal elementary school was firstly named as Simsang sohakgyo(hangul:심상소학교, 소학교 refers to elementary-level course) on January 12 of 1898.

Jeonnam Jeil high school was opened in 1920 as commercial high school and first secondary-level course and later its name was changed into Jeil high school. It is also famous for the place where former president Kim Dae Jung graduated from. In 1941, one of the regional wealthy, Moon Jae Cheol established Moontae foundation for educational purposes. Now the foundation holds middle and high schools. Since 2000, some of middle and high schools newly established owing to larger residential complex especially within Hadang.


Mokpo National University was promoted to national-level supported school in 1976 after 30 years of establishment, of which regional fame has been highlighted thanks to the researching specialty for shipbuilding, culturally related majors.[46][47] 2007 preliminary test for national university ranked MNU as the highest level of 4, the same level with Seoul National University and Jeonnam National University.[48]

Mokpo National Maritime University is specializing in maritime related populations.[49] The school takes its characteristic of bringing up specially-trained students for shipping works, mechanisms while funded by government for serving as navigator. Mokpo Catholic University initiated its education as Sungshin nursing college in 1967 for training professional nursing populations in regional bases. The school enlarged its boundary for vocational education, psychology with current level since 1999.[50] Additionally, 5th campus of Korea Polytechnic Colleges set up several majors like computing, applications for shipbuilding, etc. since 1996.[51]

Standardization of High school

Briefly, standardization of school indicates governmental policy for equalizing academical standard of each school. Aside from the policy, faculty of the school was supposed to elect highly-leveled students, whereas the backup of the government overthrew the situation into minimizing gaps between students by draw.

Mokpo took this policy at the late 1970s following this enforcement, coming back to vice versa in 1990. However, notice of legislation by Ministry of Education & Science Technology led the region with another cities in South Jeolla province to take standardization again in 2004.

Formerly, the argument of standardization called for critically heated public polls, nearly reaching to the failure of the policy. However, inhabitant's poll in 2003 aggressively took majority of approval of 71.3% in 2003.[52] Currently, the local issue of education is mainly problematic given the attention of parents that proceeding for prestigious school promotes serious competition among students. This systemical error hardened preference of school each year, instigating stronger promoting expenses of high schools. [53]


Early opening port went through massive growth, whereas the post-independent development have deeply concentrated on Yeongnam area where Japan and Russia are viable within coastal area encouraging major economic impacts for South Korea. However, the brilliant enhancement of Chinese economy shares huge possibility to step up the city's potetntial as the trades via Yellow Sea have been strengthened year by year. Furthermore, the construction of Seonhaean expressway rapidly enhanced the accessibility for Seoul and Gyeonggi province, while the city was taken as for the major candidate of hub harbour, along with Incheon, Pyeongtaek/Dangjin and Gunsan.[54]

Inside the city, the old downtown has suffered from inevitable depression as the population largely moved for the new town called Hadang, losing its value as the heart of consumption for citizens since early 1900.

Farming and Fishery

Mokpo shapes the type of unitary city, not urban and rural complex, to have sparsely located farming area, 459 of 1,326 households under 0.5 ha scale. The productivity normally reaches quite lot for rice, barley and bean. On the contrary, greens and fruits have gained much popularity since 2001, including tomatoes, cucumbers and oriental melon with continuous last.

A great deal of fishing ship stations at harbour. They often goes for near coast like Heuksando to raise the seizure of skates and hairtails. The marine products reached 26,862 ton in 2006, chiefly consisting its percetage from fish. The number of fisher dropped less than 3,000 people to go up again since 2007. Crustaceans, mollusks and seaweeds take next dominance. One of the most famous special products of Mokpo is small octopus, of which yield slipped down a thousand ton per year far less than demands.


The less predominant stream of industries in Mokpo caused the city to shape as consuming role. During Joseon Dynasty, the port worked as major harbour toward Hanyang via Yeongsan River of which role served as for caoyun system.

In modern scope, before Hadang area was built, every single function of the city became concentrated on the original downtown from cultural facilities to commerce. However, the large residential area was built in Yeonsan dong while the construction of Hadang was finalized in 1999 to bring about up-to-date fashioned streets with huge spill of population. As the faculty of original downtown has mostly disappeared for many of merchant houses moved to Hadang or shut down, city congress formulated the order for supporting the old downtown.[55] The outward flow of people has been so enormous that the gap between former and letter has not been decreased.[56]

For more than a century, the commercial power of the city has concentrated on Mokpo station and several markets nearby. The sole department store was closed within 1997 Asian financial crisis with several movie theatres shut, too. The dominance of economic power has been notably imbalanced by opening of Lotte Mart(2001) and E-Mart(2002).[57] For large-scale market in Mokpo, Home plus is the solitary merchandising company resided in old downtown near Munhwa broadcasting corporation in Yongdang area.[58]

Exceptionally, fishery market of Dongmyeong and North Harbor Hoe center have vitalised for tourists and local people looking for octopus or indigneous products. The economic bureau of the city has issued the voucher for promoting consumption within the market since early 2009, reaching all disposal of the issue amounted as 0.3 billion Korean won.[59]


Vitality of regional economy refers to Daebul industrial complex and Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries located in near Yeongam. The imports of merchandise can give supports for Mokpo as those of products must pass through harbour. Daebul complex did not hold any company at the first stance, overthrowing vacancies toward massive parcel-out since 2000.

Initial owner of heavy industries had been Halla group, of which possession was taken over by Hyudai heavy industries to change its name adding regional term "Samho" meaing three lakes. The announcement of bankrupty largely called for deep concerns over large scale lay-off and loss of regional profits for shop owners. The serious worries was slided by the M&A to heighten stability of business. Meanwhile, profits of complex amounted to more than $ 0.46 bn, acclerated about 25% from that of 2006.[60][61]

South Jeolla province succeeded to attract series of investors for renewable energies like solar panels. In industrial complex, Innovation silicon ltd, overtook the projects for building silicon producing complex of 10 bn won.[62] The city required more investment for preparing for holding industrial factories in Daeyang dong area.[63]


Business origin to Mokpo are mainly Bohae brewing company, Haengnam chinaware, Chosun refractories, etc. Bohae brewing company represents the brand of soju from Honam area, of which best merchandise is maple soju(잎새주), the first brewing soju from maples. In 2001, the products titled the prize of 5 million bottle exports from national government. Joint developed soju was also launched in Japan, with Asahi Breweries. Its wine made of Rubus coreanus has attained the confirmation for United States for the first time as a Korean brewing company in 2008 with a nickname of rugby ball wine.[64][65]

Another major company is Haengnam chinaware, established May 1942. Its headquarter is located at this city with Seoul branch for design and public relations and Yeoju for production. The enterprise has the first record for developing coffee cup sets in 1953.[66] In 1963, Hong Kong firstly accepted its export within its territory while current marketing is paying attention for Chinese markets for exporting profits to reach more than 2 million dollars in 2008.[67] In 2011, its president signed MOU with Ministry of Environment of South Korea for designing less pollutant emitting process. The project tries to enhance public awareness on environmental issues for rare natural species.[68][69]


Mokpo seats at the southern part of Muan peninsula, which actually lies within the tip with Sinan county consisting of 1004 islands. Its neighbor, Muan county takes northerneast part and Yeongam lies in front of the city by Yeongsan river. The geographical feature is Yudal mountain(228m) at the center of old downtown. Yudal mountain as a pride of the city holds its unique nickname as Gaegol(in hangul:개골) meaning weird-shaped rocks and peaks. The hilly side of the mountain caused upward roads around the downtown. Nojeokbong is historic site where General Yi soon shin made use of its shape making it like accumulated rice for soldiers during Japanse invasion. Throughout each direction of the city are there mountains like Mt. Ibam(121) at the east, Yangeul(156m) and Daebak(156) at the north.[70][71] The mouth of Yeongsan river flows following the southern side of the city with 13 islands. The existence of natural seawall encouraged the promising place for accommodating several kinds of ship.

Most of landmeasure of Mokpo, however, have largely accomplished by land reclamation, including Samhakdo, North harbor(in Hangul : 북항) and new city of Hadang which roots the updated fashion of the downtown. According to the research by Mokpo national university, tributaries of Yeongsan river crossed the central area of old downtown. For instance, Mokone dong area was originally called as Namgyo(southern side of bridge) and Bukgyo(Northern side of bridge)-dong. Both names include gyo(in Hangul:교, in Hanja:橋)meaning the bridge, which indicates the bridge links the separated village. Tideland reclamation project removed large amounts of mud flat including Daebandong, Baekryundong and coastal shore around Gatbawi. Additionally, munipical range incorporates 7 desert islands.

The wall at the end of the Yeongsan river blocked flooding damage during harsh typhoon, whereas the sideeffects have headed forward another portion of the city, chiefly the sea level along the coast have continued to rise. Meanwhile, the water quality of river have worsened to call for the ministry in charge to take environmental appreciation for reviewing impacts by manmade structure. In 2010, the reports became the pinpointed issue for environmental civil group in that widened seawall would be constructed by dirted water getting pumped out of the riverbeds and carrying the water into the beds of the harbour.[72]


Mokpo (1981−2010)
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Mokpo weather station was built with 5 other sites but firstly observed weather condition on 25 March 1904 in whole Korean peninsula.[73] The first record says it was cloudy with lowest degree of 3.4 and highest of 8.4.

Mokpo's climate is highlighted by a short spring and autumn. It is cold and dry in the winter and warm and humid, with seasonal winds, in the summer. There is much rain in the summer, with an average of 1163mm. It is usually quite windy and foggy in the spring and autumn owing to its locality near the ocean. Mokpo's long period (223 days) without frost creates suitable conditions for rice farming. However, its seacoast location and the influence of the continental climate on the city often causes a great disparity between the rise and fall of daily and yearly temperatures. Another feature of local weather is highest level of sunlight in Korea with Sinan county, which means a great deal of probability to hold sunlight energy plants and related industries.[74] In terms of yellow dust, the number of occurrence is quite similar to those of other cities like Seoul and Incheon; 10–11 days per year but the figure of fine dust is relatively low.[75]

The climate of Mokpo pertains itself to the Cfa, following to Köppen climate classification. Depending on the seasonal change, it takes different phases of weather condition, which indicates unpredictable situations sometimes happen. Especially, unexpected blizzards sweep the region with huge gust during winter. The statistical climate data says average snowy days reach more than a month and 60 days below zero Celsius.[76] For tropical cyclone, Mokpo gains damages within the passing range of typhoons and its peripherical impacts involving heavy precipitation during summer and mostly early autumn. 2004 typhoon Mindeulle rained highest-ever precipitation with 64 mm per hour.

Climate data for Mokpo (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.7
Average low °C (°F) −1.5
Precipitation mm (inches) 33.2
humidity 68.7 69.0 67.8 68.0 72.5 77.8 83.7 80.3 75.8 69.2 67.6 68.7 72.4
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.6 9.5 9.7 8.4 9.4 10.4 13.5 12.4 8.9 6.5 8.4 10.2 118.9
Sunshine hours 143.3 154.5 184.1 204.9 216.3 171.3 158.0 204.5 179.5 209.4 166.4 143.2 2,135.4
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration [77]



Mokpo Station

Mokpo Station was become open in May 15, 1913 at the first timetable for Hampyeong, currently Hakgyo myun. As the final destination of Honam line with huge suffer during colonial period, it accommodates annually 1.2 million or more people and shipment.[78]

The station is located at the near range with Yudal mountatin, southerwest part of the city. The railroad ended inside the station while industrial rail transport no longer operate reached Samhakdo. For industrial purposes, the line played role to carry coals for factories as a branch proximity to the local citizens residence. Because of serious dangers, the city decided to remove the rail in 2011.[79]

Before the operation of KTX bullet train, the road passed the center of the city through Yeon dong, whereas the double-track project managed rails penetrating the town to be removed. Instead, the circulating rail takes detouring course via Seokhyun area with underground tunnel.

On April 1 of 2004, Korea Train Express took the opening ceremony with 3 hour range from Seoul to Mokpo, whereas actual time required is beyond the expectation as Korean railroad service did not provide least stops within Honam Line. 3 hour travel is only possible when stopping at 4 stops with Seodaejeon, Iksan, Gwangjusongjeong and then, to Mokpo, which is not available since 2008. 10 services are possible everyday from Yongsan station to Mokpo with 195 minutes. According to the further developing project of railroad, the high speed Honam line would help citizen go to Seoul within 100 minutes. In this case, the final arrival would reach at Imsungri station moving the role of Mokpo, meaning some of the railroads would stop in the long run. The basal plan says that Honam high speed rail would be divided from Osong with a range of 230.9 km[80] In July 2010, Saemaul and Mugunghwa-ho are operating round trip service of twice and six times each day, respectively. For Gwangju Station, Mugunghwa ho is working on twice in a day.

Inland road

See also :Roads and expressways in South Korea

Seohaean Expressway connects Mokpo to Seoul by car within 3 hour. Before the construction, the developing exis was eastern Yeongnam area without special concerns over western region more than 4.5~5 hour for Seoul. The new project from Gwangyang to Mokpo has worked on with a view to opening the road in the late 2011, which would finalize the linkage of Namhae Expressway starting from Busan. Additionally, Muan-Gwangju expressway was built and opened in 2007 and 2008 to boast the accommodation of Muan international airport.[81][82]

National Routhe 1 was planned to connect Mokpo to Sineuju in North. After Korean War, the section became stopped till Imjingak near Panmunjeom, later extent to Gaesung in 2000 of which purpose is to provide conveninence with industrial business in Gaesung Industrial complex.

In case of exterior transportation, Mokpo bus terminal plays critical role to move passengers for other regions while some of the far away services are still insufficient. Customers, in this option, transfer the bus terminal at Gwangju.


Buses around the local area are largely in charge of two companies to link several spots around. The last bases are Samhakdo, rear entrance of maritime university and Seokhyun dong. Some buses work till Samho(Yeongam), areas of Muan and Haenam and jointly operate for Aphae island as Aphae Bridge became open.

Since 2005, the enterprise and city council agreed to expand number of buses fueled by natural gas after 3 year long negotiation. The city has supported about 21,000 US dollar for each bus to equip with eco-friendly measure. As of 2006, 32 buses have started to operate its schedule by natural gas.[83] The enlargement of bed towns around the city stimulated more demands to initiate other lines while the conflicts also happens owing to the profits and public servicing policy of the city.

Transfer with free of charge became applicable to every bus as of March 1 of 2007. The lines are classified as inner circle, outer line and artery, which follows commuting service system of Seoul Buses.[84] Buses with low-floor level firstly equipped in South Jeolla province in 2007, although chosen lines still limited until now. Campaigns have also included to support physically-challenged by eliminating floors at the bus stop[85]

Since 2008, the semi-public bus system have been pushed for, intending to expand the choice of city governing body for lining up routes with management by bus company. The core goal is to share the responsibility for opreation and control over spending and income. Although the policy gained its first glance as breaktrrough to cut off discomforts of civilians of farmost village,[86] However, NGOs have opposed to the stuffy support only for transportation company, having own evidence of social agreement and balanced burdens. The policy has not been chosen yet owing to lack of discussions and objectives by several civil groups.[87]


Muan International Airport is the airport serving Mokpo.

Previously Mokpo Airport operated as the region's airport. The crash of Asiana plane in 1993 escalated the worries over the airport but with only extension of 50m runway. Moreover, the site held fundamental drawbacks owing to common foggy weather and lack of related facilities such as linking roads for citizens.[88] Korean Air abolished Gimpo-Mokpo line and Asiana airlines also started to slash services in 2004 with additional removal of Mokpo-Jeju line. The air companies announced they could not accept impregnable deficits because of speed railroad, which also include further development till 2017. In fact, the availability dropped to 49.7% from the past ratio of about 70%, bringing up the wipe-out of the airlines. The decision rebuked negative regional responses.[89][90]

The construction of Muan International Airport was delayed for many times to call upon disappointment for the local people with more loss of the air transportation. The initial construction was announced in 1999, whereas the business project continued to stop or put off and the cost for the plan was measurably cut down. Because of the difficulty, municipal representatives urged to cancel the decision until new airport opens.[91] Eventually Mokpo airport was decided to close its doors in November 8, 2007.[92]


Frontal coast seen from Yudal Mountain

Mokpo holds mainly 3 harbours for several purposes such as ferry, trades and fishery. Main harbour takes customers and cargos around nearby islands while North harbor regularly plies ferries of Nonghyup. Additionally, newly built harbour(in hangul : 목포신항 or 신외항) chiefly takes South Korea-China containers and other cargos.

For accommodating customers, over 80 sea lines have been available, notably for Heuksando, Hongdo and Jeju and almost every linking ferries for Sinan county. In 2002, the first-ever achieved cruise for Shanghai was confirmed by disclosing official ceremony of operation.[93] However, nearly bankrupted concerns stopped the continuance of cruise only after five months. In July 2004, the cruise company altered the scheme for shipping scale with less number of people by introducing newly-designed ship from Greece but failed to last owing to rejection from China.[94]

Mokpo coastal terminal was originally built during 1980s with old-fashioned facility. For this problem, government supported 30 bn won for constructing 4-story terminal from 2003. The new building opened in February 2007, adorned with the design of fastsailing ship under the umberella of international harbour town to meet the demands of visiting guests and tourists.[95] During construction, poor separation of ferries hardened discomfort for customers owing to intervention of Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries branch office. Bureaucrats classified 3 other gates within coastal area; 1, 2, 3 piers and North harbor per each ferry company.[96] Mokpo coastal terminal under present circumstance is supposed to divide two waiting rooms into coastal and international range.

For newly built harbour, the lack of international cargo service, South Jeolla and Gwangju have had to borrow other region's habour to heigthen transporting expenses. To cut down on those needless inconvenience, the harbour boasts as many efforts as possible for increasing the accommodation of cargos since its open in 2004. The feature of the container is the first civil investment for harbour in South Korea with multifarious shipping ability.[97] On the present level, sea routes have been opened for China, Japan, Thailand and Indonesia with munipicial support for companies.[98] In January 2011, Samsung electronics decided to choose Mokpo as a chief exporting harbor for merchandises from its factory in Gwangju.[99]

Ferries at coastal terminal

Line Company Number Remarks
Heuksando, Hongdo, Gageodo Namhae Express/Dongyang Twice per day Fastsailing
Chuja-Byeokpa-Heuksan-Hongdo Jindo Transportation Unverified
Jeju Seaworld ferry Twice per day
Eupdong(Anjwa), Palguem, Amtae, Jaeun, Bigeum, Docho Daeheung Also available to depart from Aphae harbour of Sinan
Bokho(Anjwa), Jangsan, Haui, Sinui, Sangtae Joyang Clippery Angel
Uidal, Dali, Yuledo and other islands Sinjin, Johang 5 times per day 11 times during seawater pool in Uidal island

Nonghyup ferry at North harbor

Depart Arrival Company Remarks
North Harbor
Songgong of Aphae
Eupdong(Anjwa) Nonghyup at Anjwa
North Harbor
Songgong of Aphae
5 small islands of Amtae
Sinan Nonghyup
North Harbor Biguem Biguem Nonghyup
North Harbor Docho Docho Nonghyup



Night Sight of Mokpo
Old downtown with Luminarie
National marintime museum


Around Yudal mountain, flower festival at Yudal mountain opens every April and May. The name was actually representing the title of goldenbell flower but currently changed its title. The main stage is supposed to Nojeokbong and blossomed street along the mounttain.

The festival of Largehead hairtail(in Hangul:목포사랑은빛갈치축제) takes place around Yeongsan lake to borrow fishing tools and ship for tourists. The service gained huge success from fishing fans and family tourists every October. Fishing contest calls for a great deal of people to take part in following huge flameworks at evening.[100]

Nanyeong singing memmorial celebrates famous singer, Lee Nan Young whose song named 'The tear of Mokpo' gained public awareness with huge attention of civilians. The memmorial have started since 1968 by Honam Maeil newspaper but stopped sometimes, whereas MBC Mokpo again hosted the celebration. Korea Broadcasting system Mokpo holds Mokpo singing festival every autumn.

Hoe markets are chief attraction for tourists with numerous dishes and diverse kinds of fish along the market. Normally the festivals are hosted by committee of merchants. Market at Dongmyeong and North harbour is most famous.

Yudal Mountain

See also : Yudal mountain

Yudal mountain is located at the central area of old downtown as a symbol and pride of the city. The nickname is Gaegol, of which byname indicates Geumgang mountain in North Korea during summer. The reference was occurred because all the summits becomes the naturalized scenery with strange shapes of summits and hills.

City of Light

The city has planned the scheme for enhancing tourism in old downtown. The transfer of the population caused the disappearance of several shops to remain not many to consume. In case of students, Sanjeong elementary school's alumni has dropped below 300 from above 3,000.[101] The oldtown has lost the power of citizens to gather, calling for blueprints while South Jeolla province agreed to help the city for a boast.[102] The project for encouraging tourism was possible to establish light entertaining facilities along the street next to the station since 2003. At night, the lights emit its decorative shapes from police office to Mokpo theater. The project "A city of Light" is supposed to make decorations along the monumental buildings and symbolic landscapes.[103] The objection of environmentalists tremendously occurred to mention that irrevocable impact harms ecological ability for the mountainous terrain and the city must make the bills to enact environmentally-concerned establishment of illumination.[104]

For new downtown, it is possible to observe lights of fountain at night. As a recreational place for citizens, fountain is designed to shoot up following the beat of the song. The expansion of the facility was announced but confronted difficulty owing to the series of rejection by civil groups since 2009.[105]

Islands ashore

In front of harbors, thousands of islands float on the Yellow Sea, some of which pertain to the boundary of Mokpo. The municipal councils have backed up the program of vitalizing islands close to the city. These are island of Goha and Uaidal. With a slogan of "Lovely island, Uai-dal", Hanok residences have served as accommodation for tourists with seawater pool during summer.

Goha island shares its fame for station of naval forces directed by General Yi Sun Shin during Imjin war broken out in 1592. During Japanese colonial period, Japanese navy drilled aritifical caves to conceal the armaments to avoid the attack of Allies during the second world war. Save the armaments, 2 air-raid shelters have found. The newly-launched tourism project is supposed to establish commemoreative plaza for General Yi, observatory, trails along the seashore under the title of historical experience. Mokpo Bridge is on the construction to link the island with the inland.[106]

Gatbawi, which means a rock shaping like Gat, a traditional constume wearing like a hat is one of the most famous place to visit. The district has been nominated as "Culturally-oriented Street" intended to exhibit several themes like natural history, ancient marinetime relics, ceramics and arts. Namnong Memorial Hall commemorates Heo Gun, calligrapher of fame in 20c. Series of works of him are still on exhibition with a Korean garden. National research institute of maritime heritages is aiming at organizing and researching the methodologies of ancient people for naval trade and movement. The institute holds special value as the only researching organ for maritime relics in South Korea.[107][108]

The buses for city tour works everyday except for Mondays. The schedule starts from 9 am to 3 pm to turn around 11 major spots of history. During festivals, the buses operate more to seat tourists.


Museums in Mokpo are mostly located near Gatbawi street. The city concenetrated its ability to invest researching and exhibiting space along this area. National maritime museum is one of the oldest and the only organ for having capacity to restore traditional way of navigation and types of Korean traditional ship. The official terminology of the organ was changed in 2009 as the Research institute for maritime history in 2009 to supplement some functions of the center. The reasons can be expicable in that Yellow sea has been the trade routhe between Chinese culture and Korean peninsula having large relics and stances of cultural exchange since three kingdoms period in early historic period.[109]

Mokpo Natural history museum possesses the large number of relics having several exhibition rooms holding fossils from all over the world. Originally started as one building, it incorporated the cultural heritage hall as its wing to take local relics since prehistoric years. The museum has worked on collecting samples and data of organisms from the fossils of dinosaurs to insects and cetaceans found in Yellow sea. In terms of dinosaurs, the nest of eggs, found in Aphae island, was restored and disclosed to public in 2010. The length of egg reach more than 40 cm respecitvely, proved to be dated 80 million years ago, during Mesozoic period.[110] Korea Forest Service chose the museum as the organ of recording its samples of insects in national database for biological resources in 2009.[111]

Mokpo Ceramic Museum opened its hall in 2008 on the basis of supports from the government to set up ceramics, largely based on modern usuage and invited chinaware from the notable manufacturers. Meanwhile, Literature hall of Mokpo(in Hangul:목포문학관) is not far from the ceramic museum to host literature class for general public taking features writer or novels, helping growth of local demands for lifelong learning. The program of facility gains aides from Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism since 2010, visiting schools to inform local history of writing and literature.[112]


Branches of KBS, MBC and several broadcasting studions exist in Mokpo. KBS Mokpo was firstly established in 1942, of which first location was close to Yeon dong area to move its base next to the current city hall in Yongdang. MBC Mokpo was not initially planned to work as a television studio but as a radio station in 1967 with a frequency of 1386 kHz. Its fame was served when the voices of citizens were reported during the demonstration for the democracy to face the attack by coup in 1980. The branch also shifted its station to Yongdang area.[113]

The only station for religion is the branch of Far East Broadcasting Company opened in 1999 to work for Chiristian missions involving Honam area. For cable broadcasting, Honam Hanguk cable has its office in Hadang. The business for newspapers are only 2 of Mokpo Today and Civil paper of Mokpo.


For sports and cultural entertainment

The Yudal Stadium is located next to the 100 year memmorial avenue, opening the site with indoor swimming pool. The stadium consists of ballpark, 8 lane tracks. Behind the stadium, local groups can gain support to use tennis court. The ground floor accommodates committees of diverse kinds of sports to initiate policies upon the citizens and services.

The city has run the bills for attracting training session of major teams in winter. The public relations have gained much boast for the contract to make deals with 127 teams of near 6,000 athletes in 2004 winter. Strength was found to be sunny and warm weather with numerous accommodating facilities to connect mountain, sea and stadium.[114] Since 2005, National athletic events starts on the concentration of throwing sports to gain more visiting personnels.[115]

Around Yudal mountain, recreational parks sparsely located along the trail, while the city is on the construction for additional park in Samhakdo area.

Mokpo Cultural complex is located along the shore near to Gatbawi with a divided two buildings. The complex is divided into the hall for performance and for exhibition. The weakness is said to be limit of seating capacity ; 700 people for 2 story building at most.[116]

Mokpo civil culture&sports center was built to meet the satisfaction of new downtown living citizens in 2003. The tremendous operating fees have been major burdens the province to lead the responsibility of operation for Mokpo city at the end of the same year. Largely 3 halls are divided to take more than 1200 audiences in case of largest auditorium.[117] [118]

Two libraries work in Mokpo. Civil library of Mokpo began its work in 1974 at the old consulate of Japan. Later in 1989, it moved to the close area of Yudal stadium with a scale of 4 story and 1,636 seats. The scale of possession is over 360 thousands of books in diverse subjects and internet-accessed research rooms. The argument of integrity has swept the bill of selecting companies to consign. Upon this concern, independent council selected the cultural institute of Mokpo for the right candidate in 2003.[119][120] Public library of Mokpo is located at near North harbor with a initial status of dependent organ of Mokpo educational institute and gained independence.[121]

Health care

The health care of the city is appreciated fairly high among other government autonomies. As of 2008, statistics office announced the number of doctor per one thousand population was amounted to be 11.41, from 10.45 of one year before. The council of doctor in Mokpo city stated the ongoing improvement of economic growth and populations's incoming brought stimuli toward continuous construction of middle-sized or larger hospitals and clinics.[122]

Mokpo National hospital was established in 1962 for improving the medical care for tuberculoses. The hospital gained the management of city in 1970 and later became national status in 2002.[123] Mokpo health center worked as a civil health centre since 1962, of which branch has opened in Hadang residential area to share the sanitary activities.

Around the city, probabilities are high for emergency patients in coastal area resided in islands. To cut down on the danger of lives, the ministry of Health chose Mokpo and Incheon as a site for operating medical helicopter. Hankook hospital was designated the final candidate of the charge.[124]

Public medical organ

General hospital


Mokpo is famous for strong smelling fermented fish Hongeo (in Hangul : 홍어) and many kinds of side dishes banchan. The five delicacies of Mokpo are the famous three - Hongeo, Kimchi and Pyeonyuk (in Hangul: 홍어삼합); octopus with slender legs Yeonpotang: Hoe; and seasoned Portunus trituberculatus, all of which are found near the seaside. The city started a public market for those wishing to sell their own delicacies-- on delicious food street downtown.[125]

Sister cities

Symbols of Mokpo

  • City Flower - White Magnolia
  • City Tree - Loquats
  • City Bird - Crane


See also


  1. ^ "Being chosen is to be elected in Jeolla area Gyeonghyang Ilbo 1995-04-21
  2. ^ Mayor's message at city's website
  3. ^ (Korean) Park Yeong Su, Geoin Publishing 《우리나라 문화여행》
  4. ^ "목포는 항구다…日帝 잔재는 근대 遺産으로…영산강의 눈물은 환희 되어 흘러"(in Korean) Hankyun Daily 2010-10-20
  5. ^ Tour and Culture of Mokpo, Mokpo city hall
  6. ^ KBS, p.48 《History Special 2 역사스페셜2》
  7. ^ Jang Kong, 《The Korean History 2》, p.34
  8. ^ Lee Bong Soo, p.217《The sea where General Yi goes for 이순신이 싸운 바다:한려수도》
  9. ^ Song Young Bae, 《Two thousand years of garbage in Korean peninsula 문지사 한국의 쓰레기 2천년사》
  10. ^ KBS Documentary team, p.18, 20 《Liberation(20c Korean history based on themes) 해방(테마로 읽는 20세기 한국사)》
  11. ^ Hong Seong Chul, p.101 《History of Prostituion》
  12. ^ History of Mokpo from Encyber of Doosan in Korea(ko)
  13. ^ Go Seok Gyu, 〈Mokpo's cultrual space and history as a modern city 근대도시 목포의 역사 공간 문화〉
  14. ^ Gram Publishing company, Lee Gyeong Jae《Story of Hanyang 한양이야기》, p.264
  15. ^ History of Mokpo
  16. ^ (Korean) 최낙연(Choi Nak Yeon), «지방경제의 이해»(Comprehension on local economy) p.118
  17. ^ Kim Hyuk Phil "Practical profits in joint market policy in Joseon" 1935-06-05 Dong A Ilbo Retrieved in 2011-05-10 via news library service powered by NHN.
  18. ^ 2005-11-25 "The picture of old Samhakdo"
  19. ^ 2007-03-01 "Mokpo's Samhakdo retoreed in 35 year... Open on the first day of March"
  20. ^ 5.18 Memorial Foundation
  21. ^ Lease complex for foreigners
  22. ^ The Nobel Peace Prize 2000
  23. ^ "현직시장 '아름다운 퇴장'" (in Korean) OhMyNews 2002-05-01
  24. ^ "목포시, 밀가루 600t 북한 지원"(in Korean) Yonhap 2002-01-12
  25. ^ "민주당 목포시장 경선 ‘전태홍’씨 당선"(in Korean) OhMyNews 2002-05-01
  26. ^ 전태홍 목포 시장 뇌사, 인공호흡기로 연명 Nocut News 2005-01-12
  27. ^ "전태홍 목포시장 돌연사" Seoul newspaper 2005-01-13
  28. ^ " <4.30 당선자 인터뷰> 정종득 전남 목포시장 <4.30 당선자 인터뷰> - 정종득 전남 목포시장" Yonhap 2005-04-30
  29. ^ "목포시장 민주당 정종득 후보 당선" Yonhap 2005-09-30
  30. ^ 자치단체장과 지역구의원 힘모아 흘린땀 큰 결실로 Yonhap 2005-09-14
  31. ^ Enlightenment of Luminarie street in Mokpo Yonhap 2005-12-29
  32. ^ "목포 원도심 활기 되찾는다"(in Korean) Asiatoday 2009-10-23
  33. ^ "목포시, '풀뿌리 경영 대상' 수상"(in Korean) Yonhap 2007-10-20
  34. ^ "‘제1회 한국관광대상’에 목포시-울릉군" (in Korean) Asiatoday 2009-01-07
  35. ^ 2008-05-26 "목포시민신문 원도심 활성화 실질적 지원책 시급"(in Korean)
  36. ^ "원도심사업 보상업무 주먹구구"(in Korean) Newspaper of Mokpo civilians 2007-03-14
  37. ^ "법원, 목포시장 업무추진비 지출증빙자료 공개 판결" CNB 2009-01-11
  38. ^ 5th times failure for merging Muan peninsula
  39. ^ Mokpo, suggesting self-merging of three areas for Ministry
  40. ^ Fail to merge Muan pen., eastern area of South Jeolla - Superiority for objection 전남 무안반도.동부권 통합 무산…반대 우세
  41. ^ "전남 서남부지역 인구 감소 '지속'" (in Korean) Yonhap 2010-11-02
  42. ^ 2007(KOR) Official statistics of population in 2007
  43. ^ 신안 군청 42년만에 ‘내집 마련’ (in Korean) Seoul newspaper 2011-04-26
  44. ^ Mokpo Insung school
  45. ^ History of Bukgyo elementary school
  46. ^ History of Mokpo Natl' Univ.
  47. ^ Newsis 2004-09-18 Launch of Nuri in MNU
  48. ^ Yonhap 2008-02-20 Superiority of MNU in innovative appreciation for national universities
  49. ^ History of school
  50. ^ History of Catholic University of Mokpo
  51. ^ Refer to the history of 5th campus college of Korea Polythechinic
  52. ^ 2004-01-19 "Mokpo, Yeosu, Suncheon will be standardized next year" 목포·여수·순천 내년 고교 평준화 Hankyoreh
  53. ^ 2009-01-30 "Are schools of South Jeolla equalized? .... 10 times gap between schools Yonhap
  54. ^South Korea! Look at the future, stepping up past》 p.369, Samsung Economic Research Institute
  55. ^ "목포시, 전국 최초 '원도심 활성화 지원 조례' 제정"
  56. ^ "원도심활성화, 또 하나의 신도시건설" 2009-02-19
  57. ^ The profile of the E-mart at website
  58. ^ "삼성 홈플러스 목포점 17일 개점"(in Korean) Newsis 2008-01-11
  59. ^ "목포시 재래시장상품권 인기몰이 `왜?'"(in Korean) Yonhap 2009-02-18
  60. ^ Hope when electronic lines be removed Donga Ilbo
  61. ^ Gang Seon won,《100 options for land dealers 땅 투자자가 꼭 알아야 할 100가지》 p. 315
  62. ^ 2009-01-15 Highliting strategic access for outdoor investment Moneytoday
  63. ^ Full-dress construction for Mokpo Daeyang industrial complex (in Korean) Newsis 2009-02-04
  64. ^ History of Bohae
  65. ^ my 2008-12-15 Wines of Bohae takes preferrence of American customers as a rugby ball shaped design Maeil Business Newspaper
  66. ^ History of the company
  67. ^ 2008-10-28 Haengnam Chinaware Expansion for China twice in 2009 "2009년 中수출 2배 확대"
  68. ^ 2011-04-14 "Heading for protection of endangered species by Haegnam chinaware; MOU with government" Financial News
  69. ^ "Mou with Haengnam chinaware for promoting environmental protecion on rare-classified species"
  70. ^ Samsung Publishing, 2007. 《대한민국 웬만한곳 다있다》 in Korean
  71. ^ Introduce the geographical features, CIty of Mokpo
  72. ^ 영산강 하구둑 개선사업 환경영향평가 '부실' (in Korean) Yonhap 2010-05-23
  73. ^ (Korean)Kim Dong Shik(김동식), Kim Jung Hyun(김정현) Maeil Economy, 2006. 《날씨경영 하늘에서 돈이 옵니다》p.173
  74. ^ "전국은 지금 ‘태양의 도시’ 열풍" (in Korean) Hankyung Business, 2007−06−11
  75. ^ "전남, 수도권비해 황사발생 적고 농도 낮다" (in Korean) Yonhap 2009−02−21
  76. ^ The features of Mokpo at Mokpo Weather station (in Korean)
  77. ^ "평년값자료(1981−2010) 목포(165)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011−05−23. 
  78. ^ Daos Railroad station
  79. ^ "Going to get rid of ongoing railroad for Samhakdo in 2011" 2008-06-04 Mokpo Today
  80. ^ "Construction of bullet train road from Osong to Mokpo next year" 오송∼목포 호남고속철 내년 착공"
  81. ^ Explanation on Seohaean Exp. by Korea Expressway Corporation
  82. ^ Muan-Gwangju and 88 Exp.
  83. ^ "천연가스(CNG) 시내버스 운행" (in Korean) 2006-01-29
  84. ^ "목포시 시내버스 무료환승 실시" 2007-03-02
  85. ^ "목포시, 시내버스 저상버스 도입운행" Yonhap 2007-12-05
  86. ^ "목포시 시내버스 준공영제 내년 시행" Yonhap 2008-01-07
  87. ^ "목포경실련, 시내버스 준공영제 “사회적 합의가 우선" (in Korean) Dailian 2008-10-01
  88. ^ "Mokpo airport shut down in 38 years of history..."
  89. ^ "Managing to keep up Jeju airplane"
  90. ^ "The crisis of Mokpo Airline; is it going to disappear?"
  91. ^ "Harsh obstacle for Muan Int'l Airport" 2003-09-29
  92. ^ "Int'l flights going to move for Muan from Gwangju airport" 2007-10-16 Kookmin Ilbo
  93. ^ "목포~상하이 카페리 운항 .. 매주 2회 왕복"(in Korean) Korea Economy Daily 2002-11-20
  94. ^ "목포-상하이 뱃길 9월 재개" (in Korean) Yonhap 2004-07-22
  95. ^ "<지역경제시대> 올해를 빛낸 기업 : 목포여객터미널, 국제항만타운으로" (in Korean) 2004-11-24
  96. ^ "섬 지역 나들이 너무 힘들어요" 주민, 관광객 불만 팽배 Newsis 2006-07-20
  97. ^ "목포항~中 상하이 컨테이너 항로 추가 개설" (in Korean) Yonhap 2010-12-10
  98. ^ 목포시, 국제정기항로 개설 인센티브 Donga Ilbo 2011-05-03
  99. ^ 삼성전자 백색가전제품 목포신항 통해 수출 Prime Economy 2011-01-27
  100. ^ '목포바다 은빛갈치축제' 화려한 밤 수놓는다 Starnews 2008-09-24
  101. ^ 2010-11-30 Yonhap News
  102. ^ "Provincial office agrees on backup for supporting old downtown in several areas Yonhap News 2005-03-30
  103. ^ "Travel Memo- Yudal Mt. in Mokpo" 2007-02-03 Kookmin Ilbo
  104. ^ Dark clouds on Mokpo's plan to become the light city" 2006-01-19 Hankook Ilbo
  105. ^ "Why in front of the peace plaza ; New Geographical trends in Mokpo" 2009-02-23 Asia Economics
  106. ^ History park in Mokpo Donga Ilbo 2008-10-04
  107. ^ 2007-01-29 "Uaidal island with special food, mudfield, sunbath..." 2007-01-25 Hankyung Daily
  108. ^ E-book for work of museum
  109. ^ "해양유물전시관, '문화재연구소'로 명칭 변경" (in Korean) Newsis 2009-04-28
  110. ^ "8,000만 년 전 공룡알 둥지 화석 공개"(in Korean) YTN 2010-12-04 Video clip available
  111. ^ "목포자연사박물관 소장 곤충표본 DB 구축"(in Korean) Newsis 2009-09-09
  112. ^ 목포문학관, 찾아가는 문학교실 '인기'(in Korean) Yonhap 2010-07-14
  113. ^ Company history at Mokpo MBC
  114. ^ "Come to Mokpo for winter training 스포츠 동계훈련 목포로 오세요" 2004-11-23 Hankook Ilbo
  115. ^ "2006 National atheletic contest in Mokpo" 2006-02-03
  116. ^ Official page of Mokpo city ; Mokpo cultural complex
  117. ^ "Mokpo Sports center open at January" Segye Ilbo 2003-10-24
  118. ^ Mokpo sports/culture center
  119. ^ "Consignment heads to Mokpo culture institute" 2003-01-20
  120. ^ Official website of Library
  121. ^ Official website of Library
  122. ^ 목포시 의료기관 의사 수 '전국 최고' Newsis 2008-10-14
  123. ^ History of Mokpo Nat's Hospital
  124. ^ "응급전용 헬기 7월부터 인천-목포서 운영" (in Korean) Donga Ilbo 2011-04-15
  125. ^ "목포시, “맛 집 거리” 입주자 모이세요!"(Mokpo city, get together for collecting delicious food street"(in Korean) Asiatoday
  126. ^ Beppu City Official web: Sister City Introduction
  127. ^ Masan City: Sister Cities - Mokpo
  128. ^ Seodaemun-gu Office: Sister Cities - Domestic


  • Two Jeolla provinces which Mokpo pertains to has been the critical base of Democratic party of South Korea. Before Fmr.president Kim took presidency, he caught the strongest power in the reason as a root of his political supporting base. In this context, Mokpo and near area has been called the garden of Democrats.
  • Nonghyup ferries refer to the regular ferry operated by Nonghyup which is kind of banking and cooperating organ for farmers. The ferry connects each branch in several islands in Sinan and Mokpo.

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  • Mokpo — Koreanisches Alphabet: 목포시 Chinesische Schriftzeichen: 木浦市 Revidierte Romanisierung: Mokpo si …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mokpo — (Mok p to), Hafenort am Ausgang einer tief einschneidenden Meeresbucht auf der westlichen Seite der Südspitze der Halbinsel Korea, durch vorgelagerte Inseln geschützt, wurde 1. Okt. 1897 dem Fremdhandel eröffnet und hat japanische und chinesische …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Mokpo — 34°46′N 126°21′E / 34.767, 126.35 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • mokpo — ˈmäk(ˌ)pō adjective Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: from Mokpo (Moppo), Korea : of or from the city of Mokpo, Korea : of the kind or style prevalent in Mokpo * * * /mawk poh/, n. a seaport in SW South Korea. 177,801 …   Useful english dictionary

  • Mokpo City FC — Mokpo City 목포시청 Full name Mokpo City Football Club 목포시청 축구단 Founded 24 December 2009 Ground …   Wikipedia

  • Mokpo International Football Center — Full name Mokpo International Football Center Location Mokpo, Jeonnam, South Korea Broke ground January 17, 2007 (2007 01 17) Opened August 10, 2009 …   Wikipedia

  • Mokpo Airport — 목포공항 IATA: MPK – ICAO: RKJM Summary Airport type Closed Serves Mokpo Location …   Wikipedia

  • Mokpo National University — Motto Creativity, Morality, Service Established 1946 Type National President Go Seokgyu Students 12,761 (2011) …   Wikipedia

  • Mokpo Station — is a station in Mokpo. It is on Honam Line. and is also the westernmost railway station in South Korea. External links Korea Train eXpress Route Map …   Wikipedia

  • Mokpo Catholic University — is a Catholic university located in Mokpo, South Korea. References Categories: MokpoRoman Catholic universities and colleges in South KoreaUniversities and colleges in Jeollanam doEducational institutions established in 1967South Korea university …   Wikipedia

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