- Noli Me Tangere (novel)
Noli Me Tangere
Author(s) José Rizal Country Philippines (first printing in Berlin) Language Spanish Genre(s) Novel, satire, Philippine history Publisher Setzerinnenschule des Lette-Vereins Publication date 1887 Media type Print (hardcover) Followed by El filibusterismo
Noli Me Tangere is a novel by Filipino polymath José Rizal and first published in 1887 in Berlin, Germany. Early English translations used titles like An Eagle Flight and The Social Cancer, but more recent translations have been published using the original Latin title.
Though originally written in Spanish, it is more commonly published and read in the Philippines in either Filipino or English. Together with its sequel (El Filibusterismo), the reading of Noli is obligatory for junior high school students all throughout the archipelago.
- 1 References for the novel
- 2 Plot
- 3 Publication history
- 4 Reaction and legacy
- 5 Major characters
- 6 Other characters
- 7 Translation
- 8 Adaptations
- 9 References
- 10 External links
References for the novel
Jose Rizal, a Filipino nationalist and medical doctor, conceived the idea of writing a novel that would expose the ills of Philippine society after reading Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. He preferred that the prospective novel express the way Filipino culture was backward, anti-progress, anti-intellectual, and not conducive to the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment. He was then a student of medicine in the Universidad Central de Madrid.
In a reunion of Filipinos at the house of his friend Pedro A. Paterno in Madrid on 2 January 1884, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines written by a group of Filipinos. His proposal was unanimously approved by the Filipinos present at the party, among whom were Pedro, Maximino and Antonio Paterno, Graciano López Jaena, Evaristo Aguirre, Eduardo de Lete, Julio Llorente and Valentin Ventura. However, this project did not materialize. The people who agreed to help Rizal with the novel did not write anything. Initially, the novel was planned to cover and describe all phases of Filipino life, but almost everybody wanted to write about women. Rizal even saw his companions spend more time gambling and flirting with Spanish women. Because of this, he pulled out of the plan of co-writing with others and decided to draft the novel alone.
Having completed his studies in Europe, young Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin comes back to the Philippines after a 7-year absence. In his honor, Don Santiago de los Santos, a family friend commonly known as Captain Tiago, threw a get-together party, which was attended by friars and other prominent figures. One of the guests, former San Diego curate Fray Dámaso Vardolagas belittled and slandered Ibarra. Ibarra brushed off the insults and took no offense; he instead politely excused himself and left the party because of an allegedly important task.
The next day, Ibarra visits María Clara, his betrothed, the beautiful daughter of Captain Tiago and affluent resident of Binondo. Their long-standing love was clearly manifested in this meeting, and María Clara cannot help but reread the letters her sweetheart had written her before he went to Europe. Before Ibarra left for San Diego, Lieutenant Guevara, a Civil Guard, reveals to him the incidents preceding the death of his father, Don Rafael Ibarra, a rich hacendero of the town.
According to Guevara, Don Rafael was unjustly accused of being a heretic, in addition to being a subservient — an allegation brought forth by Dámaso because of Don Rafael's non-participation in the Sacraments, such as Confession and Mass. Dámaso's animosity against Ibarra's father is aggravated by another incident when Don Rafael helped out on a fight between a tax collector and a child fighting, and the former's death was blamed on him, although it was not deliberate. Suddenly, all of those who thought ill of him surfaced with additional complaints. He was imprisoned, and just when the matter was almost settled, he died of sickness in jail. Still not content with what he had done, Dámaso arranged for Don Rafael's corpse to be dug up from the Catholic Church and brought to a Chinese cemetery, because he thought it inappropriate to allow a heretic a Catholic burial ground. Unfortunately, it was raining and because of the bothersome weight of the body, the undertakers decide to throw the corpse into a nearby lake.
Revenge was not in Ibarra's plans, instead he carried through his father's plan of putting up a school, since he believed that education would pave the way to his country's progress (all over the novel the author refers to both Spain and the Philippines as two different countries as part of a same nation or family, with Spain seen as the mother and the Philippines as the daughter). During the inauguration of the school, Ibarra would have been killed in a sabotage had Elías — a mysterious man who had warned Ibarra earlier of a plot to assassinate him — not saved him. Instead the hired killer met an unfortunate incident and died. The sequence of events proved to be too traumatic for María Clara who got seriously ill but was luckily cured by the medicine Ibarra sent.
After the inauguration, Ibarra hosted a luncheon during which Dámaso, gate-crashing the luncheon, again insulted him. Ibarra ignored the priest's insolence, but when the latter slandered the memory of his dead father, he was no longer able to restrain himself and lunged at Dámaso, prepared to stab him for his impudence. As a consequence, Dámaso excommunicated Ibarra, taking this opportunity to persuade the already-hesitant Tiago to forbid his daughter from marrying Ibarra. The friar wished María Clara to marry Linares, a Peninsular who had just arrived from Spain.
With the help of the Governor-General, Ibarra's excommunication was nullified and the Archbishop decided to accept him as a member of the Church once again. But, as fate would have it, some incident of which Ibarra had known nothing about was blamed on him, and he is wrongly arrested and imprisoned. The accusation against him was then overruled because during the litigation that followed, nobody could testify that he was indeed involved. Unfortunately, his letter to María Clara somehow got into the hands of the jury and is manipulated such that it then became evidence against him by the parish priest, Fray Salví. With Machiavellian precision, Salví framed Ibarra and ruined his life just so he could stop him from marrying María Clara and making the latter his concubine.
Meanwhile, in Capitan Tiago's residence, a party was being held to announce the upcoming wedding of María Clara and Linares. Ibarra, with the help of Elías, took this opportunity to escape from prison. Before leaving, Ibarra spoke to María Clara and accused her of betraying him, thinking that she gave the letter he wrote her to the jury. María Clara explained that she would never conspire against him, but that she was forced to surrender Ibarra's letter to Father Salvi, in exchange for the letters written by her mother even before she, María Clara, was born. The letters were from her mother, Pía Alba, to Dámaso alluding to their unborn child; and that María Clara was therefore not Captain Tiago's biological daughter, but Dámaso's.
Afterwards, Ibarra and Elías fled by boat. Elías instructed Ibarra to lie down, covering him with grass to conceal his presence. As luck would have it, they were spotted by their enemies. Elías, thinking he could outsmart them, jumped into the water. The guards rained shots on him, all the while not knowing that they were aiming at the wrong man.
María Clara, thinking that Ibarra had been killed in the shooting incident, was greatly overcome with grief. Robbed of hope and severely disillusioned, she asked Dámaso to confine her into a nunnery. Dámaso reluctantly agreed when she threatened to take her own life, demanding, "the nunnery or death!" Unbeknownst to her, Ibarra was still alive and able to escape. It was Elías who had taken the shots.
It was Christmas Eve when Elías woke up in the forest fatally wounded, as it is here where he instructed Ibarra to meet him. Instead, Elías found the altar boy Basilio cradling his already-dead mother, Sisa. The latter lost her mind when she learned that her two sons, Crispín and Basilio, were chased out of the convent by the sacristan mayor on suspicions of stealing sacred objects. (The truth is that, it was the sacristan mayor who stole the objects and only pinned the blame on the two boys. The said sacristan mayor actually killed Crispín while interrogating him on the supposed location of the sacred objects. It was implied that the body was never found and the incident was covered-up by Salví).
Elías, convinced that he would die soon, instructs Basilio to build a funeral pyre and burn his and Sisa's bodies to ashes. He tells Basilio that, if nobody reaches the place, he come back later on and dig for he will find gold. He also tells him (Basilio) to take the gold he finds and go to school. In his dying breath, he instructed Basilio to continue dreaming about freedom for his motherland with the words:
“ I shall die without seeing the dawn break upon my homeland. You, who shall see it, salute it! Do not forget those who have fallen during the night." ”
Elías died thereafter.
In the epilogue, it was explained that Tiago became addicted to opium and was seen to frequent the opium house in Binondo to satiate his addiction. María Clara became a nun where Salví, who has lusted over her from the beginning of the novel, regularly used her to fulfill his lust. One stormy evening, a beautiful crazy woman was seen at the top of the convent crying and cursing the heavens for the fate it has handed her. While the woman was never identified, it is suggested that the said woman was María Clara.
Rizal finished the novel on December 1886. At first, according to one of Rizal's biographers, Rizal feared the novel might not be printed, and that it would remain unread. He was struggling with financial constraints at the time and thought it would be hard to pursue printing the novel. A financial aid came from a friend named Máximo Viola which helped him print his book at a fine print media in Berlin named Berliner Buchdruckerei-Actiengesellschaft. Rizal at first, however, hesitated but Viola insisted and ended up lending Rizal P300 for 2,000 copies; Noli was eventually printed in Berlin, Germany. The printing was finished earlier than the estimated five months. Viola arrived in Berlin in December 1886, and by March 21, 1887, Rizal had sent a copy of the novel to his friend Blumentritt.
On August 21, 2007, a 480-page then-latest English version of Noli Me Tangere was released to major Australian book stores. The Australian edition of the novel was published by Penguin Books Classics, to represent the publication's "commitment to publish the major literary classics of the world". American writer Harold Augenbraum, who first read the Noli in 1992, translated the novel. A writer well-acquainted with translating other Hispanophone literary works, Augenbraum proposed to translate the novel after being asked for his next assignment in the publishing company. Intrigued by the novel and knowing more about it, Penguin nixed their plan of adapting existing English versions and instead translated it on their own.
Reaction and legacy
Noli Me Tangere was Rizal's first novel. He was 26 years old at the time of its publication.
This novel and its sequel, El filibusterismo (nicknamed El Fili), were banned in some parts of the Philippines because of their portrayal of corruption and abuse by the country's Spanish government and clergy. Copies of the book were smuggled in nevertheless, and when Rizal returned to the Philippines after completing medical studies, he quickly ran afoul of the local government. A few days after his arrival, Governor-General Emilio Terrero summoned Rizal to the Malacañang Palace and told him of the charge that Noli Me Tangere contained subversive statements. After a discussion, the Governor General was appeased but still unable to offer resistance against the pressure of the Church against the book. The persecution can be discerned from Rizal's letter to Leitmeritz:
“ My book made a lot of noise; everywhere, I am asked about it. They wanted to anathematize me ['to excommunicate me'] because of it... I am considered a German spy, an agent of Bismarck, they say I am a Protestant, a freemason, a sorcerer, a damned soul and evil. It is whispered that I want to draw plans, that I have a foreign passport and that I wander through the streets by night... ”
Rizal was exiled to Dapitan, then later arrested for "inciting rebellion" based largely on his writings. Rizal was executed in Manila on December 30, 1896 at the age of thirty-five.
Rizal depicted nationality by emphasizing the qualities of Filipinos: the devotion of a Filipina and her influence on a man's life, the deep sense of gratitude, and the solid common sense of the Filipinos under the Spanish regime.
The work was instrumental in creating a unified Filipino national identity and consciousness, as many natives previously identified with their respective regions. It lampooned, caricatured and exposed various elements in colonial society. Two characters in particular have become classics in Filipino culture: Maria Clara, who has become a personification of the ideal Filipina woman, loving and unwavering in her loyalty to her spouse; and the priest Father Dámaso, who reflects the covert fathering of illegitimate children by members of the Spanish clergy.
The book indirectly influenced a revolution, even though the author actually advocated direct representation to the Spanish government and a larger role for the Philippines within Spain's political affairs. In 1956, the Congress of the Philippines passed the Republic Act 1425, more popularly known as the Rizal Law, which requires all levels of Philippine schools to teach the novel as part of their curriculum. Noli Me Tangere is being taught to third year secondary school students, while its sequel El filibusterismo is being taught for fourth year secondary school students. The novels are incorporated to their study and survey of Philippine literature.
Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin, commonly referred to the novel as Ibarra or Crisóstomo, is the protagonist in the story. Son of a Filipino businessman, Don Rafael Ibarra, he studied in Europe for seven years. Ibarra is also María Clara's fiancé. Several sources claim that Ibarra is also Rizal's reflection: both studied in Europe and both persons believe in the same ideas. Upon his return, Ibarra requested the local government of San Diego to construct a public school to promote education in the town.
María Clara de los Santos y Alba, commonly referred to as María Clara, is Ibarra's fiancée. She was raised by Capitán Tiago, San Diego's cabeza de barangay and is the most beautiful and widely celebrated girl in San Diego. In the later parts of the novel, María Clara's identity was revealed as an illegitimate daughter of Father Dámaso, former parish curate of the town, and Doña Pía Alba, wife of Capitán Tiago. In the end she entered local covenant for nuns Beaterio de Santa Clara. In the epilogue dealing with the fate of the characters, Rizal stated that it is unknown if María Clara is still living within the walls of the covenant or she is already dead.
The character of María Clara was patterned after Leonor Rivera, Rizal's first cousin and childhood sweetheart.
Don Santiago de los Santos, known by his nickname Tiago and political title Capitán Tiago is a Filipino businessman and the cabeza de barangay or head of barangay of the town of San Diego. He is also the known father of María Clara.
In the novel, it is said that Capitán Tiago is the richest man in the region of Binondo and he possessed real properties in Pampanga and Laguna de Bay. He is also said to be a good Catholic, friend of the Spanish government and was considered as a Spanish by colonialists. Capitán Tiago never attended school, so he became a domestic helper of a Dominican friar who taught him informal education. He married Pía Alba from Santa Cruz.
Dámaso Verdolagas, or Padre Dámaso is a Franciscan friar and the former parish curate of San Diego. He is best known as a notorious character who speaks with harsh words and has been a cruel priest during his stay in the town. He is the real father of María Clara and an enemy of Crisóstomo's father, Rafael Ibarra. Later, he and María Clara had bitter arguments whether she would marry Alfonso Linares or go to a convent. At the end of the novel, he is again re-assigned to a distant town and is found dead one day.
In popular culture, when a priest was said to be like Padre Dámaso, it means that he is a cruel but respectable individual. When one says a child is "anak ni Padre Damaso" (child of Padre Dámaso), it means that the child's father's identity is unknown.
Elías is Ibarra's mysterious friend and ally. Elías made his first appearance as a pilot during a picnic of Ibarra and María Clara and her friends. He wants to revolutionize the country and to be freed from Spanish oppression.
The 50th chapter of the novel explores the past of Elías and history of his family. In the past, Ibarra's great-grandfather condemned Elías' grandfather of burning a warehouse which led into misfortune for Elías' family. His father was refused to be married by his mother because his father's past and family lineage was discovered by his mother's family. In the long run, Elías and his twin sister was raised by their maternal grandfather. When they were teenagers, their distant relatives called them hijos de bastardo or illegitimate children. One day, his sister disappeared which led him to search for her. His search led him into different places, and finally, he became a fugitive and subversive.
Filosofo Tacio, known by his Filipinized name Pilosopo Tasyo is another major character in the story. Seeking for reforms from the government, he expresses his ideals in paper written in a cryptographic alphabet similar from hieroglyphs and Coptic figures hoping "that the future generations may be able to decipher it" and realized the abuse and oppression done by the conquerors.
His full name is only known as Don Anastacio. The educated inhabitants of San Diego labeled him as Filosofo Tacio (Tacio the Sage) while others called him as Tacio el Loco (Insane Tacio) due to his exceptional talent for reasoning.
Doña Victorina de los Reyes de Espadaña, commonly known as Doña Victorina, is an ambitious Filipina who classifies herself as a Spanish and mimics Spanish ladies by putting on heavy make-up. The novel narrates Doña Victorina's younger days: she had lots of admirers, but she did not choose any of them because nobody was a Spaniard. Later on, she met and married Don Tiburcio de Espadaña, an official of the customs bureau who is about ten years her junior. However, their marriage is childless.
Her husband assumes the title of medical doctor even though he never attended medical school; using fake documents and certificates, Tiburcio practices illegal medicine. Tiburcio's usage of the title Dr. consequently makes Victorina assume the title Dra. (doctora, female doctor). Apparently, she uses the whole name Doña Victorina de los Reyes de de Espadaña, with double de to emphasize her marriage surname. She seems to feel that this awkward titling makes her more "sophisticated."
Sisa, Crispín, and Basilio
Sisa, Crispín, and Basilio represent a Filipino family persecuted by the Spanish authorities. Narcisa or Sisa is the deranged mother of Basilio and Crispín. Described as beautiful and young, although she loves her children very much, she can not protect them from the beatings of her husband, Pedro.
Crispín is Sisa's 7-year-old son. An altar boy, he was unjustly accused of stealing money from the church. After failing to force Crispín to return the money he allegedly stole, Father Salví and the head sacristan killed him. Although it was not directly written that he was killed, the way that Rizal carried the novel out, such as the dream of Basilio suggests that he died during his encounter with Padre Salvi and his minion.
Meanwhile, Basilio is Sisa's 10-year-old son. An acolyte tasked to ring the church bells for the Angelus, he faced the dread of losing his younger brother and falling of his mother into insanity. At the end of the novel, Elías wished Basilio to bury him by burning in exchange of chest of gold located on his death ground. He will later play a major role in El filibusterismo.
Due to their tragic but endearing story, these characters are often parodied in modern Filipino popular culture.
There are a number of secondary and minor characters in Noli Me Tangere. Items indicated inside the parenthesis are the standard Filipinization of the Spanish names in the novel.
- Padre Hernando de la Sibyla – a Dominican friar. He is described as short and has fair skin. He is instructed by an old priest in his order to watch Crisóstomo Ibarra.
- Padre Bernardo Salví – the Franciscan curate of San Diego, secretly harboring lust for María Clara. He is described to be very thin and sickly. It is also hinted that his last name, "Salvi" is the shorter form of "Salvi" meaning Salvation, or "Salvi" is short for "Salvaje" meaning bad hinting to the fact that he is willing to kill an innocent child, Crispin, just to get his money back, though there was not enough evidence that it was Crispin who has stolen his 2 onzas.
- El Alférez or Alperes – chief of the Guardia Civil. Mortal enemy of the priests for power in San Diego and husband of Doña Consolacion.
- Doña Consolacíon – wife of the Alférez, nicknamed as la musa de los guardias civiles (The muse of the Civil Guards) or la Alféreza, was a former laundrywoman who passes herself as a Peninsular; best remembered for her abusive treatment of Sisa.
- Don Tiburcio de Espadaña – Spanish Quack Doctor who is limp and submissive to his wife, Doña Victorina.
- Teniente Guevara - a close friend of Don Rafael Ibarra. He reveals to Crisóstomo how Don Rafael Ibarra's death came about.
- Alfonso Linares – A distant nephew of Tiburcio de Espanada, the would-be fiancé of María Clara. Although he presented himself as a practitioner of law, it was later revealed that he, just like Don Tiburcio, is a fraud. He later died due to given medications of Don Tiburcio.
- Tía Isabel - Capitán Tiago's cousin, who raised Maria Clara.
- Governor General (Gobernador Heneral) – Unnamed person in the novel, he is the most powerful official in the Philippines. He has great disdains against the friars and corrupt officials, and sympathizes Ibarra.
- Don Filipo Lino – vice mayor of the town of San Diego, leader of the liberals.
- Padre Manuel Martín - he is the linguistic curate of a nearby town, who says the sermon during San Diego's fiesta.
- Don Rafael Ibarra - father of Crisóstomo Ibarra. Though he is the richest man in San Diego, he is also the most virtuous and generous.
- Dona Pía Alba - wife of Capitan Tiago and mother of María Clara. She died giving birth to her. In reality, she was raped by Dámaso so she could bear a child.
These characters were mentioned in the novel, appeared once, mentioned many times or have no major contribution to the storyline.
- Don Pedro Eibarramendia - the great-grandfather of Crisóstomo Ibarra who came from the Basque area of Spain. He started the misfortunes of Elias' family. His descendants abbreviated their surname to Ibarra. He died of unknown reasons, but was seen as a decaying corpse on a Balite Tree.
- Don Saturnino Ibarra - the son of Don Pedro, father of Don Rafael and grandfather of Crisóstomo Ibarra. He was the one who developed the town of San Diego. He was described as a cruel man but was very clever.
- Salomé - Elías' sweetheart. She lives in a little house by the lake, and though Elías would like to marry her, he tells her that it would do her or their children no good to be related to a fugitive like himself. In the original publication of Noli, the chapter that explores the identity of Elías and Salomé was omitted, classifying her as a total non-existing character. This chapter, entitled Elías y Salomé was probably the 25th chapter of the novel. However, recent editions and translations of Noli provides the inclusion of this chapter, either on the appendix or renamed as Chapter X (Ex).
- Sinang - Maria Clara's friend. Because Crisóstomo Ibarra offered half of the school he was building to Sinang, he gained Capitan Basilio's support.
- Iday, Andeng and Victoria - Maria Clara's other friends.
- Capitán Basilio - Sinang's father, leader of the conservatives.
- Pedro – the abusive husband of Sisa who loves cockfighting.
- Tandáng Pablo – The leader of the tulisanes (bandits), whose family was destroyed because of the Spaniards.
- El hombre amarillo (apparently means "yellowish person", named as Taong Madilaw) - One of Crisostomo Ibarra's would-be assassins. He is not named in the novel, and only described as such. In the novel, he carved the cornerstone for Ibarra's school. Instead of killing Ibarra, he was killed by his cornerstone.
- Lucas - the brother of the taong madilaw. He planned a revolution against the government with Ibarra as the leader after he was turned down by Ibarra. He was said to have a scar on his left cheek. He would later be killed by the Sakristan Mayor.
- Bruno and Tarsilo – a pair of brothers whose father was killed by the Spaniards.
- Ñor Juan (Ñol Juan) - appointed as foreman of the school to be built by Ibarra
- Capitana Tika - Sinang's mother and wife of Capitan Basilio.
- Albino - a former seminarian who joined the picnic with Ibarra and María Clara. Was later captured during the revolution.
- Capitana María Elena - a nationalist woman who defends Ibarra of the memory of his father.
- Capitán Tinong and Capitán Valentín - other known people from the town of San Diego.
- Sacristán Mayor - The one who governs the altar boys and killed Crispín for his accusation.
Noli Me Tangere has been translated to several languages at the start of the 20th century.
- Au Pays des Moines (The Land of the Monks) (1899, French) by Henri Lucas and Ramon Sempau.
- Friars and Filipinos (1900, English) by Frank Ernest Gannett.
- Huwag Akong Salangin Nino Man (Somebody Touch Me Not) (1906, Tagalog) by Dr. Pascual H. Poblete.
- The Social Cancer (1912, English) by Charles Derbyshire.
- Noli me Tangere: Filippijnsche roman (Noli Me Tangere: Filipino Novel) by Abraham Anthony Fokker.
- "Noli Me Tangere" : A Complete English Translation of Noli Me Tangere from the Spanish of Dr. Jose Rizal (1956, English) by Senator Camilo Osías.
- The Lost Eden (1961, English) by Leon Ma. Guerrero.
- Noli Me Tangere (1997, English) by Maria Soledad Locsin.
- Noli Me Tangere (1997, Tagalog) by Virgilio Almario.
- Noli Me Tangere (2006, English) by Harold Augenbraum. Published by Penguin Classics.
The Noli has been adapted for literature, theater, television, and film.
- 1915: Noli Me Tangere, a silent film adaptation by Edward M. Gross.
- 1930: Noli Me Tangere, another silent film adaptation, directed by José Nepomuceno under Malayan Movies.
- 1951: National Artist for Cinema Gerardo de León directed a motion picture titled Sisa, starring Anita Linda in the role of the titular character.
- 1961: Noli Me Tangere, a faithful film adaptation of the novel, was directed by Gerardo de León for Bayanihan-Arriva Productions, featuring Eddie del Mar in the role of Crisostomo Ibarra. Released for the birth centenary of José Rizal, the motion picture was awarded the Best Picture in the 10th FAMAS Awards.
- 1992: Noli Me Tangere, a 13-episode TV series by Eddie S. Romero. This adaptation features Joel Torre in the role of Crisóstomo Ibarra, Chin Chin Gutierrez as María Clara, and Tetchie Agbayani as Sisa.
- 1994: Noli Me Tangere, a musical adaptation of the novel.
- Several excerpts from Noli Me Tangere were dramatized in the 1998 film José Rizal, with Joel Torre as Crisóstomo Ibarra, and Monique Wilson as Maria Clara.
- 1999: Sisa, a remake of the 1951 film of the same name. Written and directed by Mario O'Hara.
- 2005: Noli Me Tangere 2, a modern literary adaptation of the novel written by Roger Olivares.
- 2008-2009: Noli at Fili: Dekada 2000, a stage adaptation of Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo by the Philippine Educational Theater Association, set in the present day. Written by Nicanor G. Tiongson and directed by Soxie Topacio.
- ^ "The Social Cancer by Jose Rizal". FullBooks.com. pp. 3. http://www.fullbooks.com/The-Social-Cancer3.html. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- ^ (Spanish) Father Dámaso Explains
- ^ "Noli Me Tangere". Jose Rizal University. http://www.joserizal.ph/no01.html. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- ^ a b Ubalde, Mark J. (2007-08-22). "Rizal's Noli hits major Aussie book shelves". GMA News. http://www.gmanews.tv/story/57101/Rizals-Noli-hits-major-Aussie-book-shelves. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- ^ Republic Act 1425: AN ACT TO INCLUDE IN THE CURRICULA OF ALL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES COURSES ON THE LIFE, WORKS AND WRITINGS OF JOSE RIZAL, PARTICULARLY HIS NOVELS NOLI ME TANGERE AND EL FILIBUSTERISMO, AUTHORIZING THE PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
- ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "II: Crisostomo Ibarra". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e1500. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XIX: A Schoolmaster's Difficulties". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e3458. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ a b c Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "VI: Capitan Tiago". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e1838. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ a b Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "LXII: Padre Damaso Explains". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e10796. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ a b Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "Epilogue". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e11056. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ "Rizal the Romantic". Jose Rizal University. http://www.joserizal.ph/lv01.html. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- ^ a b Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "I: A Social Gathering". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e1203. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "LX: Maria Clara Weds". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e10365. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXII: Fishing". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e4047. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXIV: In the Wood". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e4397. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "L: Elias". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e8608. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ In Chapter 25, Filosofo Tacio insisted to Ibarra that he cannot understand hieroglyphs or Coptic. Instead, he writes using an invented form of alphabet that is based on Tagalog language. Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXV: In the House of the Sage". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e4722. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXV: In the House of the Sage". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e4722. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- ^ a b c Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XLVII: The Espadañas". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6737/6737-h/6737-h.htm#d0e7313. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- ^ "Au Pays des Moines". Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/30211. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "Friars and Filipinos". Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/30278. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "Noli Me Tangere/Huag Acong Salangin Nino Man: Pascual Poblete Filipino translation by Rizal, Jose". Filipiniana.net. http://www.filipiniana.net/publication/noli-me-tangerehuag-acong-salangin-nino-man-pascual-poblete-filipino-translation/12791881586877. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "Noli Me Tangere/The Social Cancer: Charles Derbyshire English translation by Rizal, Jose". Filipiniana.net. http://www.filipiniana.net/publication/noli-me-tangerethe-social-cancer-charles-derbyshire-english-translation/12791881586437. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "Noli me Tangere: Filippijnsche roman". Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/21848. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "Noli me tangere : a complete English translation of Noli me tangere from the Spanish of Dr. Jose Rizal / by Camilo Osias". National Library of Australia. http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/3112153. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "The lost Eden (Noli me tangere) A completely new translation for the contemporary reader by Leon Ma. Guerrero. Foreword by James A. Michener". National Library of Australia. http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2310102. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "Noli Me Tangere". Google Books. http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=ueKpRngzXccC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "Noli Me Tangere". http://rioalma.com/works/noli-me-tangere/. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "Noli Me Tangere". Google Books. http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=cerHvEkvdJIC&dq=inauthor:%22Harold+Augenbraum%22&hl=tl&ei=buy6TNzGEISXccqwkfcM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- ^ "Critic After Dark: Ambitious failures (part 2)". Noel Vera. http://criticafterdark.blogspot.com/2007/06/ambitious-failures-part-2.html. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
- ^ a b "VIEWS FROM THE PAMPANG: *196. EDDIE DEL MAR, Kapampangan 'Rizal' of the Silver Screen". http://criticafterdark.blogspot.com/2007/06/ambitious-failures-part-2.html. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
- ^ "PELIKULA, ATBP.: PRE-WAR FILIPINO MOVIES". http://viewsfromthepampang.blogspot.com/2010/05/196-eddie-del-mar-kapampangan-rizal-of.html. Retrieved 2010-11-03.
- ^ "Noli me Tangere (1961)". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0356953/. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- ^ "Sisa (1999)". Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0286973/. Retrieved 2009-11-13.
- ^ "At Last After 118 yrs.. A sequel to Jose Rizal's classic". Roger Olivares. http://www.noli2.com/. Retrieved 2009-11-13.
- ^ "Experience Theater. Experience PETA.". Philippine Educational Theater Association. http://www.petatheater.com/performancesinfo/noli.html. Retrieved 2011-02-12. [dead link]
- Book notes/Summary in Tagalog (Noli Me Tangere)
- Book notes/Summary in English (The Social Cancer)
- Complete English version (The Social Cancer)
- Full Text English translation
- Complete text: HTML, images, OCR (Spanish)
- Charles Derbyshire English translation
- Pascual Poblete Tagalog translation
- Noli Me Tangere: Deciphered in Filipino
- Rizal's Little Odyssey
- Noli Me Tangere 13-episode television series from the Cultural Center of the Philippines
- Tribute to Jose Rizal, Noli me tangere, cancer of the eyelids
- Caiñgat Cayo!
- Fan Language, an article by Ambeth R. Ocampo regarding romantic practices and sensual undertones which can be found in the unabridged version of Noli Me Tangere, from his Looking Back column on the pages of the Philippine Daily Inquirer on February 2, 2005, page 13, news.google.com
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.