Operation Blue Star

Operation Blue Star

{{Infobox military conflict |conflict=Operation Blue Star |image=_|caption=The_aftermath_of_Operation_Blue_Star_on_the_Akal_Takht_|date=3–_6_June_1984_|place=Golden_Temple_in_Amritsar,_India_|result=_Sikh_Militants_evicted_from_the_temple_complex,_Akal_Takht_severely_damaged,_high_civilian_casualties_|combatant1=Operation Bluestar Aftermath on Akal Takht.jpg |caption=The aftermath of Operation Blue Star on the Akal Takht |date=3– 6 June 1984 |place=Golden Temple in Amritsar, India |result= Sikh Militants evicted from the temple complex, Akal Takht severely damaged, high civilian casualties |combatant1=Flag of the Indian Army.svg Indian Army
Central Reserve Police Force
Border Security Force
Punjab Police |combatant2=Flag-of-Khalistan.svg Sikh militia |commander1=Flag of the Indian Army.svg Major General Kuldip Singh Brar
KPS Gill |commander2=Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale
Shabeg Singh |strength1=15,000 army troops. of 9th Battalion, Parachute Regiment and Artillery units
700 jawans of CRPF 4th Battallion and BSF 7th Battallion
150 Jawans of Punjab Armed Police and officers from Harmandir Police Station.[citation needed] |strength2= 250[citation needed] |casualties1=83 soldiers killed and 248 injured (officially). Possibly more than 300.[1][2][3]
|casualties2=492-800 killed (including civilians and Sikh pilgrims)[1][2][3] }

Operation Blue Star (Punjabi: ਬਲੂ ਸਟਾਰ, Hindi: ब्ल्यू स्टार (blyū sṭār)) 3– 6 June 1984 was an Indian military operation, ordered by Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India,[4] to remove Sikh separatists from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The Sikh separatists, led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, had amassed weapons in the Sikh temple.[5]

The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured vehicles.[6] Militarily successful, the operation aroused immense controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are highly debated.[7] Operation Blue Star was included in the Top 10 Political Disgraces by India Today magazine.[8]

Official reports put the number of deaths among the army at 83 and the number of civilian deaths at 492, though some independent estimates run as high as 1500.[9][10] In addition, the CBI is considered responsible for seizing historical artifacts and manuscripts in the Sikh Reference Library.[11]

The military action led to an uproar amongst Sikhs worldwide and the increased tension following the action led to assaults on members of the Sikh community within India. Some Sikh soldiers in the Indian army mutinied, many Sikhs resigned from armed and civil administrative office and a few returned awards and honors they had received from the Indian government.[12] Four months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards in what is viewed as an act of vengeance. Following her assassination, more than 2500 Sikhs were killed in anti-Sikh pogroms.[13]

Contents

The Operation

The Indian Army used seven Vijayanta Tanks during the operation[14]

Indira Gandhi first asked Lt. Gen. S.K. Sinha, then Vice-Chief of Indian Army and who was to succeed as the Army chief, to prepare a position paper for assault on the Golden Temple.[15] Lt. Gen. Sinha advised against any such move, given its sacred nature according to Sikh tradition. He suggested the government adopt an alternative solution. A controversial decision was made to replace him with General Arun Shridhar Vaidya as the Chief of the Indian army. General Vaidya, assisted by Lt. Gen. K Sundarji as Vice-Chief, planned and coordinated Operation Blue Star.[15]

On 3 June, a 36-hour curfew was imposed on the state of Punjab with all modes of communication and public travel suspended.[16] Electricity supplies were also interrupted, creating a total blackout and cutting off the state from the rest of India and the world.[17] Complete censorship was enforced on the news media.[17]

The Army stormed the Golden Temple on the night of 5 June under the command of Kuldip Singh Brar. The forces had full control of the Golden Temple by the morning of 7 June. There were casualties among the army, civilians, and militants. Sikh leaders Bhindranwale and Shabeg Singh were killed in the operation.[18]

Operation Blue Star coincided with a Sikh annual festival. Pilgrims, including the elderly and children, were trapped inside the temple when the operation began and many were wounded and killed as a result.[18]

Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale in the Golden Temple

Throughout his career Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale remained in contact with Indira Gandhi.[19][20] Bhindranwale had earlier "taken refuge in"[citation needed] or "taken over"[citation needed] the Golden temple and made it his headquarters in April 1980, when he was behind the in the assassination of Nirankari Gurbachan Singh.[21] The Nirankari Baba, also known as Baba Gurbachan Singh, had been the target of an attack by followers of Jarnail, outside the Golden Temple. On 13 April 1978, Nirankari's Baba Gurbachan Singh is alleged to have ridiculed 10th Guru Gobind Singh in a Nirankari Convention held in Amritsar. This prompted Akhand Kirtani Jatha to lead a violent protest against the actions by Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji. Police responded to the violence caused by the sikhs by opening fire on them. Amritsar police used guns to fire at the violent protesters. In the ensuing violence, several people were killed: two of Bhindranwale's followers, eleven members of the Akhand Kirtani Jatha and three Nirankaris.[22]

In 1982, Bhindranwale and approximately 200 armed followers moved into a guest-house called the Guru Nanak Niwas, in the precinct of the Golden Temple.[23] From here he met and was interviewed by international television crews.[23]

On 23 April 1983, the Punjab Police Deputy Inspector General A. S. Atwal was shot dead as he left the Golden Temple compound. The following day, after the murder, Harchand Singh Longowal (then president of Shiromani Akali Dal) hinted at the involvement of Bhindrawala in the murder.[24]

On 15 December 1983, Bhindranwale was forced to move out of Guru Nanak Niwas house by members of the Babbar Khalsa who acted with Harcharan Singh Longowal's support Longowal by now feared for his own safety. By 1983, the Golden Temple became a fort for a large number of militants.[25]

The Golden Temple compound and some of the surrounding houses were fortified. The Statesman reported on 4 July that light machine-guns and semi-automatic rifles were known to have been brought into the compound . [26]

Time magazine reported (about Amritsar) that:[27]

"These days it more closely resembles a city of death. Inside the temple compound, violent Sikh fanatics wield submachine guns, resisting arrest by government security forces. Outside, the security men keep a nervous vigil, all too aware that the bodies of murdered comrades often turn up in the warren of tiny streets around the shrine."

Overview

Operation Blue Star was launched to eliminate the much dreaded terrorist Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers who had sought cover in the Amritsar Golden Temple Complex. The Sikh militants within the Harminder Sahib were led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and former Maj. Gen.Shabeg Singh. Maj. Gen. Kuldip Singh Brar had command of the action, operating under Gen. Sunderji.

2000–2200hrs

The first element was the destruction of Shabeg Singh's outer defences. Much of this had been completed in the preliminary shelling. Major-General Brar had hoped to force Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale into surrendering, which did not occur. The destroyed defenses included seventeen houses which the police believed Bhindranwale's followers occupied in the alleys surrounding the Golden Temple. Nearby was the Brahmbuta Akhara, a large building housing the headquarters of a Sikh sect. Then there were three main towers which had been fortified to create positions from which Bhindranwale's men could defend. Because the towers rose well above surrounding buildings, they were excellent observation positions for tracking the movement of Indian troops in the narrow alleys surrounding the temple. The tops of these towers were destroyed in the preliminary artillery fire

2200–2330hrs

Between 10:00 and 10:30 on 5 June, commandos from 1st Battalion, the Parachute Regiment, were ordered to run down the steps under the clock tower on to the parikarma ("pavement"), and move quickly around the edge of the sacred pool to the Akal Takht. As the paratroopers entered the main gateway to the Temple they were gunned down by light machine-gun fire from both sides of the steps. The few commandos who did get down the steps were driven back by a barrage of fire from the building on the south side of the sacred pool. In the control room, a house on the opposite side of the clock-tower, Major-General Brar was waiting with two supporting officers to hear confirmation that the commandos had established positions inside the complex.[28]

The few commandos left regrouped in the square outside and reported back to Maj. Gen. Brar. He ordered them to make another attempt. The commandos were then to be followed by the 10th Battalion of the Guards, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Israr Khan. This second commando attack managed to neutralize the machine-gun posts on both sides of the steps and get down on to the parikarma. They were followed by the Guards who came under heavy fire and were not able to make any progress. They radioed for permission to fire back at the buildings on the other side of the tank. That would have meant that the Golden Temple itself, which is in the middle of the pool, would have been in the line of fire. Brar initially refused, but started to receive reports of heavy casualties from the commander of the Guards.

2330–0100hrs

Brar again requested tanks after an APC was destroyed by a rocket fired by a Sikh militant. His request was granted and seven tanks rolled into the Golden Temple complex. They cleared the ramparts and later assaulted the Akal Takht in order to neutralize the militants remaining in the structure. The shelling achieved its objective and the primary target of removing militants from the Akal Takht was achieved by 01 h. However, the secondary objective of removing militants from other neighboring structures went on for a further 24 hours.

Casualties

The Indian Army suffered 83 deaths, which included four officers, four Junior Commissioned Officers and 75 other ranks. 13 Indian Army officers, 16 JCOs and 220 other ranks were injured in the operation. Indian army recorded 492 civilian deaths inside Golden Temple with 433 persons segregated as "separatists" amongst 1592 persons apprehended.[29][30]

The Army placed total casualties at:

  • Military: 83 killed, 249 wounded
  • Militant Casualties: 800 killed, 150 wounded.[31]

Other authors have placed the figure at:

  • Military: 500[32]
  • Militant Casualties: 50.[33]
Estimates
Authors/Officials Casualties
Indian Government white paper category civilian/terrorist 493
AP, Reuter and New York Times (June 11, 1984) 1,000
Author Mark Tully's (Amritsar, Mrs. Gandhi's last battle) 2,093
Amritsar crematorium worker 3,300
Author Chand Joshi (Bhindranwale: Myth and Reality) 5,000
Eyewitnesses 8,000
  • Combant killed
Source Casualties
Government White Paper 200, 35 bodies in Akal Takht 200
A.I.S.S.F. Member – 100 fighters June 5th 100
S.S. Bhagowalia, V.P. Association for Democratic Rights 140-150
  • Indian Government White Paper
Government source casualties
Own troops killed 83
Own troops wounded 249
Civilians/terrorists killed 493
Terrorists and other injured 86
Civilians/terrorists apprehended 1,592

[34]

According to some journalists, several Sikh youths were also killed in crossfire from militants.[35] Unofficial casualty figures were much higher.[36]

Aftermath

An unspecified number of Sikh soldiers resigned from positions across India in protest, with some reports of large-scale pitched battles being fought to bring mutineers under control.[37]

The operation also led to the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on 31 October 1984 by two of her Sikh bodyguards,[38] triggering the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. The widespread killing of Sikhs, principally in the national capital Delhi but also in other major cities in North India, led to major divisions between the Sikh community and the Indian Government. The army withdrew from the Golden Temple later in 1984 under pressure from Sikh demands.[39]

General A S Vaidya, the Chief of Army Staff at the time of Operation Blue Star, was assassinated in 1986 in Pune by two Sikh terrorists, Harjinder Singh Jinda and Sukhdev Singh Sukha. Both were sentenced to death, and hanged on 7 October 1992.

Sikh militants continued to use and occupy the temple compound and on 1 May 1986, Indian paramilitary police entered the temple and arrested 200 militants that had occupied the Golden Temple for more than three months.[40] On 2 May 1986 the paramilitary police undertook a 12-hour operation to take control of the Golden Temple at Amritsar from several hundred militants, but almost all the major radical leaders managed to escape.[41]

In June 1990, the Indian government ordered the area surrounding the temple to be vacated by local residents in order to prevent militant activity around the temple.[42]

Criticisms

The use of artillery in the congested inner city of Amritsar proved deadly to many civilian bystanders living near the Golden Temple. The media blackout throughout the Punjab resulted in widespread doubt regarding the official stories and aided the promotion of hearsay and rumour.[43] The operation is criticised on four main grounds, the choice of time of attack by Government, heavy casualty, loss of property, and allegation of human rights violations by Army personnel.

"Last resort"

The attack on Golden Temple was in plans before the armed Sikh militants fortified it.[44] Then GOC of the Indian Army, S. K. Sinha, who was sacked at the last moment had criticized the Government's claim that the operation represented a "last resort", stating that the operation was planned a year and a half prior to the actual day of operation. SK Sinha and Mark Tully report that the army had been rehearsing the arrest in a replica of the Golden Temple at a secret location near Chakrata Cantonment in the Doon Valley.[45] In October 1983, the Indian Army selected 600 men from different units and sent them to rehearse the assault on a replica of the Golden temple at a secret training camp in the Chakrata Hills about 150 miles north of Delhi: 2 officers of the RAW, the Indian secret service, were sent to London to seek expertise from the SAS.[46]

Timing

The timing of Operation Blue Star coincided with a Sikh religious day, the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev, the founder of the Golden Temple. Sikhs from all over the world visit the temple on this day. In 1736 the Golden Temple was attacked by the Mughal army, resulting in heavy casualties of civilian Sikhs.[47] The attack of Ahmad Shah Abdali on the Golden Temple (Darbar Sahib) also came on Baisakhi day, when Sikhs gather in large numbers in Amritsar. Many Sikhs view the timing and attack by the Indian Army as an attempt to inflict maximum casualties on Sikhs and demoralize them,[48] and the government is in turn blamed for the inflated number of civilian dead for choosing to attack on this day.

The Sikh community's anger and suffering was further increased by comments from leading newspaper editors, such as Ramnath Goenka, terming the operation as "A greater victory than the win over Bangladesh, this is the greatest victory of Mrs. Gandhi".[49]

Media Blackout

Before the attack by army a media blackout was imposed in Punjab.[50] The Times reporter Michael Hamlyn reported that journalists were picked up from their hotels at 5 a.m. in a military bus, taken to the adjoining border of the state of Haryana and "were abandoned there".[50] The main towns in Punjab were put under curfew, transportation was banned, news blackout was imposed and Punjab was "cut off from the outside world".[51] A group of journalists who later tried to drive into Punjab were stopped at the road block at Punjab border and were threatened to be shot if they proceeded.[50] The Indian nationals who worked with the foreign media were also banned.[50] The press criticized these actions by Government as an "obvious attempt to attack the temple without the eyes of foreign press on them".[52] Associated Press reporter Brahma Chellaney, who managed to report on the operation, later faced police intimidation.[53][54]

Human rights

Brahma Chellaney, who was then the South Asia correspondent of the Associated Press, was the only foreign reporter who managed to stay on in Amritsar despite the media blackout.[3] His dispatches, filed by telex, provided the first non-governmental news reports on the bloody operation in Amritsar. His first dispatch, front-paged by the New York Times, The Times of London and The Guardian, reported a death toll about twice of what authorities had admitted. According to the dispatch, about 780 militants and civilians and 400 troops had perished in fierce gunbattles. The high casualty rates among security forces were attributed to “the presence of such sophisticated weapons as medium machine guns and rockets in the terrorists' arsenal.”[55] Mr. Chellaney also reported that “several” suspected Sikh militants had been shot with their hands tied.[56] The dispatch, after its first paragraph reference to “several” such deaths, specified later that “eight to 10” men had been shot in that fashion.[57] In that dispatch, Mr. Chellaney interviewed a doctor who said he was picked up by the army and forced to conduct postmortems despite the fact he had never done any postmortem examination before.[56] The number of casualties reported by Mr. Chellaney were far more than government reports,[58] and the Indian government, which disputed his casualty figures[59] accused him of inflammatory reporting.[60] The Associated Press stood by the reports and figures, the accuracy of which was also "supported by Indian and other press accounts" according to Associated Press; and reports in The Times and The New York Times.[61]

C.K.C Reddy, an Indian journalist writes that the

"Whole of Punjab and especially the Golden Temple Complex was turned into a murderous mouse trap from where people could neither escape nor could they seek succor of any kind. The way the dead bodies were disposed off adds to the suspicions regarding the number and nature of the casualties. The bodies of the victims of military operation in Punjab were unceremoniously destroyed without any attempt to identify them and hand them over to their relatives. The government, after the operation, on the other hand, did every thing in its power to cover up the excesses of the army action. The most disturbing thing about the entire operation was that a whole mass of men, women, and children were ordered to be killed merely on the suspicion that some terrorists were operating from the Golden Temple and other Gurdwaras."[62]

Similar accusations of high handedness on part of Indian Army and allegations of human rights violation by security forces in Operation Blue Star and subsequent military operations in Punjab have been leveled by Justice V.M. Tarkunde,[63] Mary Anne Weaver,[64] human rights lawyer Ram Narayan Kumar,[65] and anthropologists Dr. Cynthia Mahmood[66][67] and Joyce Pettigrew.[68]

The Indian Army responded to such criticism by simply stating that they "answered the call of duty as disciplined, loyal and dedicated members of the Armed Forces of India[...]our loyalties are to the nation, the armed forces to which we belong, the uniforms we wear and to the troops we command"[69]

It was later pointed out that as the blockade approach taken by Rajiv Gandhi five years later in Operation Black Thunder, when Sikh militants had again taken over the temple complex, was highly successful as they managed to resolve the stand-off peacefully and in hindsight, Operation Blue Star could have been averted by using similar blockade tactics. The army responded by stating that "no comparison is possible between the two situations, as "there was no cult figure like Bhindranwale to idolise, and professional military general like Shahbeg Singh to provide for military leadership" and "confidence of militants having been shattered by Operation Blue Star".[69] Furthermore, it is pointed out that the militants in the temple were armed with machine guns, anti tank missiles and rocket launchers, and that they strongly resisted the army's attempts to dislodge them from the shrine, appearing to have planned for a long stand-off, having arranged for water to be supplied from wells within the temple compound and had stocked food provisions that could have lasted months.[69]

References

  1. ^ a b Stevens, Williams (1984-10-30). "India is said to drop prosecution of A. P. reporter in Punjab case". New York Times. p. 5. "Mr. Chellaney was the only reporter for a foreign agency in Amristar during the Golden Temple assault, although he was not present in the temple. He later filed exclusive reports for the A. P. that were published only outside India. Mr. Chellaney reported a death toll of 1,200 at a time when the Indian Government said the figure was 576. He also reported that 8 to 10 Sikhs had been tied up and shot by soldiers. The Government called his dispatches false and inflammatory. AP defended the accuracy of his reports, which were supported by Indian and other press accounts." 
  2. ^ a b "Truth on Trial - in India". New York Times. 1984-10-23. pp. A32. 
  3. ^ a b c Hamlyn, Michael (1984-06-12). "Amritsar witness puts death toll at 1000". The Times. p. 7. 
  4. ^ "Operation BlueStar, 20 Years On". Rediff.com. 1984-06-06. http://www.rediff.com/news/2004/jun/03spec.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  5. ^ Operation Bluestar, 5 June 1984[dead link]
  6. ^ Ahmad, Ishtiaq (1996). State, Nation, and Ethnicity in the Contemporary South Asia. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 130. ISBN 1855675781. 
  7. ^ Praagh, David Van (2003). The Greater game: India's Race With Destiny and China. India: McGill-Queen's University Press (MQUP). ISBN 0773516395. 
  8. ^ Gunjeet K. Sra (2008-12-19). "10 Political Disgraces". Indiatoday.digitaltoday.in. http://indiatoday.digitaltoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&&issueid=85&id=23078&sectionid=3&Itemid=1&page=in&latn=2. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  9. ^ Martha Crenshaw (1995). Terrorism in Context. Penn State Press. p. 385. ISBN 9780271010151. 
  10. ^ Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Routledge. pp. 44. ISBN 9780415456661. http://books.google.com/?id=mQLDcjhNoJwC&lpg=PR14&dq=Pritam%20Singh%20historian&pg=PR4#v=onepage&q=Blue%20Star. Retrieved 29 July 2010. 
  11. ^ Kaur, Jaskaran; Crossette, Barbara (2006). Twenty years of impunity: the November 1984 pogroms of Sikhs in India (2nd ed.). Portland, OR: Ensaaf. p. 16. ISBN 0-9787073-0-3. http://ensaaf-org.jklaw.net/publications/reports/20years/20years-2nd.pdf. 
  12. ^ Westerlund, David (1996). Questioning The Secular State: The Worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics.. C. Hurst & Co. p. 1276. ISBN 1850652414. 
  13. ^ Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Routledge. p. 45. ISBN 9780415456661. http://books.google.com/?id=mQLDcjhNoJwC&lpg=PR14&dq=Pritam%20Singh%20historian&pg=PR4#v=onepage&q=Blue%20Star. Retrieved 29 July 2010. 
  14. ^ Singh, Sangat (1992). The Sikhs In History. Uncommon Books. p. 378. ISBN 8190065009. 
  15. ^ a b Sharma, Cf. Brig. Man Mohan (1998). What Ails The Indian Army. Trishul Publications. pp. 273–75. ISBN 8185384258. 
  16. ^ Brar, K.S. (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P), Limited. p. 54. ISBN 8174760687. 
  17. ^ a b Brar, K.S. (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P), Limited. pp. 81–82. ISBN 8174760687. 
  18. ^ a b Ahmed, Ishtiaq (1996). State, Nation, and Ethnicity in Contemporary South Asia. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 130. ISBN 1855675781. 
  19. ^ "The confusion in the Governor's house in Chandigarh was made worse by Mrs. Gandhi maintaining contact with Bhindranwale. Her go-between was the President of Punjab Congress, Raghunandan Lal Bhatia ... This link, which was well known to officials, enhanced Bhindranwale's status and made the Indian administration even more reluctant to grapple with him." Tully, Mark; Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's last Battle. New Delhi: Rupa & Co.. p. 121. ISBN 81-291-0917-4. 
  20. ^ Blank, Jonah (2000). Arrow of The Blue Skinned God: retracing the Ramayana through India. New York: Grove Press. p. 354. ISBN 0802137334. 
  21. ^ India in 1984: Confrontation, Assassination, and Succession, by Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr. Asian Survey, 1985 University of California Press
  22. ^ http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/publication/nightsoffalsehood/falsehood4.htm
  23. ^ a b Singh, Tavleen. "Prophet of Hate:J S Bhindranwale". India Today. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080620164214/http://www.india-today.com/itoday/millennium/100people/jarnail.html. Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  24. ^ Longowal said "Whenever the situation becomes ripe for settlement, some violent incident takes place. I know Bhindrawala is behind the murder of the DIG", "(The person behind the murder is) The one who is afraid of losing his seat of power" Indian Express. 27 April 1983. interview with Longowal. 
  25. ^ Mark Tully and Satish Jacob, Amritsar - Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (Calcutta: Rupa & Co. by arrangement with Pan Books, London, 1985)
  26. ^ Kuldip Nayar and Khushwant Singh, Tragedy of Punjab, Vision Books, New Delhi, 1984, page 79.
  27. ^ City of Death, Time, 7 November 1983.
  28. ^ "Indian Army Viewpoint". AU. http://www.sikh.com.au/blue/. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  29. ^ "Army reveals startling facts on Bluestar". Tribune India. 1984-05-30. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2007/20070320/punjab1.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  30. ^ "492 civilians died in Bluestar: Brig Rao". Tribune India. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2007/20070914/punjab1.htm#7. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  31. ^ Brar, KS (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors. p. 124. ISBN 8174760687. 
  32. ^ Joshi, Chand (1984). Bhindranwale: Myth and Reality. Vikas. p. 161. ISBN 0706926943. 
  33. ^ Singh, Patwant (2000). The Sikhs. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 233. ISBN 0375407286. 
  34. ^ http://www.sikhmuseum.com/bluestar/chronology.html
  35. ^ Tully, Mark; Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar: Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle. J. Cape. p. 169. ISBN 0224023284. 
  36. ^ Video of interview with an Indian Army Officer who explains details of how the terrorists fought, and the number of casualties.
  37. ^ "General promises to punish Sikh mutineers". Select.nytimes.com. 1984-07-02. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0D13F73E5D0C718CDDAE0894DC484D81. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  38. ^ "1984: Indian prime minister shot dead". BBC News. 1984-10-31. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/31/newsid_2464000/2464423.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  39. ^ "Sikhs, in rally, press the army to quit temple", Sanjoy Hazarika, The New York Times, 3 September 1984.
  40. ^ "Indian policemen raid Sikh temple", Steven R. Weishan, New York Times, 1 May 1986.
  41. ^ New York Times, 2 May 1986.
  42. ^ "India Uproots Thousands Living Near Sikh Temple", Barbara Crossette, New York Times, 3 June 1990.
  43. ^ Anniversary Issue, India Today, 26 December 2005, p 136.
  44. ^ Mark Tully, Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar; Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle. London. pp. 58–9. 
  45. ^ Sinha, SK (June, 1984). "Bhindranwala did wrong in defacing Golden Temple". The Spokesman. pp. 28–9. "The army action was not a last resort as Prime Minister Indira Gandhi would have us believe. It had been in her mind for more than 18 months. The army had begun rehearsals of a commando attack near Chakrata Cantonment in the Doon Valley, where a complete replica of the Golden Temple complex had been built" 
  46. ^ Weaver, Mary Anne (1984). Sunday Times .
  47. ^ Gyani, Gian SIngh (1923). Twarikh-i-Guru Khalsa. Patiala. pp. 18. 
  48. ^ Dhillon, Gurdashan Singh. Truth About Punjab (SGPC White Paper). Amristar: Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee. 
  49. ^ Singh, Patwant (1994). "Alienation Is The Key". Sikh Review. Sikhreview.org 
  50. ^ a b c d Hamlyn, Michael (1984-06-06). "Journalists removed from Amritsar: Army prepares to enter Sikh shrine". The Times. p. 36. 
  51. ^ "Gun battle rages in Sikh holy shrine". The Times. 1984-06-05. p. 1. 
  52. ^ Hamlyn, Michael (1984-06-06). "Journalists removed from Amritsar: Army prepares to enter Sikh shrine". The Times. p. 36. "Its is also apparent that the Indian authorities wish to invade the temple without the eyes of the foreign press upon them. No foreign correspondent is being allowed into Punjab now."" 
  53. ^ Hamlyn, Michael (1984-10-16). "Arrest ordered of journalist who reported temple atrocities". The Times. p. 8. 
  54. ^ Stevens, William K. (1984-17-10). "Reporter faces arrest in India". The New York Times. p. 10. 
  55. ^ Eric Silver (7 June 1984), Golden Temple Sikhs Surrender, The Guardian 
  56. ^ a b Chellaney, Brahma (1984-06-14). "Sikhs in Amritsar 'tied up and shot'". Brahma Chellaney, for the Associated Press, was the only foreign correspondent in Amritsar during the storming of the temple (The Times): p. 1. 
  57. ^ Chellaney, Brahma (1984-06-14). "Sikh rebels were shot 'at point-blank range'". Brahma Chellaney, for the Associated Press, was the only foreign correspondent in Amritsar during the storming of the temple (The Times): p. 3. 
  58. ^ "Toll in assault on Sikh Temple termed vastly underestimated". Miami Herald. 1984-06-11. 
  59. ^ "Indian Police Question Reporter on Amritsar". Associated Press. The New York Times. 1984-11-24. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9401E6DA1638F937A15752C1A962948260. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  60. ^ "India is set to drop prosecution of AP reporter in Punjab Case". Associated Press. The New York Times, Late City Final Edition. 1985-09-14. p. 5. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0F11FC3D5D0C778DDDA00894DD484D81. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  61. ^ Stevens (1984-10-30). "India is said to drop prosecution of A. P. reporter in Punjab case =". New York Times. p. 5. "Mr. Chellaney reported a death toll of 1,200 at a time when the Indian Government said the figure was 576. He also reported that 8 to 10 Sikhs had been tied up and shot by soldiers. The Government called his dispatches false and inflammatory. The A. P. defended the accuracy of his reports, which were supported by Indian and other press accounts." 
  62. ^ CKC Reddy, et al., Army Action in Punjab: Prelude & Aftermath, New Delhi: Samata Era Publication, 1984, pp. 46-48
  63. ^ Judge V M Tarkunde, et al., Oppression in Punjab: Report to the Nation, New Delhi: Citizens for Democracy, 1985, pp. 8-10, 18-19
  64. ^ Mary Anne Weaver, The Christian Science Monitor, 15 October 1984)
  65. ^ Ram Narayan Kumar, et al., Reduced to Ashes (Volume One), Asia Forum for Human Rights, Kathmandu, Nepal, May 2003, pp. 75)
  66. ^ I.S. Jaijee, Politics of Genocide:1984-1998, Ajanta Publishers, New Delhi, India
  67. ^ Cynthia Mahmood, Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants. University of Pennsylvania Press
  68. ^ Pettigrew, Joyce (1995). The Sikhs of the Punjab: unheard voices of State and Guerilla violence. Zed Books. ISBN 9781856493550. http://books.google.com/books?id=7VBuAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  69. ^ a b c Brar, K.S. (1992). Operation Blue Star: True Story. UBS Publishers Distributors (P), Limited. p. 156. ISBN 8174760687. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Opération Blue Star — Massacre du Temple d Or Le massacre du Temple d Or également connu sous le nom d opération Blue Star (5 juin 1984) fut une opération militaire commandée par le gouvernement indien sur le Temple d Or d Amritsar au Penjab, le temple principal du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Blue star — may mean:* A type of star. * Operation Blue Star, a 1984 Indian military operation. * The Blue Star Service Banner, the United States service flag. * Blue Star, a popular song. * Blue Star Mothers Club, a non profit military support group. * Blue …   Wikipedia

  • Operation Black Thunder — is the name given to two operations that took place in India in the late 1980s to flush out remaining Sikh extremists from the Golden Temple using Black Cat commandos of the National Security Guards[1] Like Operation Blue Star, these attacks were …   Wikipedia

  • Operation Woodrose — was a military operation carried out by the Indian government in the months after Operation Blue Star to prevent the outbreak of widespread public protest in the state of Punjab.[1] The government arrested all prominent members of the largest… …   Wikipedia

  • Opération Bluestar — Massacre du Temple d Or Le massacre du Temple d Or également connu sous le nom d opération Blue Star (5 juin 1984) fut une opération militaire commandée par le gouvernement indien sur le Temple d Or d Amritsar au Penjab, le temple principal du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Operation Python — Part of Indo Pakistani War of 1971 Date December 8/9, 1971 Location Arabian Sea, near Karachi port, Pakistan …   Wikipedia

  • Operation Polyarnaya Zvezda — Part of the Eastern Front of World War II Soviet plan for Operation Polyarnaya Zvez …   Wikipedia

  • Operation Gibraltar — Part of Indo Pakistani War of 1965 Date August 1965 Location Jammu and Kashmir Result …   Wikipedia

  • Operation Meghdoot — Part of Siachen Conflict Siachen Glacier, Ladakh and Karakoram are …   Wikipedia

  • Operation Barisal — Part of Operation Searchlight and Bangladesh Liberation War Date 25 April 1971 – 1 May 1971 Location Barisal, Bay of Bengal, Eas …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”