- LGBT stereotypes
Stereotypes about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are conventional, formulaic generalizations, opinions, or images about persons based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. Stereotypes and homophobia are a learned outlook, i.e. from parents, teachers, peers, or the mass media, or a lack of firsthand familiarity, may tend to lead to more reliance on learned stereotypes. Negative stereotyping is often a result of homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia. Positive stereotypes, or counterstereotypes, also exist but may be no less harmful, as they are still oversimplified views of the group being stereotyped.
Lesbian is a term most widely used in the English language to describe sexual and romantic desire between females. The word may be used as a noun, to refer to women who identify themselves or who are characterized by others as having the primary attribute of female homosexuality, or as an adjective, to describe characteristics of an object or activity related to female same-sex desire. Lesbians are subjected to the stereotypes and misconceptions of whom they are, and how they dress and behave. Typically, they are thought to be butch, with short haircuts and work boots, dressing more masculine. Dykes, a pejorative term that has been reclaimed by the LGBT community, are thought to be making a strong statement of their place in society. Portia de Rossi made significant progress in dispelling the general misconception of how lesbians look and function.
Lipstick lesbian refers to femme women who tend to be hyper-feminine. The term U-Haul lesbian became a stereotype of intimating that lesbians move in together in a very short period of time. This joke is considered a classic of lesbian humor. The origin of this term is an old joke which refers to a brand of rental "move yourself" trucks and trailers: Question: What does a lesbian bring on a second date? Reply: A U-Haul.
Any stereotypes of lesbianism need to be seen through the filter that generally men controlled whom the writers, subjects and content of any lesbian history related over time. The varied meanings of lesbian since the early 20th century have prompted some historians to revisit historic relationships between women before the wide usage of the word was defined by erotic proclivities. Discussion from historians caused further questioning of what qualifies as a lesbian relationship. As lesbian-feminists asserted, a sexual component was unnecessary in declaring oneself a lesbian if the primary and closest relationships were with women. When considering past relationships within appropriate historic context, there were times when love and sex were separate and unrelated notions. In 1989, an academic cohort named the 'Lesbian History Group' wrote:
Because of society's reluctance to admit that lesbians exist, a high degree of certainty is expected before historians or biographers are allowed to use the label. Evidence that would suffice in any other situation is inadequate here... A woman who never married, who lived with another woman, whose friends were mostly women, or who moved in known lesbian or mixed gay circles, may well have been a lesbian. ... But this sort of evidence is not 'proof'. What our critics want is incontrovertible evidence of sexual activity between women. This is almost impossible to find.
Female sexuality is often not adequately represented in texts and documents. Until very recently, much of what has been documented about women's sexuality has been written by men, in the context of male understanding, and relevant to women's associations to men—as their wives, daughters, or mothers, for example. Often artistic representations of female sexuality suggest trends or ideas on broad scales, giving historians clues as to how widespread or accepted erotic relationships between women were.
Homosexual men are often equated interchangeably with heterosexual women by the heterocentric mainstream, and are frequently stereotyped as being effeminate, despite the fact that gender expression, gender identity and sexual orientation are widely accepted to be distinct from each other. The "flaming queen" is a characterization that melds flamboyancy and effeminacy, it remains a gay male stock character in Hollywood. Theatre, specifically Broadway musicals, are a component to another stereotype, the "show queen". The stereotype generalizes that all gay men listen to show tunes and are involved with the performing arts, are theatrical or dramatic and are campy.
The bear subculture of the LGBT community is composed of generally large, hairy men called bears. Stereotypically, they are usually seen with facial hair and also wearing suspenders. They embrace their hypermasculine image, and some will shun a more effeminate man, such as a twink.
Appearance and mannerisms
In addition to being called effeminate, gay men are also identified with a gay lisp and/or a female-like tone and lilt. Fashion, effeminacy and homosexuality have long been associated. A stereotype based on the visibility (within popular and consumer culture) of a reciprocal relationship between gay men and fashion; gay men who are visible in popular culture may purchase fashion as a means of expression; and gay men have high visibility within the industry creating fashions. This has become a countertype in recent years with the arrival of mainstream shows such as Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. The "Queer Eye" countertype has been criticized for its use of stereotypes to create a false impression of groundbreaking progress while simply reinforcing old, patronizing identity scripts and convenient generalizations with questionable validity. Designers, including Dolce & Gabbana, have made use of homoerotic imagery in their advertising. Some commentators argue this encourages the stereotype that most gay men enjoy shopping.
Sex and relationships
A prevalent stereotype about gay men is that they are promiscuous and are either unwilling or unable to have enduring or long-term relationships. However, several surveys of gay men in the United States have shown that between 40 percent and 60 percent are involved in a steady relationship. Research also suggests that a slightly higher proportion of lesbians than gay men may be in steady relationships. A 2007 study reported that two large population surveys found "the majority of gay men had similar numbers of unprotected sexual partners annually as straight men and women."
Constantly "partying" is another stereotype associated with the male homosexual community. Before the Stonewall riots in 1969, most LGBT people were extremely private and closeted and house parties and later bars and taverns became one of the few places where like-minded men could meet, socialize and feel safe. The riots represented the start of the modern LGBT social movement and acceptance of sexual and gender minorities has steadily increased. Social occasions which are generally festive and party-like remain at the core of organizing and fundraising even currently. In cities where there are large populations of LGBT people, benefits and bar fundraisers are still common and alcohol companies invest heavily marketing to LGBT subcultures. The disco era starting in the 1970s ushered in by underground gay clubs and disc jockeys kept the 'partying' aspect vibrant and ushered in the more hardcore circuit party movement that was hedonistic and associated with party and play (PNP or PnP), or simply 'partying'.
The relationship between the modern day gay man and his heterosexual best girl friend has become highly stereotypical. The accepted behaviors in this type of relationship can predominantly include physical affections (such as kissing and touching) and a depth that suggests star-crossed lovers whose sexualities prevent them from being together. One example from modern day culture, comes from the show Will & Grace. 
Sex and drugs
There is a phenomenon and subculture of recreational drug users who have sex together, either one-on-one or in groups. The term is frequently used by and associated with gay men and men who have sex with men (MSM). The drug of choice is typically methamphetamine, known as crystal or tina in the gay community. Other "party drugs" such as MDMA and GHB are less associated with this term. While the term PNP probably has its genesis in the distinct subculture of methamphetamine users, and is most associated with its use, people have been quick to generalize it to include partying with other drugs thought to enhance sexual experiences, especially ecstasy, GHB, and cocaine. This article in the New York Times describes PNP as simply "shorthand for sex with drugs." The GBLT glossary  notes that PNP is a term "denoting that someone wants to combine sex with use of drugs such as methamphetamines,[ sic ] etc." A list of gay slang says PNP is "an interest for casual sex that includes hard drugs such as ecstasy". A glossary of drug-related terms produced by the United States Department of Health and Human Services defines PNP as "Methamphetamine used in combination with MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and Viagra". The San Francisco Department of Public Health defines it as "a way to describe men who like to use crystal methamphetamine during sex." in its FAQ section.
A report from the National HIV Prevention Conference (a collaborative effort by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a U.S. Government agency, and other governmental and non-government organizations) describes PNP as "sexual behavior under the influence of crystal meth or other 'party' drugs."  Although most sources only mention meth, this is inexactly constricting since the term has come into use for other drugs and/or combinations. It has been referred to as both an "epidemic" and a "plague" in the gay community. British researchers report that up to 20% of gay men from central London gyms have tried methamphetamine, the drug most associated with PNPing.
Bisexuality is sexual behavior or an orientation involving physical and/or romantic attraction to both males and females, especially in regards to men and women. "A bisexual individual may experience conflict with a homophobic society; however, such conflict is not a symptom of dysfunction in the individual. The APA Board recognized that a significant portion of homosexual and bisexual people were clearly satisfied with their sexual orientation and showed no signs of psychopathology."  Pansexuality may or may not be subsumed under bisexuality, with some sources stating that bisexuality encompasses sexual or romantic attraction to all gender identities. People who have a distinct but not exclusive preference for one sex over the other may also identify themselves as bisexual, Bisexuality has been observed in various human societies and elsewhere in the animal kingdom throughout recorded history. The term bisexuality, however, like the terms hetero- and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century.
Woody Allen is quoted as saying: "Being bisexual doubles your chance of a date on Saturday night."  Stereotypes exist for bisexuals about an inability to maintain a steady relationship on the assumption they are promiscuous because of their attraction for both genders. Another stereotype is that they just cannot decide between being gay or straight which assumes a binary either/or spectrum of sexuality. Over a person's life their sexual desires and activities may vary greatly including being in mostly gay, straight or combined relationships. In 1995, Harvard Shakespeare professor Marjorie Garber made the academic case for bisexuality with her Vice Versa: Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life, in which she argued that most people would be bisexual if not for "repression, religion, repugnance, denial, laziness, shyness, lack of opportunity, premature specialization, a failure of imagination, or a life already full to the brim with erotic experiences, albeit with only one person, or only one gender."
Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in January 1972, a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust. In a September 1976 interview with Playboy, Bowie said: "It's true—I am a bisexual. But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me." In a 1983 interview he said it "the biggest mistake I ever made", elaborating in 2002 he explained "I don’t think it was a mistake in Europe, but it was a lot tougher in America. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer [...] America is a very puritanical place, and I think it stood in the way of so much I wanted to do.
Transgender is an umbrella term that encompasses a wide range of people with more specific identities. In general, a person who is transgender self-identifies with a gender other than their biological one; it is their gender identity, their self-definition. There are vast differences in the people that may be generalized under this "umbrella" that are transsexual people, cross-dressers, drag queens, drag kings, masculine women, and effeminate men. In a broad sense, the term "transgender" includes all people who fall outside of gender stereotypes. The beliefs that transgendered people are all prostitutes and caricatures of men and women are two of many erroneous misconceptions.
A transsexual is a person born with the physical characteristics of one gender (natal sex) who psychologically and emotionally belongs to the opposite sex; in other words they were born into the wrong body. It is a painful and confusing phenomenon, especially to those afflicted with transsexuality and their parents, much less society. There is a high rate of suicide among transgendered young people.
Lou Sullivan founded FTM International, the first exclusively FTM organization and is largely responsible for the modern acknowledgment that sexual orientation and gender identity are two totally different concepts; however, many in sexology research dispute this division, especially those scientists investigating the Bailey-Blanchard-Lawrence theory on the etiology of male-to-female transsexuality.
Stereotyping transwomen (male-to-female or MTF) as tall and transmen (female-to-male or FTM) as short is a popular misapprehension. While some MTFs and FTMs will fall into this stereotype, far more do not. Taking steps to alter the body early can avoid the height differences. A transwoman will switch from a tall man's body to a tall woman's body. Another stereotype is that it is possible to "tell" a transwoman by her hands, that they will be larger and more masculine than a woman born female.
Transvestites are often assumed to be homosexual. The word transvestism is from the Latin, combining (trans-, "across, over" and vestitus, "dressed") to refer to the sexual interest in cross-dressing. However, most transvestites are heterosexual. Transvestism may have a fetishistic component, whereas cross-dressing does not, although many people use the words interchangeably.
- Anti-gay propaganda
- Gay bashing
- Violence against LGBT people
- The Yogyakarta Principles
- ^ Stangor, Charles (ed.) (2000). Stereotypes and Prejudice: Essential Readings. Philadelphia, Pa.: Psychology Press. ISBN 0863775888.
- ^ McCrady, Richard; Jean Mccrady (August 1976). "Effect of direct exposure to foreign target groups on descriptive stereotypes held by American students". Social Behavior and Personality 4 (2): 233. doi:10.2224/sbp.19184.108.40.206. http://www.atypon-link.com/SJP/doi/abs/10.2224/sbp.19220.127.116.11?cookieSet=1&journalCode=sbp.
- ^ "The Face of Homophobia/Heterosexism". Carlton University Equity Services. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927191039/http://www.carleton.ca/equity/sexual_orientation/face.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- ^ Nachbar, Jack; Kevin Lause (1992). Popular Culture: An Introductory Text. Bowling Green University Popular Press. ISBN 0879725729. http://www.serve.com/shea/stereodf.htm. [dead link]
- ^ "Gay Images: TV's Mixed Signals". The New York Times. 1991-05-19. http://www.nytimes.com/1991/05/19/arts/gay-images-tv-s-mixed-signals.html?pagewanted=3. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
- ^ "Lesbian", Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, 1989. Retrieved on January 7, 2009.
- ^ Zimmerman, Bonnie, ed (2003). Lesbian Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia, Garland Publishers. ISBN 0-203-48788-5, p. 453.
- ^ Krantz, S. E. (1995). "Reconsidering the Etymology of Bulldike". American Speech 70 (2): 217–221. doi:10.2307/455819.
- ^ "Portia heart & soul: in an intimate interview, Arrested Development star Portia de Rossi talks for the first time about sex at 16, coming out to grandma, and finding happiness with Ellen DeGeneres.(Interview)(Cover Story) -". The Advocate. 2005-09-13. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-136163108.html. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ The Advocate August 19th, 2003[dead link]
- ^ "How many lesbians does it take to screw in a light bulb?" An Analysis of Lesbian Humor
- ^ Kelleher, Kathleen (January 31, 2000). "Couple's Emotional Bonding Can Take the Steam Out of Intimacy". LA Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jan/31/news/cl-59476.
- ^ Jo Ann Brown-Scott, Epiphany and Her Friends: Intuitive Realizations That Have Changed Women's Lives, BookSurge, July, 2007 page 339
- ^ Norton, Rictor (1997). The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity, Cassell. ISBN 0-304-33892-3
- ^ Rothblum, Esther, Brehoney, Kathleen, eds. (1993). Boston Marriages: Romantic But Asexual Relationships Among Contemporary Lesbians, University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-875-2, p. 4–7.
- ^ Norton, Rictor (1997). The Myth of the Modern Homosexual: Queer History and the Search for Cultural Unity, Cassell. ISBN 0-304-33892-3, p. 184.
- ^ Rabinowitz, Nancy, Auanger, Lisa, eds. (2002). Among Women: From the Homosocial to the Homoerotic in the Ancient World, University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-77113-4, p. 2.
- ^ Scott Jacobson, Todd Levin, Jason Roede, Sex: Our Bodies, Our Junk, pages 204-206, Random House, Inc., 2010, ISBN 0307592162, 9780307592163.
- ^ Joan Z. Spade, Catherine G. Valentine, The kaleidoscope of gender: prisms, patterns, and possibilities, Pine Forge Press, 2007, pages 293-296, ISBN 1412951461, 9781412951463.
- ^ "Chrysler TV ad criticized for using gay stereotypes". The Advocate. 2006-04-07. http://www.advocate.com/news_detail_ektid28980.asp. Retrieved 2007-04-07. [dead link]
- ^ "Gender Identity and Expression Issues at Colleges and Universities". National Association of College and University Attorneys. 2005-06-02. http://www.nacua.org/nacuanet/visual/nacuanotessample.html. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
- ^ The Celluloid Closet; (1995) Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman.
- ^ Clum, John M. (1999). "Something for the Boys: Musical Theater and Gay Culture". Modern Drama 43 (4). http://www.utpjournals.com/product/md/434/boys10.html. [dead link]
- ^ http://www.bububelfast.com/Whatisabear.html
- ^ "WOOF! - What is a Bear?". Thecompletebear.com. http://www.thecompletebear.com/life.php. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ Mackenzie, Ian (2004-03-18). "Dunk the faggot: A gay radio voice, back from hell". Xtra!.
- ^ Stuever, Hank (2003-04-19). "Dishy Delight: Steven Cojocaru, a Glamour Boy in TV's Post-Gay Embrace". The Washington Post. http://www.hankstuever.com/cojocaru.html. [dead link]
- ^ "Fashion". glbtq. http://www.glbtq.com/arts/fashion.html. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- ^ Shott, Brian (2003-07-22). "Straight Slobs of America, Resist the 'Queer Eye'". Pacific News Service. http://news.pacificnews.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=caf12d7979c0381ba0e76d08b502da1d. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- ^ Lyttle, John (2004-08-30). "Wake up, Britain: we gays have moved on". New Statesman. http://www.newstatesman.com/200408300025. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- ^ Tatchell, Peter (1996-08-16). "Yobs for the boys". Tribune.
- ^ Jay, Karla; Young, Allen (1979). The gay report: Lesbians and gay men speak out about sexual experiences and lifestyles. New York: Summit. ISBN 0671400134.
- ^ Garnets, Linda D.; Douglas C. Kimmel (1993). Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Male Experiences. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231078854.
- ^ Marech, Rona (2004-02-27). "Gay couples can be as stable as straights, evidence suggests". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/02/27/MNG1H59R5Q1.DTL. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- ^ Sexual Behavior Does Not Explain Varying HIV Rates Among Gay And Straight Men
- ^ Goodreau SM, Golden MR (October 2007). "Biological and demographic causes of high HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevalence in men who have sex with men". Sex Transm Infect 83 (6): 458–62. doi:10.1136/sti.2007.025627. PMC 2598698. PMID 17855487. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2598698.
- ^ DANCE OF DEATH, First of three parts, CRYSTAL METH FUELS HIV Christopher Heredia, May 4, 2003, SF Gate
- ^ "Reinventing Privilege: The (New) Gay Man in Contemporary Popular Media."
- ^ a b PSA tackles ''PNP'': TV ad warns against crystal meth usage in the gay male community: News section: Metro Weekly magazine, Washington, DC newspaper
- ^ Sabrina-melb-tv.com
- ^ Gay slang - Education - Information - Educational Resources - Encyclopedia - Music
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ http://www.dph.sf.ca.us/sfcityclinic/drk/misc2.asp
- ^ [T1-A0802] HOW MSM MANAGE HIV RISK BEHAVIOR WITHIN THE ONLINE "PARTY AND PLAY" SUBCULTURE
- ^ Meth Comes Out of the Closet In Parts of Washington's Gay Community, Methamphetamine Is Starting to Take a Toll—and Creating a Demand for Treatment, Nov 8 2005 John-Manuel Andriote
- ^ Up to 20 per cent of gay men have tried crystal meth - PinkNews.co.uk
- ^ a b Collis, Clark (August 2002). "Dear Superstar: David Bowie". blender.com (Alpha Media Group Inc). http://www.blender.com/guide/articles.aspx?id=366. Retrieved 16 September 2010. [dead link]
- ^ "GLAAD Media Reference Guide". Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. http://www.glaad.org/document.doc?id=99. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- ^ "Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships - Journal of Bisexuality". Informaworld.com. 2009-01-01. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a909254222~frm=titlelink. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Bisexual - Journal of Bisexuality". Informaworld.com. 2009-07-04. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content%7Edb=all%7Econtent=a917146224%7Efrm=titlelink. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ a b c "Bisexuality: A unique sexual orientation". Religioustolerance.org. http://www.religioustolerance.org/bisexuality.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ "What is Bisexuality?". The Bisexual Index. http://www.bisexualindex.org.uk/index.php/Bisexuality#binary. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- ^ Soble, Alan (2006). "Bisexuality". Sex from Plato to Paglia: a philosophical encyclopedia. 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 115. ISBN 9780313326868. http://books.google.com/books?id=IMTEiTtqqPcC. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- ^ a b Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E., Hunter, J., & Braun, L. (2006, February). Sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time. Journal of Sex Research, 43(1), 46–58. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- ^ Crompton, Louis (2003). Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press. ISBN 067401197X.
- ^ Bagemihl, Bruce (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. London: Profile Books, Ltd.. ISBN 1861971826.
- ^ Roughgarden, Joan (May 2004). Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0520240731.
- ^ Driscoll, Emily V. (July 2008). "Bisexual Species: Unorthodox Sex in the Animal Kingdom". Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=bisexual-species.
- ^ Harper, Douglas (11 2001). "Bisexuality". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=bisexuality. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ Garber, Marjorie B. (2000). Bisexuality and the Eroticism of Everyday Life. New York: Routledge. p. 249. ISBN 0-415-92661-0.
- ^ Carr, Roy; Murray, Charles Shaar (1981). Bowie: An Illustrated Record. New York: Avon. ISBN 0-380-77966-8.
- ^ "Interview: David Bowie". Playboy. September 1976. http://www.playboy.com/articles/david-bowie-interview/index.html?page=2. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
- ^ Buckley (2000): p. 401
- ^ Buckley, David (2005) [First published 1999]. Strange Fascination — David Bowie: The Definitive Story. London: Virgin. ISBN 978-0-7535-1002-5., p. 106
- ^ Currah, Paisley; Richard M. Juang; Shannon Price Minter (eds) (2007). Transgender Rights. Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4312-1.
- ^ "Transgendered Youth at Risk for Exploitation, HIV, Hate Crimes". Inter-Q-Zone. 1995. http://www.aidsinfonyc.org/Q-zone/youth.html. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- ^ "transexual - definition of transexual by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/transexual. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ The concept of gender identity disorder in childho... [J Sex Marital Ther. 1994] - PubMed result
- ^ "Transgender Children, Transsexual Children , Parents of Transgendered Children, Support, Chat, Forums". Lauras-playground.com. http://www.lauras-playground.com/transgender_transsexual_children.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ Susan Stryker (1999). "Portrait of a Transfag Drag Hag as a Young Man: The Activist Career of Louis G. Sullivan," in Kate More and Stephen Whittle (eds). Reclaiming Gender: Transsexual Grammars at the Fin de Siecle, pp. 62-82. Cassells, ISBN 9780304337767
- ^ "Parents of Transgender, Transsexual, Crossdresser, Intersex, TG, TS Kids Help Page". Lauras-playground.com. http://www.lauras-playground.com/transsexual_control.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- ^ Green, Jamison (June 2004). Becoming a Visible Man. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt Univ. Press. ISBN 0-8265-1457-X.
- ^ Hirschfeld, Magnus: Die Transvestiten. Eine Untersuchung über den erotischen Verkleidungstrieb mit umfangreichem casuistischen und historischen Material. Berlin 1910: Alfred Pulvermacher
Hirschfeld, M. (1910/1991). Transvestites: The erotic drive to cross dress.([M. A. Lombardi-Nash, Trans.) Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
- ^ Feinbloom, Deborah Heller (1976). Transvestites & Transsexuals: Mixed Views. Delacorte Press/S. Lawrence. ISBN 0440085136.
- ^ "Transgender FAQ". http://www.msu.edu/~alliance/faq/faqtransgendered.html#1.3. Retrieved 2007-04-07. [dead link]
- ^ The distinction between homosexuality and transvestism is addressed in dialogue in the 1994 film Ed Wood, in which the titular character - based upon real-life director and transvestite Edward D. Wood Jr. - explains that he is heterosexual, but simply enjoys wearing women's clothing.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topicsSexual orientation identitiesRelated HistoryPre-modern era16th to 19th century20th century21st century
- Same-sex marriage
- Post-Queer Theory
LGBT rights by country or territoryLGBT rights topics
- Legal issues
Sexual orientations – Medicine, science and sexology
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.