Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop
Adobe Photoshop
Adobe Photoshop CS5 Icon
Adobe Photoshop CS5 x64 running on Windows 7 x64
Developer(s) Adobe Systems
Stable release CS5 (12.1, 12.0.4) May 3, 2011; 6 months ago (2011-05-03)[1]
Written in C++[2]
Operating system Windows 3.0+ or Mac OS 6.0.3+
Platform Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows
Available in 27 languages
Type Raster graphics editor
License Proprietary software

Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Adobe's 2003 "Creative Suite" rebranding led to Adobe Photoshop 8's renaming to Adobe Photoshop CS. Thus, Adobe Photoshop CS5 is the 12th major release of Adobe Photoshop. The CS rebranding also resulted in Adobe offering numerous software packages containing multiple Adobe programs for a reduced price. Adobe Photoshop is released in two editions: Adobe Photoshop, and Adobe Photoshop Extended, with the Extended having extra 3D image creation, motion graphics editing, and advanced image analysis features.[3] Adobe Photoshop Extended is included in all of Adobe's Creative Suite offerings except Design Standard, which includes the Adobe Photoshop edition.

Alongside Photoshop and Photoshop Extended, Adobe also publishes Photoshop Elements and Photoshop Lightroom, collectively called "The Adobe Photoshop Family". In 2008, Adobe released Adobe Photoshop Express, a free web-based image editing tool to edit photos directly on blogs and social networking sites; in 2011 a version was released for the Android operating system and the iPhone.[4][5]

Adobe only supports Windows and Macintosh versions of Photoshop, but using Wine Photoshop CS4 can run on Linux.[6]


Early history

In 1987, Thomas Knoll, a PhD student at the University of Michigan began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale images on a monochrome display. This program, called Display, caught the attention of his brother John Knoll, an Industrial Light & Magic employee, who recommended Thomas turn it into a fully-fledged image editing program. Thomas took a six month break from his studies in 1988 to collaborate with his brother on the program, which had been renamed ImagePro.[7] Later that year, Thomas renamed his program Photoshop and worked out a short-term deal with scanner manufacturer Barneyscan to distribute copies of the program with a slide scanner; a "total of about 200 copies of Photoshop were shipped" this way.[8]

During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1988.[7] While John worked on plug-ins in California, Thomas remained in Ann Arbor writing program code. Photoshop 1.0 was released in 1990 for Macintosh exclusively.[9]


Photoshop uses color models RGB, lab, CMYK, grayscale, binary bitmap, and duotone. Photoshop has the ability to read and write raster and vector image formats such as .EPS, .PNG, .GIF, and .JPEG. Photoshop has ties with other Adobe software for media editing, animation, and authoring.

File format

The .PSD (Photoshop Document), Photoshop's native format, stores an image with support for most imaging options available in Photoshop. These include layers with masks, color spaces, ICC profiles, transparency, text, alpha channels and spot colors, clipping paths, and duotone settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats (e.g. .EPS or .GIF) that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. PSD format is limited to a maximum height and width of 30,000 pixels. .PSB (Photoshop Big) format, also known as "large document format" within Photoshop, is the extension of PSD format to images up to 300,000 pixels in width or height. That limit was apparently chosen somewhat arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints (it is not close to a significant power of two, as is 30,000) but for ease of software testing. PSD and PSB formats are documented.[10]

Photoshop's popularity means that the .PSD format is widely used, and it is supported to some extent by most competing software. The .PSD file format can be exported to and from Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Premiere Pro, and After Effects, to make professional standard DVDs and provide non-linear editing and special effects services, such as backgrounds, textures, and so on, for television, film, and the Web. Photoshop's primary strength is as a pixel-based image editor, unlike vector-based image editors. However, Photoshop also enables the creation, incorporation, and manipulation of vector graphics through its Paths, Pen tools, Shape tools, Shape Layers, Type tools, Import command, and Smart object functions. Utilization of these tools and commands provides convenience when it is desirable to combine pixel-based and vector-based images in one Photoshop document because it can eliminate the necessity to visit more than one software program and transfer files between them. However, for the initial creation of very complex vector graphics that contain numerous shapes and numerous colors, it is much easier to use a software that was created primarily for that purpose, such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. If it is then necessary to import the complex vector object into Photoshop, it is possible to import it into Photoshop as a Smart Object. When the Smart Object is double-clicked on Photoshop's layers palette, it is opened in its original software such as Adobe Illustrator where changes can be made, then after saving it, the Smart Object will be automatically updated in Photoshop.


File:Photoshop CS3 Smart Layers.e. Editing tools new to CS3 are the Clone Source palette and nondestructive Smart Filters. Other features such as the brightness and contrast adjustment and Vanishing Point module were enhanced. The Black and White adjustment option improves control over manual grayscale conversions with a dialog box similar to that of Channel Mixer. Compositing is assisted with Photoshop's new Quick Selection and Refine Edge tools and improved image stitching technology.[11]

CS3 Extended contains all features of CS3 plus tools for editing and importing some 3D graphics file formats, enhancing video, and comprehensive image analysis tools with DICOM file support.[12]


Photoshop CS4 features a new 3D engine allowing painting directly on 3D models, wrapping 2D images around 3D shapes, converting gradient maps to 3D objects, adding depth to layers and text, getting print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine. It supports common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask Panels; Content-aware scaling (seam carving[13]); Fluid Canvas Rotation and File display options.[14] On 30 April, Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which includes all the same features of Adobe Photoshop CS4 with the addition of capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, and high-end film and video users. The successor to Photoshop CS3, Photoshop CS4 is the first 64-bit Photoshop on consumer computers (only on Windows – the OS X version is still 32-bit only.)[15]


Photoshop CS5 was launched on April 12, 2010.[16] In a video posted on its official Facebook page, the development team revealed the new technologies under development, including three dimensional brushes and warping tools.[17]

In May 2011, Adobe Creative Suites 5.5 (CS5.5) were released which have new versions of some of the applications. However, the Photoshop that comes with them which is labeled version 12.1 is identical to the concurrently released update for Photoshop CS5, version 12.0.4, except for support for the new subscription pricing that was introduced with CS5.5.[18]

Version history

Language availabilities

Photoshop is available in the following languages:

Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish and Ukrainian.[19]

The Arabic, Greek, and Hebrew versions are available from Winsoft.[19]


Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins (or plug-ins). Some of the plug-ins are created by Adobe itself, for example Adobe Camera Raw; but most of them are developed by third-party companies, according to Adobe's specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software. Most Photoshop plug-ins can only work with Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications.

Although Adobe allows creating a various types of the plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, automation, etc., the most popular are the filter plugins (also known as a 8bf plugins) available from under the Filter menu of Photoshop. These filter plugins can either modify the current image or create the all new content. Here are some popular types of such plug-ins (plus the companies whose products are the best known in the particular segment):

  • Color correction plugins (Alien Skin Software,[20] Nik Software,[21] OnOne Software,[22] Topaz Labs Software,[23] The Plugin Site,[24] etc.)
  • Special effects plugins (Alien Skin Software, Auto FX Software,[25] AV Bros.,[26] Flaming Pear Software,[27] etc.)
  • 3D effects plugins (Andromeda Software,[28] Strata,[29] etc.)

Adobe Camera Raw (also known as ACR and Camera Raw) is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resultant images can be processed by Photoshop.[30] It is invoked by attempting to open such a file, rather than from the 'Filter' menu, but like other plugins is listed in the 'Help > About Plug-In' menu (as "Camera Raw"). It can also be opened via the Adobe Bridge by clicking on any image and selecting 'File > Open in Adobe Camera Raw'.

Cultural impact

A landscape photo composited and manipulated in Photoshop

Photoshop and derivatives such as Photoshopped (or just Shopped) have become verbs that are sometimes used to refer to images edited by Photoshop,[31] or any image manipulating program. "Photoshop" is also used as a noun to refer to image editing programs in general. Such derivatives are discouraged by Adobe[32] because, in order to maintain validity and protect the trademark from becoming genericized, trademarks must be used as proper adjectives.

Photoshop art has become popular, for example Tao Lin has a column[33] employing only Photoshop for captioned pieces of art for Vice. Flickr features many groups devoted to Photoshop art including one with over 10,000 members.[34]

Photoshop contest

A Photoshop contest, or sometimes photochop contest, is an online game, in which a website or user of an Internet forum will post a starting image — usually a photograph — and ask others to manipulate the image using some kind of graphics editing software, such as Photoshop, Corel Photopaint, The GIMP, Paint Shop Pro, Paint.NET or Microsoft Paint.

See also


  1. ^ "Adobe - Photoshop for Windows". Retrieved 2011-05-03. 
  2. ^ "Adobe Photoshop language". 2003-05-06. Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  3. ^ "FAQ". Adobe Systems Incorporated. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  4. ^ Adobe Photoshop Express - Android Market. Android Market. Retrieved 2001-10-7.
  5. ^ App Store - Adobe Photoshop Express. iTunes. Retried 2001-10-7.
  6. ^ supported program list of Wine.
  7. ^ a b Schewe, Jeff (2000). "Thomas & John Knoll". PhotoshopNews. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  8. ^ Story, Derrick (2000-02-18). "From Darkroom to Desktop—How Photoshop Came to Light". Story Photography. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  9. ^ Hormby, John (2007-06-05). "How Adobe's Photoshop Was Born". Story Photography. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  10. ^ Adobe (2010-07). "Adobe Photoshop File Formats Specification". 
  11. ^ "Adobe Photoshop CS3 Product overview" (PDF). Adobe official site. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  12. ^ "Adobe Photoshop CS3 Extended - Product overview" (PDF). Adobe Official site. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  13. ^ Adobe uses graphics chip for faster Photoshop CS4 - Posted by Stephen Shankland (September 22, 2008) CNET News.
  14. ^ features: digital filters, image editing - Adobe Photoshop CS4 Extended.
  15. ^ Haslam, Karen. "Adobe 64-Bit Photoshop Struggle". PC World.,144119-c,graphicsmultimedia/article.html. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  16. ^ "Adobe Creative Suite 5 Launch". Adobe Systems Incorporated. Retrieved 2010-03-24. 
  17. ^ "Niet compatibele browser". Facebook. Retrieved 2010-05-29. 
  18. ^ "Photoshop: What is the difference between Photoshop CS5 and the version of Photoshop that comes with Creative Suite 5.5?". 2011-04-11. Retrieved 2011-05-03. 
  19. ^ a b "language versions | Adobe Photoshop CS5". Retrieved 2010-05-29. 
  20. ^ Alien Skin Software Web Site
  21. ^ Nik Software Web Site
  22. ^ OnOne Software Web Site
  23. ^ Topaz Labs Software Web Site
  24. ^ The Plugin Site
  25. ^ Auto FX Software Web Site
  26. ^ AV Bros. Web Site
  27. ^ Flaming Pear Software Web Site
  28. ^ Andromeda Software Web Site
  29. ^ Strata Web Site
  30. ^ "Digital camera raw file support". Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  31. ^ Macworld Staff. "Photoshop through the Years". 
  33. ^
  34. ^

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Adobe Photoshop — Adobe Photoshop …   Википедия

  • Adobe Photoshop — Photoshop CS5 Extended (Windows Vista 32 B …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Adobe Photoshop CS — Adobe Photoshop Entwickler: Adobe Systems Aktuelle Version: CS4 und CS4 Extended (11 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Adobe Photoshop — Desarrollador Adobe Systems Inc. …   Wikipedia Español

  • Adobe Photoshop — Développeur Adobe Systems Dernière version …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Adobe Photoshop — ▪ software       computer application software used to edit and manipulate digital images. Photoshop was developed in 1987 by the American brothers Thomas and John Knoll, who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1988.… …   Universalium

  • Adobe Photoshop CS2 — Adobe Photoshop Entwickler: Adobe Systems Aktuelle Version: CS4 und CS4 Extended (11 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Adobe Photoshop CS3 — Adobe Photoshop Entwickler: Adobe Systems Aktuelle Version: CS4 und CS4 Extended (11 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Adobe Photoshop CS4 — Adobe Photoshop Entwickler: Adobe Systems Aktuelle Version: CS4 und CS4 Extended (11 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Adobe Photoshop Lightroom — Тип Photo post production Разработчик Adobe Systems Операционная система Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows Последняя версия 4.3 (8 ноября 2012) Лицензия Proprietary Сайт …   Википедия

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”