Douglas Bader

Douglas Bader
Douglas Bader
Douglas Bader.jpg
Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader
Birth name Douglas Robert Steuart Bader
Nickname Dogsbody
Born 21 February 1910(1910-02-21)
St John's Wood, London, England
Died 5 September 1982(1982-09-05) (aged 72)
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch  Royal Air Force
Years of service


Rank Group Captain
Service number 26151

World War II


Knight Bachelor Commander of the Order of the British Empire Distinguished Service Order & Bar Distinguished Flying Cross & Bar

Mentioned in Despatches
Other work
  • Aviation consultant
  • Disabled activist

Group Captain Sir Douglas Robert Steuart Bader (play /ˈbɑːdər/) CBE, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, FRAeS, DL (21 February 1910 – 5 September 1982) was a Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter ace during the Second World War. He was credited with 20 aerial victories, four shared victories, six probables, one shared probable and 11 enemy aircraft damaged.[1][2]

Bader joined the RAF in 1928, and was commissioned in 1930. In December 1931, while attempting some aerobatics, he crashed and lost both his legs. Having been on the brink of death, he recovered, retook flight training, passed his check flights and then requested reactivation as a pilot. Although there were no regulations applicable to his situation, he was retired on medical grounds.[3] After the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, however, Bader returned to the RAF and was accepted as a pilot. He scored his first victories over Dunkirk during the Battle of France in 1940. He then took part in the Battle of Britain and became a friend and supporter of Air Vice-Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory and his "Big Wing" experiments.

In August 1941, Bader was forced to bail out over German-occupied France and was captured. Soon afterward, he met and befriended Adolf Galland, a prominent German fighter ace.[4] The circumstances surrounding how Bader was shot down in 1941 are controversial. Recent research strongly suggests he was a victim of friendly fire. Despite his disability, Bader made a number of escape attempts and was eventually sent to the POW camp at Colditz Castle. He remained there until the camp was liberated by the First United States Army in April 1945.

Bader left the RAF permanently in February 1946 and later worked in the oil industry. During the 1950s, a book and a film, Reach for the Sky, chronicled his life and RAF career to the end of the Second World War. Bader campaigned for the disabled – for which he was knighted in 1976 – and continued to fly until ill health forced him to stop in 1979. He died three years later, on 5 September 1982, from a sudden heart attack.


Early years

Bader was born on 21 February 1910 in St John's Wood, London, as the second son of Frederick Roberts Bader, a civil engineer, and his wife Jessie.[5][6] His first two years were spent with relatives in the Isle of Man as his father, accompanied by Bader's mother and older brother Frederick (named after his father but called 'Derick to distinguish the two), returned to his work in India after the birth of his son. At the age of two, Bader joined his parents in India for a year; however, when his father resigned from his job in 1913 the family moved back to London[7] and settled in Kew.[8] Bader's father saw action in the First World War in the Royal Engineers, and was wounded in action in 1917. He remained in France after the war where, having attained the rank of Major, he died in 1922 of complications from those wounds in a hospital in Saint-Omer, the same area where Bader bailed out and was captured in 1941.[9]

Bader's mother re-married shortly thereafter, to Reverend Ernest William Hobbs. Bader was subsequently brought up in the rectory of the village of Sprotborough, near Doncaster, West Riding of Yorkshire now South Yorkshire.[10] Bader's mild-mannered stepfather did not become the father-figure he needed.[11] His mother showed little interest in Bader and sent him to his grandparents on occasions. Without this guidance, Bader became unruly. During one incident, Bader's competitive nature saw him shoot his younger brother with an air gun at close range.[11]

Bader's aggressive energy found a new lease of life at St Edward's School where he received his secondary education. During his time there he thrived at sport. Bader played rugby and often enjoyed the physical battles with bigger and older opponents. The then Warden (or Headmaster), Henry E. Kendall, tolerated Bader's aggressive and competitive nature. At one point he made him a prefect despite what others saw as a strong streak of conceit in the boy.[12] Fellow RAF night fighter and bomber pilot Guy Gibson and Adrian Warburton also attended the school.[13] In later life, Bader was deemed to be so good, he was invited to play a trial (or friendly game) with the Harlequins, but it is not clear whether he actually played.[14]

Bader's sporting interests continued into his military service. He was selected for the Royal Air Force cricket team, to play a first-class match against the Army at The Oval in July 1931. He scored 65 and 1.[15] In August he played in a two day game against the Royal Navy. He did play cricket later in his life in a German prisoner of war camp after his capture in 1941, despite his disability.[16] Bader did not show much interest in pursuing the sport as he preferred rugby. In mid-1923, Bader, at the age of 13, was introduced to the Avro 504 during a school holiday trip to visit his aunt, Hazel, who was marrying RAF Flight Lieutenant Cyril Burge, adjutant at RAF Cranwell. Although he enjoyed the visit, and took an interest in aviation, he showed no signs of becoming a keen pilot.[10] Still very sports minded, an interest which dominated Bader's formative years, he took less of an interest in his studies. Bader received guidance from the Warden of St. Edward's, the Reverend Henry E. Kendall and, with Kendall's encouragement, he excelled at his studies and was later accepted as a Cadet at RAF Cranwell.[17] Soon afterwards he was offered a place at Oxford University, but turned it down as he preferred Cambridge University.[18]

His mother refused to allow Bader to attend Cambridge in December 1927, claiming she could not afford the fees.[19] A Master at St. Edwards, a Mr Dingwall, helped pay these fees in part. Due to his new connection with Cyril Burge, Bader learned of the six annual prize cadetships offered by RAF Cranwell each year. Out of hundreds of applicants, he finished fifth. He left St Edward's in early 1928, aged 18.[19]

Early RAF career


No.23 Squadron's aerobatic team for the 1931 Hendon display. Left to right: Bader, Flight Lieutenant Harry Day (team leader) and Flying Officer Geoffrey Stephenson (reserve).

In 1928, Bader joined the RAF as an officer cadet at the Royal Air Force College Cranwell in rural Lincolnshire. He continued to excel at sports, and added hockey and boxing to his repertoire. Motorcycling was tolerated at Cranwell, though cadets usually took part in banned activities such as speeding, pillion racing, and buying and racing motorcars. Bader was involved in these activities and was close to expulsion after being caught out too often, in addition to coming 19th out of 21 in his class examinations; however, his Commanding Officer (CO), Air Vice-Marshal Frederick Halahan gave him a private warning about his conduct.[20]

On 13 September 1928, Bader took his first flight with his instructor Flying Officer W. J. "Pissy" Pearson in an Avro 504.[21] After just 11 hours and 15 minutes of flight time, he flew his first solo, on 19 February 1929.[22]

Bader competed for the "Sword of Honour" award at the end of his two-year course, but lost to Patrick Coote, his nearest rival. Coote went on to become the Wing Commander of Western Wing, British Air Forces Greece and was killed on 13 April 1941 while flying as an observer in No. 211 Squadron Bristol Blenheim, L4819 flown by Flying Officer R. V. Herbert when six of the Squadron's aircraft were shot down over Greece. Coote's aircraft was the first of 29 kills of the Luftwaffe ace Unteroffizier, (later Leutnant) Fritz Gromotka.[23][24]

On 26 July 1930, Bader was commissioned as a pilot officer into No. 23 Squadron RAF based at Kenley, Surrey. Flying Gloster Gamecocks and soon after, Bristol Bulldogs, Bader became a daredevil while training there, often flying illegal and dangerous stunts. While very fast for its time, the Bulldog had directional stability problems at low speeds which made such stunts exceptionally dangerous. Strict orders were issued forbidding unauthorised aerobatics below 2,000 ft. Douglas took this as an unnecessary safety rule rather than an order to be obeyed. After one training flight at the gunnery range, Bader achieved only a 38 percent hit rate on a target. Receiving jibes from a rival squadron (No. 25 Squadron RAF), Bader took off to perform aerobatics and show off his skill. It was against regulations, and seven out of 23 accidents caused by ignoring regulations had proven fatal. The CO of No. 25 Squadron remarked that he would order Bader to face courts-martial if Bader was in his unit. The COs of Bader's unit, Harry Day and Henry Wollett let the pilots be more expressive, although Day himself encouraged them to recognise their own limits.[25]

Crash and amputation

No. 23 Squadron had won the Hendon Air Show 'pairs' event in 1929 and 1930. In 1931 Bader, teamed with a pilot called Harry Day, successfully defended the Squadron's title in the spring that year.[26] In late 1931 Bader undertook training for the Hendon Air Show, 1932, hoping to win a second consecutive title.[27] Two pilots had been killed attempting aerobatics. The pilots were warned not to practice these manoeuvres under 2,000 feet and to keep above 500 feet at all times.[28]

Nevertheless, on 14 December 1931, while visiting Reading Aero Club, he attempted some low-flying aerobatics at Woodley airfield in a Bulldog Mk. IIA, K1676, of 23 Squadron,[29] apparently on a dare. His aircraft crashed when the tip of the left wing touched the ground. Bader was rushed to the Royal Berkshire Hospital, where, in the hands of the prominent surgeon J. Leonard Joyce (1882–1939), both his legs were amputated – one above and one below the knee. Bader made the following laconic entry in his logbook after the crash:

Crashed slow-rolling near ground. Bad show.
— Douglas Bader, [30][31]

In 1932, after a long convalescence throughout which he needed morphine for pain relief, Bader was transferred to the hospital at RAF Uxbridge and fought hard to regain his former abilities now that he had a new pair of artificial legs. In time, his agonising and determined efforts paid off and he was able to drive a specially modified car, play golf and even dance. During his convalescence there, he met and fell in love with Thelma Edwards who was working as a waitress at a pub called the Pantiles.[6]

Bader got his chance to prove that he could still fly when, in June 1932, Air Under-Secretary Philip Sassoon arranged for him to take up an Avro 504 which he piloted competently. A subsequent medical examination proved him fit for active service, but in April 1933, he received notification that the RAF had decided to reverse the decision on the grounds that this situation was not covered by the King's Regulations. In May, Bader was invalided out of the RAF, took an office job with the Asiatic Petroleum Company (now Shell) and, on 5 October 1933, married Thelma Edwards.[32]

Return to RAF

With increasing tensions in Europe in 1937–1939, Bader repeatedly requested that the Air Ministry give him a posting and he was finally invited to a selection board meeting at Adastral House in Kingsway.[33] Bader was disappointed to learn that it was only "ground jobs" that were being offered. It appeared that he would be refused a flying position;[34] however, Air Vice-Marshal Halahan, commandant of RAF Cranwell in Bader's days there, personally endorsed him and asked the Central Flying School, Upavon, to assess his capabilities.[34]

On 14 October 1939, the Central Flying School requested Bader report for flight tests on 18 October. He did not wait; driving down the next morning, Bader undertook refresher courses.[35] Despite reluctance on the part of the establishment to allow him to apply for an A.1.B. (full flying category status), his persistent efforts paid off.[36] Bader regained a medical categorisation for operational flying at the end of November 1939 and was posted to the Central Flying School for a refresher course on modern types of aircraft. On 27 November, eight years after his accident, Bader flew solo again in an Avro Tutor; once airborne he could not resist the temptation to turn the biplane upside down at 600 ft inside the circuit area. Bader subsequently progressed through the Fairey Battle and Miles Master (the last training stage before experiencing Spitfires and Hurricanes).[37]

Second World War

Phoney War

In January 1940, Bader was posted to No. 19 Squadron based at RAF Duxford near Cambridge, where, at 29, he was considerably older than his fellow pilots. Squadron Leader Geoffrey Stephenson, a close friend from his Cranwell days, was the commanding officer, and it was here that Bader got his first glimpse of a Spitfire.[38] It was thought that Bader's success as a fighter pilot was partly due to having no legs; pilots pulling high "g-forces" in combat turns often "blacked out" as the flow of blood from the brain drained to other parts of the body, usually the legs. As Bader had no legs he could remain conscious longer, and thus had an advantage over more able-bodied opponents.[39]

Between February and May 1940 Bader practised formation flying, air tactics, and undertook flights over sea convoys. Bader found opposition to his ideas about aerial combat. He favoured using the sun and altitude to ambush the enemy, but the RAF did not share his opinions. Official orders/doctrine dictated that pilots should fly line-astern and attack singly. Despite this being at odds with his preferred tactics, Bader obeyed orders, and his skill saw him rapidly promoted to section leader.[40]

During this time, Bader crashed a Spitfire on take-off. He had forgotten to switch the propeller pitch from coarse to fine, and the aircraft hit the ground at 80 mph. Despite a severe head wound, Bader walked away. Leigh-Mallory promoted Bader to Flight Commander of No. 222 Squadron RAF a few weeks later which also meant an advance from Flying Officer to Flight-Lieutenant.[40]

Battle of France

Bader had his first taste of combat with No. 222 Squadron RAF, which was based at RAF Duxford and commanded by another old friend of his, Squadron Leader "Tubby" Mermagen. On 10 May the Wehrmacht invaded Luxembourg, Netherlands, Belgium and France. The campaigns went badly for the Western Allies and soon they were evacuating from Dunkirk during the battle for the port. RAF Squadrons were ordered to provide air superiority for the Royal Navy during Operation Dynamo. While patrolling the coast near Dunkirk on 1 June 1940[41] at around 3,000 ft (910 m), Bader happened upon a Messerschmitt Bf 109 in front of him, flying in the same direction and at approximately the same speed. He believed that the German must have been a novice, taking no evasive action even though it took more than one burst of gunfire to shoot him down.[42] Bader was also credited with a Messerschmitt Bf 110 damaged, despite claiming five kills in that particular dogfight.[43]

In the next patrol Bader was credited with a Heinkel He 111 damaged. On 4 June 1940, his encounter with a Dornier Do 17, which was attacking Allied shipping,[43] involved a near collision while he was firing at the aircraft's rear gunner during a high-speed pass. Shortly after Bader joined 222 Squadron, it relocated to RAF Kirton in Lindsey, just south of the Humber.[44]

After flying operations over Dunkirk, Bader was posted to command No. 242 Squadron RAF as Squadron Leader on 28 June 1940,[45] a Hawker Hurricane unit based at RAF Coltishall, mainly made up of Canadians who had suffered high losses in the Battle of France and had low morale. Despite initial resistance to their new commanding officer, the pilots were soon won over by Bader's strong personality and perseverance, especially in cutting through red tape to make the squadron operational again. Bader transformed 242 Squadron back in to an effective fighting unit. Upon the formation of No. 12 Group RAF, 242 Squadron was assigned to the Group while based at RAF Duxford.[46] No. 242 Squadron only became fully operational on 9 July 1940.[47]

Battle of Britain

Bader stands on the wing of his Hurricane, as Commanding Officer of No.242 Squadron

After the French campaign, the RAF prepared for the coming Battle of Britain in which the Luftwaffe intended to achieve air superiority. Once attained the Germans would attempt to launch Operation Sea Lion, the codename for an invasion of Britain. The Battle officially began on 10 July 1940.

On 11 July 1940, Bader scored his first kill with his new squadron.[48] The cloud base was down to just 600 ft while drizzle and mist covered most of the sky, and forward visibility was down to just 2,000 yards. Bader was alone on patrol, and was soon directed toward an enemy aircraft flying north up the Norfolk coast.[49] Spotting the aircraft at 600 yards, Bader recognised it as a Dornier Do 17, and after he closed to 250 yards its rear gunner opened fire. Bader continued his attack and fired two bursts into the bomber before it vanished into cloud.[50] The Dornier, which crashed into the sea off Cromer, was later confirmed by a member of the Royal Observer Corps. On 21 August, a similar engagement took place. This time a Dornier went into the sea off Great Yarmouth and again the Observer Corps confirmed the kill. There were no survivors.[51][52]

Later in the month Bader scored a further two victories over Messerschmitt Bf 110s.[53][54] On 30 August 1940, No. 242 Squadron was moved to Duxford again and found itself in the thick of the fighting.[47] On this date, the squadron claimed 10 enemy aircraft, Bader scoring two kills against Bf 110s.[55] Other Squadrons were involved, and it impossible to verify which RAF units were responsible for the damage on the enemy.[56] On 7 September two more Bf 110s were shot down, but in the same engagement Bader was badly hit by a Messerschmitt Bf 109. Bader nearly decided to bail out, but recovered the Hurricane. Other pilots witnessed one of Bader's victims crash.[57]

On 7 September, Bader claimed two Bf 109s shot down followed by a Junkers Ju 88.[58] On 9 September, Bader claimed another Dornier.[59] During the same mission he attacked a He 111 only to discover he was out of ammunition. Enraged, he thought about ramming it and succeeded in slicing off the rudder with his propeller, but broke off the attack when he regained his composure. The He 111 continued onward, badly damaged.[60] On 14 September 1940, Bader was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) for his combat leadership.[61]

On 15 September 1940, known as the Battle of Britain Day, Bader damaged a Do 17 and a Ju 88, while destroying another Do 17 in the afternoon.[62] Bader flew several missions that day, which involved heavy air combat.[63] The original combat report states that he destroyed one enemy aircraft, claimed no probable, but did claim several damaged.[64] The Dornier's gunner attempted to bail out, but his parachute was caught on the tail wheel and he died when the aircraft crashed into the Thames Estuary.[65] Further detail suggests Bader took pity on the gunner and "tried to kill him to put him out of his misery".[66] Another Do 17 and a Ju 88 were claimed on 18 September.[58] A Bf 109 was claimed on 27 September.[67] Bader was gazetted on 1 October 1940.[68]

As a friend and supporter of his 12 Group commander Air Vice-Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Bader joined him as an active exponent of the controversial "Big Wing" theory with provoked much debate in the RAF during the battle.[69] Bader was an outspoken critic of the careful "husbanding" tactics being used by Air Vice-Marshal Keith Park, the commander of 11 Group. Park was supported by Fighter Command Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding, the overall commander. Bader vociferously campaigned for an aggressive policy of assembling large formations of defensive fighters north of London ready to inflict maximum damage on the massed German bomber formations as they flew over South East England. As the Battle progressed, Bader often found himself at the head of a composite wing of fighters consisting of up to five squadrons. Achievements of the Big Wing were hard to quantify, as the large formations often took too long to form up, over claimed kills, and too often did not provide timely support of the over-committed 11 Group. The episode probably contributed to the departure of Park, who was replaced with Leigh-Mallory in November 1940, and Dowding.[70] While it is not known whether Mallory and Bader were aware that the claims of the RAF and Big Wings were exaggerated, they certainly tried to use them as a potent tool with which to remove Park and Dowding from command and pursue the Big Wing tactic.[71] After the war, Bader insisted that both he and Leigh-Mallory wanted the Big Wing tactic enacted in 12 Group only. They both believed, according to Bader, that it was impractical to use in 11 Group as the command was located too close to the enemy and would not have enough time to assemble.[72]

RAF ace Johnnie Johnson offered a balanced view of Bader and the Big Wing:

Douglas was all for the Big Wings to counter the German formation[s]. I think there were room for both tactics - the Big Wings and the small squadrons. It might well have been fatal had Park always tried to get his squadrons into "Balbos", for not only would they have taken longer to get to their height, but sixty or seventy packed climbing fighters could have been seen for miles and would have been sitting ducks for higher 109s. Also nothing would have pleased Göring more than for his 109s to pounce on large numbers of RAF fighters. Indeed, Adolf Galland and Werner Mölders complained about the elusiveness of Fighter Command and Park's brilliance was that by refusing to concentrate his force he preserved it throughout the battle. This does not mean, as Bader pointed out at the time, that two or three Balbos from 10 and 12 Groups, gaining height beyond the range of the 109s, would not have played a terrific part in the fighting.[73]

During the Battle of Britain, Bader used only three Hawker Hurricanes. The first was P3061, in which he scored six kills. The second aircraft was unknown, but Bader did score one kill and two damaged in it on 9 September. The third was V7467, in which he destroyed four more and added one probable and two damaged by the end of September. The machine was lost on 1 September 1941 while on a training exercise.[74]

On 12 December 1940, Bader was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) for his service during the Battle of Britain. His unit, No. 242 Squadron, had claimed 62 aerial victories.[75] Bader was gazetted on 7 January 1941.[76]

Wing Leader

Douglas Bader by Cuthbert Orde, March 1941

On 18 March 1941, Bader was promoted to Wing Commander and became one of the first 'Wing Leaders'.[77][78] Stationed at Tangmere with 145, 610 and 616 Squadrons under his command,[79] Bader led his wing of Spitfires on sweeps and "circus operations" (medium bomber escort) over north-western Europe throughout the summer campaign. These were missions combining bombers and fighters designed to lure out and tie down German Luftwaffe fighter units that might otherwise serve on the Russian front. One of the Wing Leader's "perks" was permission to have his initials marked on his aircraft as personal identification, thus "D-B" was painted on the side of Bader's Spitfire. These letters gave rise to his radio call-sign "Dogsbody".[80]

During 1941 his Wing was re-equipped with Spitfire VBs, which had two Hispano 20 mm cannon and four .303 machine guns. Bader flew a Mk VA equipped with eight .303 machine guns, as he insisted that these guns were more effective against fighter opposition. His tactics required a close-in approach in which he felt the lower calibre weapons had a more devastating effect. At the time, RAF trials with wing-mounted cannons had also revealed a number of shortcomings that precluded a widespread acceptance of the armament.[81]

Bader's combat missions were mainly fought against Bf 109s over France and the Channel. On 7 May 1941 he shot down one Bf 109 and claimed another as a probable victory. The German formation belonged to Jagdgeschwader 26 (Fighter Wing 26), which on that date was led in combat by German ace Adolf Galland, and was also when Galland claimed his 68th victory.[82] Bader and Galland met again 94 days later. On 21 June 1941, Bader shot down a Bf 109E off the coast of Deservres. His victory was witnessed by two other pilots who saw a Bf 109 crash and the German pilot bale out.[83][84][85] On 25 June 1941 Bader shot down two more Bf 109Fs. The first was shot down between 11:58 and 13:35 off the coast of Gravelines; the pilot bailed out.[86] In the same action he shared in the destruction of another Bf 109F.[87] The second Bf 109 was shot down in the afternoon.[88][89]

The following month was more successful for Bader. On 2 July 1941 he was awarded the Bar to his DSO. Later that day he claimed one Bf 109 destroyed and another damaged.[90] On 4 July, Bader fired on a Bf 109E which slowed down so much that he nearly collided with it. Squadron Leader Burton saw the entire combat and noted the Bf 109 "fell away in a sloppy fashion", "as though the pilot had been hit". It was marked as a probable. On 6 July another Bf 109 was shot down and the pilot bailed out. This kill was witnessed by Pilot Officers Johnson and Smith.[91] On 9 July, Bader claimed one probable and one damaged, both trailing coolant or oil. On 10 July Bader claimed a Bf 109 (and one damaged) over Bethune. Later, Bader destroyed a Bf 109E which blew up south of, or actually over, Calais.[92] On 12 July, Bader found further success, shooting down one Bf 109 and damaging three others between Bethune and St Omer.[93][94] Bader was again gazetted on 15 July.[95] On 23 July, Bader claimed another Bf 109 damaged and possibly destroyed, even though the action resulted in two Bf 109s destroyed. The other was shot down by Squadron Leader Burton. Bader did not see his Bf 109 crash, so he claimed it as a damaged only, despite the fact pilots of No. 242 Squadron RAF saw two Bf 109s crash.[96][97]

Bader had been pushing for more sorties to fly in late 1941 but his Wing was tired. He was intent on adding to his score, which, according to the CO of No. 616 Squadron RAF Billy Burton, brought the other pilots and mood in his wing to a near-mutinous state. Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Bader's immediate superior as OC No.11 Group, Fighter Command, relented and allowed Bader to continue frequent missions over France even though his score of 20 and the accompanying strain evident on his features obliged Leigh-Mallory to consider his withdrawal from operations. Ultimately, Leigh-Mallory did not want to upset his star pilot, and did not invoke any restrictions.[98]

Last combat

Between 24 March and 9 August 1941, Bader flew 62 fighter sweeps over France.[99] On 9 August 1941, Bader was flying a Spifire Mk VA serial W3185 "D-B" on an offensive patrol over the French coast, looking for Messerschmitt Bf 109s from Abbeville or Wissant.[100][101]

Just after Bader's section of four aircraft crossed the coast, 12 Bf 109s were spotted flying in formation approximately 2–3,000 ft below them and travelling in the same direction. Bader dived on them too fast and too steeply to be able to aim and fire his guns, and barely avoided colliding with one of them. He levelled out at 24,000 ft to find that he was now alone, separated from his section, and was considering whether to return home when he spotted three pairs of Bf 109s a couple of miles in front of him.[102] He dropped down below them and closed up before destroying one of them with a short burst of fire from close range. Bader was just opening fire on a second Bf 109, which trailed white smoke and dropped down, when he noticed the two on his left turning towards him. At this point he decided it would be better to return home; however, making the mistake of banking away from them, Bader believed he had a mid-air collision with the second of the two Bf 109s on his right that were continuing straight ahead.[103][104]

Bader's fuselage, tail and fin were gone from behind him, and he lost height rapidly at what he estimated to be 400 mph in a slow spin. He jettisoned the cockpit canopy, released his harness pin, and the air rushing past the open cockpit started to suck him out, but his prosthetic leg was trapped. Part way out of the cockpit and still attached to his aircraft, Bader fell for some time before he released his parachute, at which point the leg's retaining strap snapped under the strain and he was pulled free.[103] A Bf 109 flew by some 50 yards away as he neared the ground at around 4,000 ft.[105]

Controversy over cause

Although Bader believed for years that he had collided in midair with a Bf 109, two other possibilities have later been put forward; that he was shot down by a German Bf 109, or alternatively that he may have been a victim of friendly fire.[106] However, recent research shows no Bf 109 was lost to a collision that day. Feldwebel Max Meyer of II./Jagdgeschwader 26 flying a Bf 109 had claimed him shot down that morning and according to Luftwaffe records a Leutnant Kosse of 5./JG 26 and Meyer, of 6./JG 26 were the only German pilots to claim a victory that day. Furthermore Meyer mentioned that he had followed the downed Spitfire and watched the pilot bail out, something which seems to match this passage in Bader's memoirs:

I was floating in the sunshine above broken, white cloud ... I heard an aeroplane just after I passed through. A Bf 109 flew past.[107]

Bader met Max Meyer in Sydney in 1981 during the Schofield Air Show.[108] None of the German pilots who made a claim for an aerial victory that day could match their report with the demise of Bader's Spitfire. Adolf Galland, Geschwaderkommodore of Jagdgeschwader 26 (JG 26 or Fighter Wing 26), went through every report, even those of German pilots killed in the action, to determine Bader's victor. Each case was dismissed.[109] Kosse's claim only matches the victory against No. 452 Squadron RAF's Sergeant Haydon.[110]

More recently, in 2003 air historian Andy Saunders wrote a book Bader's Last Flight, following up with a Channel 4 documentary Who Downed Douglas Bader?, which first aired on 28 August 2006.[111] Saunders' research now suggests that Bader may have been a victim of friendly fire, shot down by one of his fellow RAF pilots after becoming detached from his own squadron. RAF combat records indicate Bader may have been shot down by F/L "Buck" Casson of No. 616 Squadron RAF, who claimed a Bf 109 whose tail came off and the pilot bailed out, before he himself was shot down and captured.[112] Casson also mentioned that for a while he watched as the pilot struggled to bail out. Bader was flying at the rear of the German fighter formation, alone, and his squadron were the opposite side of the Germans. "Buck" had only a few seconds in which he saw Bader and mistook his Spitfire for a Bf 109. In a letter to Bader on 28 May 1945, Casson explained the action. While this source made it into the public domain, it was severely edited. The nature of the letter, that it was from Casson to Bader, was removed. Crucially, an entire paragraph, which mentioned specifically the tail coming off "a Bf 109" and the pilot struggling to get out of the cockpit, was completely omitted from the original source, still in the Casson family's possession. Saunders stated that this was not absolute proof, and that it would be helpful to find the "Bader Spitfire".[113]

Search for W3185

The quest to find Bader's Spitfire, W3185, shed light on the demise of another famous wartime ace, Wilhelm Balthasar, Geschaderkommodore of Jagdgeschwader 2, who was killed in action on 3 July 1941 when his Bf 109F crashed into Ferme Goset, Wittes, France. It was recovered in March 2004.[114] Later, in the summer 2004, a further aircraft was discovered in Widdebrouch. It was found to be that of a Bf 109F, flown by Unteroffizier Albert Schlager of JG 26, who was reported missing during Bader's last combat on 9 August 1941.[115] A brief glimpse of hope was discovered later, when a Spitfire wreck was found. Inside was a flying helmet with the letters "DB" written on the top. It was later identified as a Spitfire IX, owing to the findings of a 20mm cannon (which Bader's Spitfire did not have), and ammunition dated as 1943.[116] During the hunt, Donald Caldwell, an American historian of JG 26 took part. He stated that it was very unlikely that Bader was shot down by a German pilot and it was likely he was claimed by an RAF fighter in error.[111]

Bader's aircraft was not found. It is likely that it came down near the French town of Mont Dupil, possibly near Desprez sawmill. A French witness, Jacques Taffin, saw the Spitfire disintegrating as it came down. He thought it had been hit by anti-aircraft fire, but none was active in the area. There were also no Spitfire remains in the area. The lack of any remains was not surprising, owing to the Spitfire breaking up on its descent. Historians have also been misled as to whereabouts of the Spitfire because of a mistake in the book Reach for the Sky, in which Bader stated his leg had been dug out from the wreckage but was damaged, indicating a definite crash site. Bader's leg had actually been found in an open field.[117]

Prisoner of war

Colditz Castle in April 1945. Bader was a prisoner here for nearly three years.

German forces treated Bader with great respect. When he bailed out, Bader's right prosthetic leg became trapped in the aircraft, and he escaped only when the leg's retaining straps snapped after he pulled the ripcord on his parachute.[118] General Adolf Galland, a German flying ace, notified the British of his damaged leg and offered them safe passage to drop off a replacement. Hermann Göring himself gave the green light for the operation. The British responded on 19 August 1941 with the "Leg Operation"—an RAF bomber was allowed to drop a new prosthetic leg by parachute to St Omer, a Luftwaffe base in occupied France, as part of Circus 81 involving six Bristol Blenheims and a sizeable fighter escort. The Germans were less impressed when, task done, the bombers proceeded on to their bombing mission to Gosnay power station near Bethune, although bad weather prevented the target being attacked. Galland stated in an interview that the aircraft dropped the leg after bombing Galland's airfield.[119] Galland did not meet Bader again until the summer, 1945, when he, Günther Rall and Hans-Ulrich Rudel arrived at RAF Tangmere as prisoners of war. Bader, according to Rall, personally arranged for Rudel, a fellow amputee, to be fitted with an artificial leg.[120]

Bader tried to escape from the hospital where he was recovering by tying together a number of sheets.Initially the "rope " would not reach the ground so with the help of another patient he slid the sheet from under the comatose New Zealand pilot,Bill Russell, of 485 squadron who had had his arm amputated the day before.Russell's bed was then moved to the window to act as an anchor. A French maid at the St Omer hospital attempted to get in touch with British agents to enable Douglas to escape back to Britain. She later brought a letter from a peasant couple (a Mr and Mrs Hiecques) who promised to shelter him outside St Omer until he could be passed further down the line. Until then, their son would wait outside the hospital every night until there was a chance of escape. Eventually he was able to escape out of a window. The plan worked initially, when Bader completed the long walk to the safe house despite wearing a British uniform. Unfortunately the plan was betrayed by another woman at the hospital. Bader hid in the garden when a German staff car arrived at the house, but was found later. Bader denied that the couple had known he was there. They, along with the French woman at the hospital, were sent for forced labour in Germany. The couple survived. After the war, French authorities sentenced the woman informer to 20 years in prison.[121]

Over the next few years Bader was a thorn in the side of the Germans. He often practiced what the RAF personnel called "goon-baiting".[122] Bader considered it his duty to cause as much trouble to the enemy as possible,[123] much of which included escape attempts. He made so many attempts at escape that the Germans threatened to take away his legs. In August 1942 Bader escaped with Johnny Palmer and three others from the camp at Stalag Luft III B in Sagan.[124] Unfortunately a Luftwaffe officer of Jagdgeschwader 26 was in the area. Keen to meet the Tangmere wing leader, he dropped by to see Bader, but when he knocked on Bader's door there was no answer. Soon the alarm was raised, and a few days later, Bader was recaptured.[125] During the escape attempt the Germans produced a poster of Bader and Palmer asking for information. It described Bader's disability, and said "walks well with stick". Twenty years later, Bader was sent a copy of it by a Belgian civilian prisoner, who worked in a Gestapo office in Leipzig. Bader found this amusing, as he had never used a stick.[126] In Arthur Charles Evans book Sojourn in Silesia, Evans describes an escape attempt by Bader when he was part of a working party at Gleiwitz aerodrome "A few more days grace and he might well have made a spectacular escape. Instead, he was returned under heavy guard to Lamsdorf. A few weeks later he was incarcerated in Colditz."[127] He was finally dispatched to the "escape-proof" Colditz Castle Oflag IV-C on 18 August 1942, where he remained until 15 April 1945 when it was liberated by the First United States Army.[128][129]


Last years in the RAF

After his return to England, Bader was given the honour of leading a victory flypast of 300 aircraft over London in June 1945, and soon after, Bader was looking for a post in the RAF. Air Marshal Richard Atcherely, a former Schneider Trophy pilot, was commanding the Central Fighter Establishment at Tangmere. He and Bader had been junior officers at Kenley in 1930, while serving in No. 23 Squadron RAF. Bader was given the post of the Fighter Leader's School commanding officer and promoted to Group Captain.[130]

Unfortunately for Bader, fighter aircraft's roles had now grown significantly and he spent most of his time instructing on ground attack and co-operation with ground forces. Also, Bader did not get on with the newer generation of Squadron Leaders who considered him to be "out of date". In the end, Air Marshal James Robb offered Bader a role commanding the North Weald sector of No. 11 Group RAF, an organisation steeped in Fighter Command and Battle of Britain history.[130] It is likely Bader would have stayed in the RAF for some time had his mentor Leigh-Mallory not been killed in an air crash in November 1944, such was the respect and influence he held over Bader,[131] but Bader's enthusiasm for continued service in the RAF waned and eventually he left in July 1946[132] to take a job at Royal Dutch Shell.[133]

Post-war career

Bader considered politics, and standing as a Member of Parliament for his home constituency in the House of Commons. He despised how the three main political parties used war veterans for their own political ends. Instead, he resolved to join Shell. His decision was not motivated by money, but a willingness to repay a debt. Shell had been ready to take him on, aged 23, after his accident. Other companies had offered him more money, but he chose to join Shell on principle. There was another incentive. Joining Shell would allow him to continue flying. He would travel as an executive, and it meant he could fly a light aircraft.[131] He spent most of his time abroad flying around in a company-owned Percival Proctor. On one mission, between 15 August and 16 September 1946, Bader was sent on a public relations mission for Shell around Europe and North Africa with United States Air Force (USAAF) General James Doolittle.[134]

Bader assumed control of Shell's aircraft group, which employed around 250,000 people. For the most part, Bader was his own boss and had his own aircraft. His official position was Chairman of Shell Aircraft Ltd. He also became internationally famous after travelling the world and becoming a sought-after after-dinner speaker on aviation matters. Bader retired from Shell and from working life in 1969, but continued giving speeches. In 1975 he spoke at the funeral of Keith Park and travelled to every major country outside the Communist world.[135]


When the film Reach for the sky was released, people associated Bader with the quiet, and amiable personality of actor Kenneth More who played Bader in the film. Bader recognised the producers had deleted all those habits he displayed when on operations, particularly his prolific use of bad language. Bader once said, "[they] still think [I'm] the dashing chap Kenneth More was". Bader's more controversial traits were touched upon by Brickhill in the book, The Few in the Battle of Britain.[136]

Never a person to hide his opinions, Bader also became controversial for his political interventions. A staunch conservative with traditional Victorian values, his trenchantly-expressed views on such subjects as juvenile delinquency, apartheid and Rhodesia's defiance of the Commonwealth (he was a staunch supporter of Ian Smith's white minority regime) attracted much criticism.[137] During the Suez Crisis, Bader travelled to New Zealand. Some of the more recent African Commonwealth countries had been critical of British military intervention, he replied that they could, "bloody well climb back up their trees".[136] During a trip to South Africa in November 1965, Bader said that if he had been in Rhodesia when it made its declaration of independence he "would have had serious thoughts about changing my citizenship".[136] Later, Bader also wrote the foreword to Hans-Ulrich Rudel's biography, Stuka Pilot. Even when it emerged that Rudel was a staunch supporter of the Nazi Party, Bader refused to admit prior knowledge would have changed his mind about his contribution.[138]

In the late 1960s Bader was interviewed on television and his comments provoked controversy. During the interview he expressed a desire to be Prime Minister, and listed some controversial proposals should the opportunity ever arise:[139]

  • Withdraw sanctions from Rhodesia so negotiations could take place without pressure.[139]
  • Stop immigration into Britain immediately until the "situation had been examined".[139]
  • Reintroduce the death penalty for murder.[139]
  • Ban betting shops, "They breed protection rackets. That's why we're getting like Chicago in the '20s".[139]

Bader was known, at times, to be head-strong, blunt, and unsophisticated when he made known his opinion. During one visit to Munich, Germany, as a guest of Adolf Galland, he walked into a room full of ex-Luftwaffe pilots and said, "My God, I had no idea we left so many of you bastards alive".[136] He also used the phrase to describe the Trades Union Congress during economic and social unrest in the 1970s. Later, he suggested that Britons in support of Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament were a "rabble" and should be deported.[136]

Personal life

Bader's first wife, Thelma, developed throat cancer in 1967. Aware that her survival was unlikely the two spent as much time with each other as possible. Thelma was a smoker, and although she stopped smoking, it did not save her. After a long battle, she died on 24 January 1971.[140] Following her death, Bader married Joan Murray (née Hipkiss) on 3 January 1973. They spent the remainder of their lives in the village of Marlston, Berkshire. Joan was the daughter of a steel tycoon. She had an interest in riding and was a member of the British Limbless Ex-Serviceman's Association. They first met at one of the association's events in 1960. She also helped associations involved in riding for the disabled.[141] Bader campaigned vigorously for people with disabilities and set an example of how to overcome a disability. In June 1976 Bader was knighted for his services to disabled people.[142] His award was given by Prime Minister James Callaghan.[143] Actor John Mills and Air Vice-Marshal Neil Cameron attended the ceremony.[144][145]

Other awards followed. Bader maintained his interest in aviation despite his charity work and in 1977 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society. He also received a Doctorate of Science from Queen's University Belfast. Bader was also busy acting as a consultant to Aircraft Equipment International at Ascot, Berkshire.[146] Bader's health was in decline in the 1970s and he soon gave up flying altogether. On 4 June 1979, Bader flew his Beechcraft Bonanza [N 1] for the last time. He had recorded 5,744 hours and 25 minutes flying time. Bader's friend Adolf Galland followed Bader into retirement soon afterwards for the same reasons.[148]

His workload was exhausting for a legless man with a worsening heart condition. On 5 September 1982, after a dinner honouring Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur "Bomber" Harris at the Guildhall, Bader died of a heart attack while on his way home.[149]

Among the many dignitaries and personalities at his funeral was Adolf Galland. Galland and Douglas Bader had shared a friendship that spanned more than 42 years since their first meeting in France. Although Galland was on a business trip to California, he made sure to personally attend the memorial service held for Bader at the St Clement Danes church in the Strand. Peter Tory wrote in his London Diary newspaper column:[150]

Certainly Bader, had he been present, would have instantly recognised the stranger in the dark raincoat. Stomping over to his side, he would have banged him on the back and bellowed: "Bloody good show, glad you could come!"
—Peter Tory[150]


Douglas Bader House in Fairford is now the headquarters for the RAF Charitable Trust.

A biography about Douglas Bader by Paul Brickhill, Reach for the Sky, was published in 1954 and became a best seller. Brickhill did well out of the book, which irritated Bader. Bader received a one-off payment of £10,000 (£204 thousand today). The Inland Revenue waived any tax liabilities on Bader's earnings, easing tension.[151] Some 172,000 copies were sold in the first few months alone.[152] Film Director Daniel M. Angel bought the film rights for £15,000. Teaming up with Lewis Gilbert, they wrote the screenplay. The feature film of the same title was released in 1956, starring Kenneth More as Bader.[153]

On the 60th anniversary of Bader's last combat sortie, his widow Joan, unveiled a statue at Goodwood, formerly RAF Westhampnett, the aerodrome from which he took off. The 6 ft (1.8 m) bronze sculpture, the first such tribute, was created by Kenneth Potts from Worcestershire, and was commissioned by the Earl of March, who runs the Goodwood estate on behalf of his father, the Duke of Richmond.[154][155]

The Douglas Bader Foundation was formed in honour of Bader in 1982 by family and friends—many also former RAF pilots who had flown with Bader during the Second World War.[156]

Bader's artificial legs are kept by the RAF Museum at their store at Stafford and are not on public display. In January 2008 it was announced that one of Bader's prosthetic legs was to be sold at auction, along with several other items belonging to the RAF ace.[157]

The suburb of Bader in Hamilton, New Zealand is named after Douglas Bader, and many of the surrounding street names are tributes to heroes of the Second World War.[158]

Bader Primary School in Thornaby-on-Tees is named after Bader. It is located on a former airfield used by 608 (North Riding) Squadron.[citation needed]

King Edward VI School (Lichfield), named one of sections of the school after Bader, as he closed Kings Hill High School, Lichfield and re-opened King Edwards after the merger of the two Schools; the premises of the former Kings Hill School are now known as 'Bader'. The school has a portrait of Bader in the main hall (also named after him), and a plaque to commemorate him.[citation needed]

Honours and awards

This officer had displayed, gallantry and leadership of the highest order. During three recent engagements he has led his squadron with such skill and ability that thirty-three enemy aircraft have been destroyed. In the course of these engagements Squadron Leader Bader had added to his previous successes by destroying six enemy aircraft

London Gazette[68]

Squadron Leader Bader has continued to lead his squadron and wing with the utmost gallantry on all occasions. He has now destroyed a total of ten hostile aircraft and damaged several more.

London Gazette[76]

  • 15 July 1941 – Acting Wing Commander Douglas Robert Stewart Bader, DSO, DFC (26151) is awarded a bar to the Distinguished Service Order:

This officer has led his wing on a series of consistently successful sorties over enemy territory during the past three months. His high qualities of leadership and courage have been an inspiration to all. Wing Commander Bader has destroyed 15 hostile aircraft.

London Gazette[95]

  • 9 September 1941 – Acting Wing Commander Douglas Robert Stewart Bader, DSO, DFC (26151) is awarded a bar to the Distinguished Flying Cross in recognition of gallantry displayed in flying operations against the enemy:

The fearless pilot has recently added a further four enemy aircraft to his previous successes; in addition he has probably destroyed another four and damaged five hostile aircraft. By his fine leadership and high courage Wing Commander Bader has inspired the wing on every occasion.

London Gazette[159]

  • 12 Jun 1976 – Group Captain Douglas Robert Steuart Bader, CBE, DSO, DFC is honoured with a Knighthood for services to disabled people.[161]

Combat credos

Bader attributed his success to the belief in the three basic rules, shared by the German ace Erich Hartmann:

  • If you had the height, you controlled the battle.[43][162]
  • If you came out of the sun, the enemy could not see you.[43][162]
  • If you held your fire until you were very close, you seldom missed.[43][162]

See also

  • Alexey Maresyev, a Soviet Second World War fighter ace with amputated legs
  • James MacLachlan, a British Second World War fighter ace with an amputated arm
  • Hans-Ulrich Rudel, a famous Second World War German pilot who flew with an amputated leg


  1. ^ Galland had bought one as well.[147]
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  2. ^ Price and Holmes 2000, p. 44.
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  4. ^ Jackson 1983, p. 111.
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  7. ^ Turner 1995, p. 1.
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  13. ^ Lucas 1981, p. 23.
  14. ^ Jackson 1983, p. 18.
  15. ^ Cricketarchive match f13551
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  38. ^ Turner 1995, p. 22.
  39. ^ Douglas Bader Foundation The advantages of artificial limbs
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  72. ^ Ray 2000, p. 2009, p. 99.
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  86. ^ Turner 1995, p. 97.
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  93. ^ Turner 1995, p. 101.
  94. ^ Burns 2002, p. 176.
  95. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 35219. p. 4063. 15 July 1941.
  96. ^ Turner 1995, p. 102.
  97. ^ Burns 2002, p. 179.
  98. ^ Mackenzie 2008, p. 118.
  99. ^ Lucas 1981, p. 179.
  100. ^ Price 1997, p. 90.
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  105. ^ Turner 1995, pp. 104–105.
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  107. ^ Lucas 1981, p. 191.
  108. ^ Lucas 1981, p. 192.
  109. ^ Saunders 2007, p. 78.
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  111. ^ a b Saunders 2007, p. 102.
  112. ^ Jackson 1983, pp. 102–103.
  113. ^ Saunders 2007, p. 88.
  114. ^ Saunders 2007, p. 89.
  115. ^ Saunders 2007, p. 93 (picture unmarked page opposite p. 97).
  116. ^ Saunders 2007, pp. 99–100.
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  120. ^ Saunders 2007, p. 83.
  121. ^ Turner 1995, p. 108.
  122. ^ Turner 1995, p. 112.
  123. ^ Lucas 1981, p. 113.
  124. ^ Lucas 1981, p. 200.
  125. ^ Lucas 1981, p. 205.
  126. ^ Lucas 1981, p. 206.
  127. ^ Sojourn in Silesia by Arthur Charles Evans CBE ( ISBN 1898030820, ISBN 978-1898030829 - Currently out of print.
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  140. ^ Turner 1995, p. 242.
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  143. ^ Lucas 1981, p. 278.
  144. ^ Lucas 1981, pp. 279–280.
  145. ^ Turner 1995, p. 229.
  146. ^ Turner 1995, pp. 246–247.
  147. ^ Baker 1996, pp. 302–303.
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  149. ^ Turner 1995, p. 247.
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  152. ^ Mackenzie 2008, p. 164.
  153. ^ Saunders 2007, pp. 35–36.
  154. ^ Hunter, Martyn. "Bader In Bronze Graces Goodwood." FlyPast, Issue no. 243, October 2001, p. 22.
  155. ^ Mackenzie 2008, p. 168.
  156. ^ "About the DBF." The Douglas Bader Foundation, 2009. Retrieved: 29 October 2009.
  157. ^ "Douglas Bader's prosthetic leg up for auction." Retrieved: 14 June 2010.
  158. ^ Street Name Index (Suburbs) – Hamilton Public Library, Hamilton
  159. ^ London Gazette: no. 35270. p. 5217. 9 September 1941.
  160. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 40669. p. 10. 30 December 1955.
  161. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 46919. p. 8015. 4 June 1976. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
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Bibliography of cited sources
  • Ash, William and Brendan Foley. Under the Wire: The World War II Adventures of a Legendary Escape Artist and "Cooler King". London: Thomas Dunne Books, 2005. ISBN 978-0312338329.
  • Bader, Douglas. Fight for the Sky: The Story of the Spitfire and Hurricane. Ipswich, Suffolk, UK: W.S. Cowell Ltd., 2004. ISBN 0-304-35674-3.
  • Baker, David. Adolf Galland: The Authorised Biography. London: Windrow and Green, 1996. ISBN 978-1859150177.
  • "Birth No. 44." Register of Births. St Marylebone, sub-district of St John, London.
  • Brickhill, Paul. Reach for the Sky: The Story of Douglas Bader DSO, DFC. London: Odhams Press Ltd., 1954. ISBN 1-55750-222-6.
  • Brookes, Andrew. Crash! Military Aircraft Disasters, Accidents and Incidents. London: Ian Allan Ltd., 1991. ISBN 0-7110-1965-7.
  • Burns, M. Bader: The Man and His Men. London: Cassell Military, 1998. ISBN 0-304-35052-4.
  • Caldwell, Don. JG26 War Diary, Volume 1, 1939–1942. London: Grub Street, 1996. ISBN 1-898697-52-3.
  • Ford, Daniel. "Bulldog Pedigree." FlyPast, Number 215, June 1999. ISSN 0262-6950.
  • Holmes, Tony. Hurricane Aces 1939–1940. London: Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 978-1-85532-597-5.
  • Jackson, Robert. Douglas Bader. London: Littlehampton Book Services, 1983. ISBN 978-0213168575.
  • Lucas, Laddie. Flying Colours: The Epic Story of Douglas Bader. London: Hutchinson Publishing Group, 1981. ISBN 0-09-146470-6.
  • Mackenzie, S. P. Bader's War. London: Spellmount Publishers, 2008. ISBN 978-0-7524-5534-1.
  • Price, Dr. Alfred. Spitfire Mark V Aces 1941–1945. London: Osprey, 1997. ISBN 978-1-85532-635-4.
  • Price, Dr. Alfred. The Spitfire Story: Revised second edition. Enderby, Leicester, UK: Siverdale Books, 2002. ISBN 1-885605-702-X.
  • Price, Alfred. Battle of Britain Day: 15 September 1940. London: Greenhill Books, 1999. ISBN 978-1853673757.
  • Saunders, Andrew. Bader's Last Fight: An In-Depth Investigation of a Great WWII Mystery. London: Grub Street, 2007. ISBN 978-1904943969.
  • Shores, Christopher and Clive Williams. Aces High. London: Grub Street, 1994. ISBN 1-89869-700-0.
  • Toliver, Raymond F. and Trevor J. Constable. Fighter General: The Life of Adolf Galland The Official Biography. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1999. ISBN 0-7643-0678-2.
  • Townsend, Peter. Duel in the Dark. London: Harrap Ltd, 1986. ISBN 0-245-54247-7.
  • Turner, John Fryan. The Bader Wing. Barnsley, UK: Pen and Sword, 2007. ISBN 1-84415544-7.
  • Turner, John Fryan. Douglas Bader: A Biography of the Legendary World War II Fighter Pilot. London: Airlife, 1995. ISBN 1-85310-546-5.
  • Vigors, Tim. Life's Too Short to Cry: The Inspirational Memoir of an Ace Battle of Britain Fighter Pilot . London: Grub Street Publishers, 2006. ISBN 1-904943-61-6.
  • Weal, John. Jagdgeschwader 27 'Afrika'. London: Osprey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 9781841765389.

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